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Why Do Startups Use Trade Secrets?, David S. Levine, Ted Sichelman 2019 Elon University School of Law

Why Do Startups Use Trade Secrets?, David S. Levine, Ted Sichelman

Notre Dame Law Review

Empirical studies of the use of trade secrecy are scant, and those focusing on startups, nonexistent. In this Article, we present the first set of data—drawn from the Berkeley Patent Survey—on the use of trade secrets by U.S. startup companies in the software, biotechnology, medical device, and hardware industries. Specifically, we report on the prevalence of trade secrecy usage among startups. Additionally, we assess the importance of trade secrets in relation to other forms of intellectual property protection and barriers to entry, such as patents, copyrights, firstmover advantage, and complementary assets. We segment these results by a ...


The Failure Of Soft Law To Provide An Equitable Framework For Restitution Of Nazi-Looted Art, Michael J. Birnkrant 2019 Washington University School of Law

The Failure Of Soft Law To Provide An Equitable Framework For Restitution Of Nazi-Looted Art, Michael J. Birnkrant

Washington University Global Studies Law Review

It is estimated that over 20% of the art in Europe was looted by the Nazi regime during World War II. Many pieces were taken by force from Jewish art dealers, and much of the property taken during this period of Nazi spoliation was never returned. Heirs of looted art are still filing claims for restitution in various courts, but the current global patchwork of statutes of limitations and the availability of the “good faith purchaser defense” in many jurisdictions can render proceedings confusing and unjust.

This note explores the current state of the law regarding repatriation of Nazi-looted art ...


Toward The Personalization Of Copyright Law, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky 2019 Bar-Ilan University, Israel

Toward The Personalization Of Copyright Law, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this Article, we provide a blueprint for personalizing copyright law in order to reduce the deadweight loss that stems from its universal application to all users, including those who would not have paid for it. We demonstrate how big data can help identify inframarginal users, who would not pay for copyrighted content, and we explain how copyright liability and remedies should be modified in such cases.


A Patent Reformist Supreme Court And Its Unearthed Precedent, Samuel F. Ernst 2019 Golden Gate University School of Law

A Patent Reformist Supreme Court And Its Unearthed Precedent, Samuel F. Ernst

Publications

This paper examines the twenty-eight Supreme Court opinions overruling the Federal Circuit since 2000 and quantifies their rationales to discover that, while these reasons are often invoked, the Supreme Court’s most common rationale is that the Federal Circuit has disregarded or cabined its older precedent from before the 1982 creation of the Federal Circuit, from before the 1952 Patent Act, and even from before the 20th Century. The Court has relied on this rationale in twenty-one of the twenty-eight cases. The paper then seeks to probe beneath the surface level patterns to discover the deeper roots of the discord ...


Critical Copyright Law & The Politics Of ‘Ip’, Carys J. Craig 2019 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

Critical Copyright Law & The Politics Of ‘Ip’, Carys J. Craig

Articles & Book Chapters

Since its explosion late in the twentieth century, the field of intellectual property scholarship has been a vibrant site for critical legal theorizing. Indeed, it is arguable that US-based intellectual property scholarship effectively generated a resurgence or ‘second wave’ of Critical Legal Studies. Exploring critical engagement with the very idea of ‘intellectual property’ and its conceptual counterpart, the ‘public domain,’ this chapter suggests that a vast swath of copyright scholarship that has bloomed over the past few decades, as copyright has expanded in its reach and relevance, builds implicitly or explicitly on insights gleaned from legal realism, Critical Legal Studies ...


Irrational Ignorance At The Patent Office, Michael D. Frakes, Melissa F. Wasserman 2019 Duke Law School

Irrational Ignorance At The Patent Office, Michael D. Frakes, Melissa F. Wasserman

Faculty Scholarship

There is widespread belief that the Patent Office issues too many bad patents that impose significant harms on society. At first glance, the solution to the patent quality crisis seems straightforward: give patent examiners more time to review applications so they grant patents only to those inventions that deserve them. Yet the answer to the harms of invalid patents may not be that easy. It is possible that the Patent Office is, as Mark Lemley famously wrote, “rationally ignorant.” In Rational Ignorance at the Patent Office, Lemley argued that because so few patents are economically significant, it makes sense to ...


Data Scraping As A Cause Of Action: Limiting Use Of The Cfaa And Trespass In Online Copying Cases, Kathleen C. Riley 2019 Fordham University School of Law

Data Scraping As A Cause Of Action: Limiting Use Of The Cfaa And Trespass In Online Copying Cases, Kathleen C. Riley

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

In recent years, online platforms have used claims such as the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (“CFAA”) and trespass to curb data scraping, or copying of web content accomplished using robots or web crawlers. However, as the term “data scraping” implies, the content typically copied is data or information that is not protected by intellectual property law, and the means by which the copying occurs is not considered to be hacking. Trespass and the CFAA are both concerned with authorization, but in data scraping cases, these torts are used in such a way that implies that real property norms exist ...


