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Misclassifying The Insurance Policy: The Unforced Errors Of Unilateral Contract Characterization, Hazel G. Beh, Jeffrey W. Stempel 2010 University of Hawaii

Misclassifying The Insurance Policy: The Unforced Errors Of Unilateral Contract Characterization, Hazel G. Beh, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Scholarly Works

Insurance policies are traditionally classified as unilateral or “reverse-unilateral” contracts, a characterization we find largely incorrect, with problematic consequences for adjudication of insurance coverage disputes. In addition to the general difficulties attending the unilateral classification, the concept as applied to insurance policies is not only unhelpful but incorrect. Insurance policies are more accurately viewed as bilateral contracts. In addition, the unilateral characterization of insurance policies introduces error and inconsistency into the litigation of insurance controversies. In particular, the unilateral view tends toward excessive formalism and focus on so-called “conditions” precedent to coverage, eschewing material breach analysis and encouraging needless forfeitures ...


The "Discretionary Clause" In Erisa Health Insurance Plans, Greg Munro 2010 University of Montana School of Law

The "Discretionary Clause" In Erisa Health Insurance Plans, Greg Munro

Faculty Journal Articles & Other Writings

This article reviews the issue of the power of state insurance commissioners to regulate the use of the discretionary clause under ERISA. The article questions the remarkable power imbalance between insureds and insurers noting the courts' deference to decisions made under discretionary clauses and the abuse of discretion standard.


Auto Policy Conflicts Of Law In Montana, Greg Munro 2010 University of Montana School of Law

Auto Policy Conflicts Of Law In Montana, Greg Munro

Faculty Journal Articles & Other Writings

This article reviews the conflicts of law cases in Montana in chronological order. The article notes that the Montana Supreme Court followed a clear and predictable set of principles in dealing with the issue of what law applies to the out-of-state auto policy involved in an accident in Montana for almost thirty years, from Kemp in 1979 until Moodro in 2008. The end result of the last two years, however, is a confused abandonment of Montana's materially greater interest in its public policy protection for consumers of auto insurance. The article asserts that this interest needs to be inserted ...


The Unappreciated Inportance, For Small Business Defendants, Of The Duty To Settle, Robert H. Heidt 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

The Unappreciated Inportance, For Small Business Defendants, Of The Duty To Settle, Robert H. Heidt

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


The Insurance Policy As Statute, Jeffrey W. Stempel 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

The Insurance Policy As Statute, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Scholarly Works

Insurance policies are classified as a subspecies of contract. Although the taxonomy is correct, rigid adherence to this classification system limits the legal system's ability to deal with some of the most problematic and frequently litigated questions of insurance coverage. Restricting conception of insurance policies to the contract model unduly limits analysis of the meaning and function of the policies. In addition, restricting characterization of insurance as a matter of “contract” does not necessarily produce swift, inexpensive, efficient, or uniform decisions (to say nothing about accuracy, justice, or fairness). Within contract law, scholars, and courts differ over the respective ...


The Insurance Policy As Social Instrument And Social Institution, Jeffrey W. Stempel 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

The Insurance Policy As Social Instrument And Social Institution, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Scholarly Works

Insurance policies are classified as a species of contract. Although this characterization is correct, it is unduly narrow if used as the exclusive lens for assessing insurance policies, which are not merely contracts but also are designed to perform particular risk management, deterrence, and compensation functions important to economic and social ordering. Recognizing this has significant implications regarding the manner in which insurance policies are construed in coverage disputes and suggests that policy construction can be improved by not only performing traditional contract analysis of disputed policies but also by appreciating the particular function of the insurance policy in question ...


On The Constitutionality Of Health Care Reform, Barak D. Richman 2010 Duke Law School

On The Constitutionality Of Health Care Reform, Barak D. Richman

Faculty Scholarship

This commentary describes the legal challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.


Regulation Insurance Sales Or Selling Insurance Regulation: Against Regulatory Competition In Insurance, Daniel Schwarcz 2009 University of Minnesota Law School

Regulation Insurance Sales Or Selling Insurance Regulation: Against Regulatory Competition In Insurance, Daniel Schwarcz

Daniel Benjamin Schwarcz

In certain regulatory regimes, including those governing banking and corporate law, firms are permitted to choose among multiple competing regulators. This Article examines the desirability of such regulatory competition in the context of property, casualty and life insurance markets. It analyzes various different approaches to structuring such regulatory competition, including those embodied in two recent reform proposals, the Optional Federal Charter (OFC) and the Single License Proposal (SLP). Ultimately, the Article argues that regulatory competition of any sort would undermine the core goals of insurance regulation, harming consumers, insurers, and third parties.


The Furundzija Judgment And Its Continued Vitality In International Law, Chad Marzen 2009 Florida State University

The Furundzija Judgment And Its Continued Vitality In International Law, Chad Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

The Furundzija decision of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia stands as a landmark decision in international jurisprudence since it not only affirmed that the norm prohibiting torture has attained jus cogens status under international law, but expanded accountability and liability for violations of commission as well as omission. In this essay, I not only address Furundzija’s holdings and its implications in the international sphere, but specifically analyze the legacy of the Furundzija judgment on U.S. domestic civil cases involving the Alien Tort Statute.

