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Volume 10 Issue 3, Sustainable Development Law & Policy 2010 American University Washington College of Law

Volume 10 Issue 3, Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Balancing Consumer Protection And Scientific Integrity In The Face Of Uncertainty: The Example Of Gluten-Free Foods, Margaret Sova McCabe 2010 University of New Hampshire School of Law

Balancing Consumer Protection And Scientific Integrity In The Face Of Uncertainty: The Example Of Gluten-Free Foods, Margaret Sova Mccabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

In 2009, gluten-free foods were not only "hot" in the marketplace, several countries, including the United States, continued efforts to define gluten-free and appropriate labeling parameters. The regulatory process illuminates how difficult regulations based on safe scientific thresholds can be for regulators, manufacturers and consumers. This article analyzes the gluten-free regulatory landscape, challenges to defining a safe gluten threshold, and how consumers might need more label information beyond the term "gluten-free." The article includes an overview of international gluten-free regulations, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rulemaking process, and issues for consumers.


Livestock Animal Cloning: This Steak Is Giving Me Déjà Vu, Blake M. Mensing 2010 American University Washington College of Law

Livestock Animal Cloning: This Steak Is Giving Me Déjà Vu, Blake M. Mensing

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


How To Cut The Cheese: Homonymous Names Of Registered Geographic Indicators Of Foodstuffs In Regulation 510/2006, Kaiko Shimura 2010 Boston College Law School

How To Cut The Cheese: Homonymous Names Of Registered Geographic Indicators Of Foodstuffs In Regulation 510/2006, Kaiko Shimura

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

Since the 15th century, European states have sought to protect certain foodstuffs originating from a designated geographic location. When multilateral and bilateral agreements failed to establish sufficient protection amongst the European Community member states, the European Community sought to establish uniform standards of protection by adopting Regulation 2081/92 in 1992. While an important step in the harmonization of varying European state practices, Regulation 2081/92 failed to address the problem of names that are homonymous to registered, protected names. In 2006, the European Community attempted to address this issue in Regulation 510/2006. This Note explores the issue of “homonymous names” and …


Wine Wars: How We Have Painted Ourselves Into A Regulatory Corner, Rachel M. Perkins 2010 Vanderbilt University Law School

Wine Wars: How We Have Painted Ourselves Into A Regulatory Corner, Rachel M. Perkins

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

A private citizen can violate the Constitution in two ways. The first is by enslaving another person, an atrocious act that should be proscribed by the highest law in the land. The second is by transporting alcohol across a state line in violation of the laws of that state. The two actions are hardly of the same magnitude.

The history of alcohol regulation has been a litany of failed attempts--on both the state and federal levels. Each new layer of legislation created additional problems. Most are familiar with the infamy of Prohibition, the federal ban on the manufacture or sale …


Allocating Liability For Deficient Warnings On Generic Drugs: A Prescription For Change, Sarah C. Duncan 2010 Vanderbilt University Law School

Allocating Liability For Deficient Warnings On Generic Drugs: A Prescription For Change, Sarah C. Duncan

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Brand-name pharmaceutical companies create pioneer drugs that cure diseases around the world. However, because research and development costs are very high, brand-name drugs are expensive. In response to escalating costs, Congress enacted the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 ("Hatch-Waxman Act") to promote generic competition. As generics become more prominent in the pharmaceutical marketplace, individuals injured by generic drugs are suing the manufacturers with more frequency. The cases often turn on which company should bear the liability for failing to warn--the brand-name manufacturer or the generic drug maker. Although the injured person took the generic drug, …


Reclaiming The Right To Food As A Normative Response To The Global Food Crisis, Smita Narula 2010 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

Reclaiming The Right To Food As A Normative Response To The Global Food Crisis, Smita Narula

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In 2009, the number of hungry in the world crossed the one billion mark, a dubious milestone that has been attributed in large part to consecutive food and economic crises. Over ninety-eight percent of these individuals live in the developing world. Ironically, a great majority are involved in food production as small-scale independent food producers or agricultural laborers. These facts and figures signal a definitive blow to efforts to reduce global hunger and lift the world's poorest from abject and dehumanizing poverty. They also bring to light the deep imbalance of power in a fundamentally flawed food system. Responses to …


Making Changes: Generic Drug Labeling And The Case Against Federal Preemption, Lesley A. Stout 2010 University of Kentucky