A Patent Reformist Supreme Court And Its Unearthed Precedent, Samuel F. Ernst 2019 Golden Gate University - San Francisco

A Patent Reformist Supreme Court And Its Unearthed Precedent, Samuel F. Ernst

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

How is it that the Supreme Court, a generalist court, is leading a project of innovation reform in our times while the court of appeals established to encourage innovation is having its precedent stricken down time and again? This decade the Supreme Court has issued far more patent law decisions than in any decade since the passage of the Patent Act of 1952. In doing so, the Supreme Court has overruled the Federal Circuit in roughly threequarters of the patent cases in which the Supreme Court has issued opinions. In most of these cases, the Supreme Court has established rules ...


Argh, No More Pirating America’S Booty: Improving Copyright Protections For American Creators In China, Johnathan Ling 2019 Fordham University, School of Law

Argh, No More Pirating America’S Booty: Improving Copyright Protections For American Creators In China, Johnathan Ling

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

The advent of the internet brought about revolutionary changes and challenges to the world. Internet piracy is one area which is presenting new challenges, particularly to copyright holders such as artists, filmmakers, and creators. China has been a hotbed of piracy and is home to the second highest number of file sharing infringers in the world. China has made strides to improve its copyright protection, such as implementing a copyright law in 1990, as well as joining the World Trade Organization and signing on to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, which specifies minimum levels of intellectual ...


Towards A Jurisprudence Of Fashion, Susan Scafidi 2019 Fordham University School of Law

Towards A Jurisprudence Of Fashion, Susan Scafidi

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Controlling Cargo: Amazon’S Predatory Attempt To Disrupt The Fashion Industry By Dominating The International Transportation Of Goods, Mary Kate Brennan 2019 Fordham Law School

Controlling Cargo: Amazon’S Predatory Attempt To Disrupt The Fashion Industry By Dominating The International Transportation Of Goods, Mary Kate Brennan

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Shopping For Privacy: How Technology In Brick-And-Mortar Retail Stores Poses Privacy Risks For Shoppers, Vincent Nguyen 2019 Fashion Law Institute at Fordham Law School

Shopping For Privacy: How Technology In Brick-And-Mortar Retail Stores Poses Privacy Risks For Shoppers, Vincent Nguyen

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

As technology continues to rapidly advance, the American legal system has failed to protect individual shoppers from the technology implemented into retail stores, which poses significant privacy risks but does not violate the law. In particular, I examine the technologies implemented into many brick-and-mortar stores today, many of which the average everyday shopper has no idea exists. This Article criticizes these technologies, suggesting that many, if not all of them, are questionable in their legality taking advantage of their status in a legal gray zone. Because the American judicial system cannot adequately protect the individual shopper from these questionable privacy ...


Face Off: An Examination Of State Biometric Privacy Statutes & Data Harm Remedies, Michael A. Rivera 2019 Fordham University School of Law

Face Off: An Examination Of State Biometric Privacy Statutes & Data Harm Remedies, Michael A. Rivera

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

As biometric authentication becomes an increasingly popular method of security among consumers, only three states currently have statutes detailing how such data may be collected, used, retained, and released. The Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act is the only statute of the three that enshrines a private right of action for those who fail to properly handle biometric data. Both the Texas Capture or Use Biometric Identifier Act Information Act and the Washington Biometric Privacy Act allow for state Attorneys General to bring suit on behalf of aggrieved consumers. This Note examines these three statutes in the context of data security ...


The Future Of Facial Recognition Is Not Fully Known: Developing Privacy And Security Regulatory Mechanisms For Facial Recognition In The Retail Sector, Elias Wright 2019 Fordham University School of Law

The Future Of Facial Recognition Is Not Fully Known: Developing Privacy And Security Regulatory Mechanisms For Facial Recognition In The Retail Sector, Elias Wright

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

In recent years, advances in facial recognition technology have resulted in a rapid expansion in the prevalence of private sector biometric technologies. Facial recognition, while providing new potentials for safety and security and personalized marketing by retailers implicates complicated questions about the nature of consumer privacy and surveillance where a “collection imperative” incentivize corporate actors to accumulate increasingly massive reservoirs of consumer data. However, the law has not yet fully developed to address the unique risks to consumers through the use of this technology. This Note examines existing regulatory mechanisms, finding that consumer sensitivities and the opaque nature of the ...