Significantly, the Tribunal’s decision not only properly recognizes faults and crimes ...


Contracting On Standard Forms For International Sales Of Goods, Angelo Giampietro 2009 UPO Seville (PhD c.)

Contracting On Standard Forms For International Sales Of Goods, Angelo Giampietro

Angelo Giampietro Avv.

In the international sales of goods adopting standard form contract and Incoterms can result in an advantageous manner of contracting. We will try to critically consider the extent to which it can facilitate parties to such agreements. First of all, because standard form contract is a result of experience and legal expertise in the field, which include events that can happen, leading to reasonable solutions, the use facilitate trading ensuring predictability, consistency, and increased efficiency in business relations; saving time and money in negotiating efforts and drafting individual contracts. It is the application of the principle of freedom of contract ...


Detecting The Stealth Erosion Of Precedent: Affirmative Action After Ricci, Sachin Pandya 2009 University of Connecticut School of Law

Detecting The Stealth Erosion Of Precedent: Affirmative Action After Ricci, Sachin Pandya

Sachin S. Pandya

This paper presents a method for detecting stealth precedent erosion, i.e., when an appellate court majority deliberately writes the opinion in case y to reduce the scope of its precedent x, but does not expressly refer to precedent x in the opinion. Applying this method, the paper provides a strong basis for concluding that in Ricci v. DeStefano (2009), a United States Supreme Court case decided under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Court majority eroded by stealth United Steelworkers of America v. Weber (1979), and Johnson v. Transportation Agency (1987), both cases that read ...


Protecting Statements In Catholic Tribunal Proceedings Under The Priest-Penitent Privilege: Cimijotti V. Paulsen Considered, Chad Marzen 2009 Florida State University

Protecting Statements In Catholic Tribunal Proceedings Under The Priest-Penitent Privilege: Cimijotti V. Paulsen Considered, Chad Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

No abstract provided.


Insuring Understanding: The Tested Langauge Defense, Michelle Boardman 2009 George Mason University School of Law

Insuring Understanding: The Tested Langauge Defense, Michelle Boardman

Michelle Boardman

No abstract provided.


Tontines For The Invincibles, Tom Baker, Peter Siegelman 2009 university of connecticut law school

Tontines For The Invincibles, Tom Baker, Peter Siegelman

Peter Siegelman

No abstract provided.


Readability, Contracts Of Recurring Use, And The Problem Of Ex Post Judicial Governance Of Health Insurance Policies, John Aloysius Cogan Jr. 2009 University of Connecticut

Readability, Contracts Of Recurring Use, And The Problem Of Ex Post Judicial Governance Of Health Insurance Policies, John Aloysius Cogan Jr.

John Aloysius Cogan Jr.

While the rhetoric surrounding the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act focused on core issues such as cost, quality, and access to care, the dialog rarely acknowledged a key problem-the fact that most Americans do not understand their health insurance. Simply put, consumers do not fully grasp their health insurance coverage because the jargon found in many health insurance contracts is impenetrable to most Americans. This is disconcerting because consumer-oriented information is central to our increasingly consumer-directed health care system. Consumers are expected to make cost-effective choices among the array of health insurance plans that may be ...


Managing Medical Bills On The Brink Of Bankruptcy, Melissa B. Jacoby, Mirya Holman 2009 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Managing Medical Bills On The Brink Of Bankruptcy, Melissa B. Jacoby, Mirya Holman

Melissa B. Jacoby

This paper presents original empirical evidence on financial interactions between medical providers and their patients who go bankrupt. We use a nationally representative sample of people who filed for bankruptcy in 2007 to compare two popular but hotly contested methods of measuring medical burden. By applying both methods to the same filers, we find that nearly four out of five respondents had some financial obligation for medical care not covered by insurance in the two years prior to filing as measured by the survey method. The court record method paints a different picture, with only half of the cases containing ...


Charles Sumner: History's Misunderstood Idealist, Chad G. Marzen 2009 Florida State University

Charles Sumner: History's Misunderstood Idealist, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

Few historical figures in the history of the United States have received such contrasting treatment by historians and scholars than Senator Charles Sumner. One view of Sumner mainly focuses on Sumner as a “Cardboard Yankee,” a figure who was arrogantly too tied to principle and was someone who seldom tried to understand others, was lacking in humor, was a pedant, lacked the judgment and self-control to be effective in settling disputes, and was unable to compromise.

A more recent “revised” interpretation of Sumner contends Sumner was driven into reform movements and politics for two reasons: first, that Sumner believed the ...


Consnet To Settle? A New Twist In The Tri-Partite Relationship, David F. Tavella 2009 Selected Works

Consnet To Settle? A New Twist In The Tri-Partite Relationship, David F. Tavella

David F. Tavella

CONSENT TO SETTLE? A NEW TWIST IN THE TRI-PARTITE RELATIONSHIP BY DAVID F. TAVELLA Abstract This article examines the ethical obligations of defense counsel retained by a party’s insurance company regarding settlement of a case. The article examines the traditional relationship between an insured and retained defense counsel. the article next examines some alternative theories to describe the relationship, and the duties and obligation with each theory. The article next looks at the relationship between the insurer and insured, particularly the insurer’s ability to settle a case without the insured’s consent. The article next discusses defense counsel ...


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