Making Changes: Generic Drug Labeling And The Case Against Federal Preemption, Lesley A. Stout

Kentucky Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Wyeth V. Levine: What Does It Mean And Where Do Pharmaceutical Companies Go From Here, Clay Landa 2010 University of Richmond

Wyeth V. Levine: What Does It Mean And Where Do Pharmaceutical Companies Go From Here, Clay Landa

Richmond Journal of Law and the Public Interest

Therefore, one approach for a drug maker, knowing of a potential hazard, would be to unilaterally strengthen their warning without prior FDA approval under current regulations to head off any state tort claims for failure to warn. If the FDA ultimately determines not to approve the strengthened label, under explicit authority granted by Congress in the FDCA, drug makers have a strong argument that implicit conflict preemption now applies. As another avenue, drug makers may include a potential warning amounting to a prohibition of the drug's use or method of delivery when seeking initial approval of the warning label. Again, …


Unofficial Legislative History Of The Biologics Price Competition And Innovation Act 2009, An, Erika Lietzan, Krista Hessler Carver, Jeffrey Elikan 2010 University of Missouri School of Law

Unofficial Legislative History Of The Biologics Price Competition And Innovation Act 2009, An, Erika Lietzan, Krista Hessler Carver, Jeffrey Elikan

Faculty Publications

On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCIA) which created a regulatory pathway for, and scheme for litigation of patent issues relating to, “biosimilar” biological products. This article discusses the history of the BPCIA and explains its provisions. Section I provides background and a history of the regulation of drugs and biological products in the United States. Section II describes the growing interest in biosimilar approval from the early 2000s through September 2006, when the legislative debate began in earnest. Section III describes the legislative and stakeholder process from …


Thoughts On Preemption In The Wake Of The Levine Decision, Erika Lietzan, Sarah E. Pitlyk 2010 University of Missouri School of Law

Thoughts On Preemption In The Wake Of The Levine Decision, Erika Lietzan, Sarah E. Pitlyk

Faculty Publications

This article discusses the prospects for preemption doctrine in the wake of the Supreme Court’s decision in Wyeth v. Levine. Part I describes the Levine decision. Part II examines the majority’s holding as it relates to impossibility preemption and considers the future of the doctrine in failure-to-warn suits after Levine. We argue that the announced standard for impossibility preemption — the clear evidence standard — should be interpreted reasonably and not in a manner that effectively eviscerates the doctrine. We also describe other instances of impossibility in the food and drug regulatory context that were not presented to the Court. …


Between Starvation And Globalization: Realizing The Right To Food In India, Lauren Birchfield, Jessica Corsi 2010 Harvard Law School

Between Starvation And Globalization: Realizing The Right To Food In India, Lauren Birchfield, Jessica Corsi

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article evaluates People's Union for Civil Liberties v. Union of India & Others (PUCL) through multiple lenses, examining: (1) the necessary factors that contributed to the success of the Public Interest Litigation (PIL) and its enforcement and (2) both the implications and limitations of PUCL as it relates to India's larger economic policy framework. We argue that the development and success of the PUCL litigation have depended in part on provisions of the Indian Constitution amenable to the incorporation and promotion of economic and social rights as well as on a unique relationship between civil society and judicial institutions. …


A Bitter Pill To Swallow: Canadian Drug Regulation, Michael Duncan Taylor 2010 Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University

A Bitter Pill To Swallow: Canadian Drug Regulation, Michael Duncan Taylor

LLM Theses

This thesis assesses the current status of Canadian prescription drug regulation and the policy drivers that guide this process. This analysis is accomplished by first providing a general survey of the steps, law, and institutional players involved in the full life-cycle of a drug. Next the evolution of current clinical trials and the gaps that the present legal regime creates in the scientific standards employed in clinical research is reviewed. This is followed by a discussion of how commercialization (innovation) and speed of approval (market access) are slowly becoming the dominant policy drivers for the Canadian regime. Finally a discussion …


Bundling Public And Private Goods: The Market For Sustainable Organics, Margot J. Pollans 2010 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

Bundling Public And Private Goods: The Market For Sustainable Organics, Margot J. Pollans

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Modern agriculture has vast environmental externalities. The pesticides, fertilizers, and sediments in irrigation runoff pollute surface and groundwater; single-crop farms destroy biodiversity; and massive amounts of fossil fuels are burned in agricultural production, post-harvest processing, and shipping. Nevertheless, farming operations have largely escaped the post-1970 expansion of federal environmental regulation. Compounding the problem, federal farm policy has encouraged the very farming practices that most cause this degradation.