Choice Of Law And The Right Of Publicity: Rethinking The Domicile Rule, Mary LaFrance 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

Choice Of Law And The Right Of Publicity: Rethinking The Domicile Rule, Mary Lafrance

Scholarly Works

Determining the best choice of law principle for right of publicity claims, and persuading courts to adopt this principle, will enhance predictability for potential plaintiffs and defendants in the foreseeable future. To begin this process, this article by Professor Mary LaFrance takes a critical look at the widespread practice of applying the law of the celebrity's domicile to determine the existence of an enforceable right of publicity.

This article suggests that there are strong policy arguments against the domicile rule, and that courts adhering to the rule are confusing disputes over property ownership with disputes over liability for tortious ...


Chapter 4: Injunctive Relief, David O. Taylor 2019 Southern Methodist University, Dedman School of Law

Chapter 4: Injunctive Relief, David O. Taylor

Faculty Scholarship

Patent systems commonly empower courts to order accused or adjudged infringers to refrain from continuing infringing conduct in the future. Some patentees file suit for the primary purpose of obtaining and enforcing an injunction against infringement by a competitor, and even in cases in which the patentee is willing to license an invention to an accused infringer for an agreed price, the indirect monetary value of an injunction against future infringement can dwarf the amount a finder of fact is likely to award as compensation for past infringement. In some of these cases, an injunction, if granted, would impose costs ...


Revisiting Controlled Digital Lending Post-Redigi, Michelle M. Wu 2019 Georgetown University Law Center

Revisiting Controlled Digital Lending Post-Redigi, Michelle M. Wu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Now that the Second Circuit has ruled on the ReDigi appeal, some libraries and users may be curious to see how the decision factors into controlled digital lending (CDL) efforts. To understand the interest and the implications, we first need to establish the basic contours of copyright, fair use, CDL, and ReDigi.


Health Care Costs And The Arc Of Innovation, Neel U. Sukhatme, Maxwell Gregg Bloche 2019 Georgetown University Law Center

Health Care Costs And The Arc Of Innovation, Neel U. Sukhatme, Maxwell Gregg Bloche

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Health care costs continue their inexorable rise, threatening America’s long-term fiscal stability, competitiveness, and standard of living. Over the past half-century, efforts to rein in spending have uniformly failed. In this Article, we explain why, breaking with standard accounts of regulatory and market dysfunction. We point instead to the nexus of economics, mutual empathy, and social expectations that drives medical innovation and locks in low-value technologies. We show how law reflects and reinforces this nexus and how and why health-policy-makers avert their gaze.

Next, we propose to circumvent these barriers instead of surmounting them. Rather than targeting today’s ...


Future Of Scholarly Publishing And Scholarly Communication: Report Of The Expert Group To The European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (European Commission), Jean-Claude Guédon, Jubb Consulting, United Kingdom, Bianca Kramer, Mikael Laakso, Birgit Schmidt, Elena Šimukovič, Jennifer Hansen, Robert Kiley, Anne Kitson, Wim van der Stelt, Kamilla Markram, Mark Patterson, 2019 University of Montreal, Canada

Future Of Scholarly Publishing And Scholarly Communication: Report Of The Expert Group To The European Commission, Directorate-General For Research And Innovation (European Commission), Jean-Claude Guédon, Jubb Consulting, United Kingdom, Bianca Kramer, Mikael Laakso, Birgit Schmidt, Elena Šimukovič, Jennifer Hansen, Robert Kiley, Anne Kitson, Wim Van Der Stelt, Kamilla Markram, Mark Patterson,

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

The Expert Group on the Future of Scholarly Publishing and Scholarly Communication was set up to support the policy development of the European Commission on Open Science. The Expert Group was asked to assess the current situation with regard to scholarly communication and publishing and to establish general principles for the future. This report analyses the recent past and present states of scholarly communication and publishing. It proposes ten principles through which a vision for scholarly communication is shaped over the next 10-15 years. These principles also serve as a way to examine shortcomings of the current scholarly communication and ...


Lost In A Novelty Mug: U.S. Telecom, The Fcc, And Policy Resolution For Net Neutrality, Christopher Terry, Scott Memmel, Ashley Turacek 2019 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Lost In A Novelty Mug: U.S. Telecom, The Fcc, And Policy Resolution For Net Neutrality, Christopher Terry, Scott Memmel, Ashley Turacek

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This paper traces the history of net neutrality and the judicial reviews of the Federal Communication Commission’s multiple attempts at regulation, including the agency’s 2006 guidelines overturned in Comcast v. FCC, the 2010 rules overturned in Verizon v. FCC, and the FCC’s reclassification of broadband in its 2015 net neutrality rules, as well as the contemporary battles over the agency’s decision in November of 2017 to repeal the 2015 rules. As the FCC continues to wrestle with net neutrality and open internet regulations, the agency engaged in a series of continuing delays to impede a potential ...


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