In 1990, Congress passed the Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA), which created an organic food certification and labeling system. While OFPA's primary purposes are to facilitate the growth of the organic sector and …


We Can Work It Out: Co-Op Compulsory Licensing As The Way Forward In Improving Access To Anti-Retroviral Drugs, Horace E. Anderson 2010 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

We Can Work It Out: Co-Op Compulsory Licensing As The Way Forward In Improving Access To Anti-Retroviral Drugs, Horace E. Anderson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article explores the social and developmental underpinnings of the access problem and describes the legal framework that provides the backdrop for the Waiver's licensing scheme. Part III examines the various lenses, humanitarian, economic, and political, through which the underutilization problem may be viewed and explained. Part IV sets out the structural heart of the Waiver scheme's deficiencies: the notion of the “compulsory” license itself. Part V posits a co-op scheme of licensing that aligns the concerns, goals, and incentives of IP owners, importers, exporters, and consumers. Finally, the Article relates the proposed scheme to more general trends in thinking …


"Per Se Illegality For Reverse Payment Settlements?" Review Of "Unsettling Drug Patent Settlements: A Framework For Presumptive Illegality, Daniel A. Crane 2010 University of Michigan Law School

"Per Se Illegality For Reverse Payment Settlements?" Review Of "Unsettling Drug Patent Settlements: A Framework For Presumptive Illegality, Daniel A. Crane

Reviews

Congratulations to Mike on a very fine book. I will confine my comments to Mike's chapter on patent settlements (Chapter 15), which I understand will also be coming out as an article in the Michigan Law Review. Patent settlements involving "reverse payments" are a huge topic on which I and many others have spilled much ink already. Representative Bobby Rush (President Obama's erstwhile nemesis from Chicago's South Side) has just introduced legislation that would ban reverse payments.' I will not regurgitate my entire spiel on patent settlements here, but instead just try to highlight my essential disagreement with Mike …


Obama Administration Withholds Funds For Drug War In Mexico Pending Human Rights Reform, Christina McMahon 2010 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

Obama Administration Withholds Funds For Drug War In Mexico Pending Human Rights Reform, Christina Mcmahon

Public Interest Law Reporter

No abstract provided.


Re-Stocking The Shelves: Policies And Programs Growing In Food Deserts, Tess Feldman 2010 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

Re-Stocking The Shelves: Policies And Programs Growing In Food Deserts, Tess Feldman

Public Interest Law Reporter

No abstract provided.


It Is Time: Why The Fda Should Start Disclosing Drug Trial Data, Mustafa Ünlü 2010 University of Michigan Law School

It Is Time: Why The Fda Should Start Disclosing Drug Trial Data, Mustafa Ünlü

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Although [drug] manufacturers bear the cost of research data generation, it is oftentimes a worthwhile investment that also confers significant commercial advantages. Consequently, they have argued that research data should be considered a trade secret and kept confidential. The FDA's longstanding position has been to accept this proposition. Even when Congress appeared to mandate disclosure or weaken the underlying rationale for secrecy, the FDA has continued to treat research data as confidential. A strong argument against a default posture of confidentiality is that research data disclosure would promote broad public interests by eliminating the societal costs brought about by keeping …


How Many Patents Does It Take To Make A Drug - Follow-On Pharmaceutical Patents And University Licensing, Lisa Larrimore Ouellette 2010 Yale Law School

How Many Patents Does It Take To Make A Drug - Follow-On Pharmaceutical Patents And University Licensing, Lisa Larrimore Ouellette

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

As described by Professors Dan Burk and Mark Lemley, drugs are[...] special because of the low number of patents per product: "In some industries, such as chemistry and pharmaceuticals, a single patent normally covers a single product. Much conventional wisdom in the patent system is built on the unstated assumption of such a one-to-one correspondence." Although many have repeated this one-patent, one-drug assumption, there has been little empirical analysis of how many patents actually protect each drug. In fact, most small-molecule drugs are protected by multiple patents. The average was nearly 3.5 patents per drug in 2005, with over five …


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