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John Locke's Theory Of Property, And The Dispossession Of Indigenous Peoples In The Settler-Colony, Calum Murray 2022 Seattle University School of Law

John Locke's Theory Of Property, And The Dispossession Of Indigenous Peoples In The Settler-Colony, Calum Murray

American Indian Law Journal

This paper explores how John Locke’s theory of property, elaborated in chapter five of his Second Treatise of Government, provided a compelling conceptual and practical justification for the appropriation of Indigenous peoples’ territories in America by the early English settler-colonists of the 17th century. It examines how his property theory facilitated the nullification of Native American conceptions of land through the superimposition of European private property regimes in the settler colony. It further highlights briefly how indistinguishable dynamics also characterize the contemporary Israeli/Palestinian settler-colonial context, where the reverberations of Locke’s thought on property are pervasive. To do so, …


Direct Liability And Veil-Piercing: When One Door Closes, Another Opens, King Fung Tsang, Katie Ng 2022 SJD (Georgetown), LLM, JD (Columbia), Associate Professor, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Direct Liability And Veil-Piercing: When One Door Closes, Another Opens, King Fung Tsang, Katie Ng

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Piercing the corporate veil has been substantially limited in English law since Prest v. Petrodel. This contraction coincides with the development of the direct liability doctrine which attaches liability directly on the parent company. The authors argue that the shift from using piercing the corporate veil to direct liability is a positive development as it gives English courts a better tool to combat the abuse of separate legal personality. However, compared the English doctrines with their counterparts under the U.S. laws, it is argued that the much broader U.S. piercing doctrine makes the expansion of direct liability doctrine unnecessary in …


L’Utilité Du Droit Comparé (The Utility Of Comparative Law), Vivian Grosswald Curran 2022 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

L’Utilité Du Droit Comparé (The Utility Of Comparative Law), Vivian Grosswald Curran

Book Chapters

French Abstract: Cette contribution était le discours d’ouverture à la Conférence des 100 ans de l’Institut Édouard Lambert à l’Université de Lyon. Elle discute de l’utilité du droit comparé dans le monde actuel d’une perspective technique dans le cadre d’une situation aux États-Unis et d’une perspective plus politique dans le cadre d’un arrêt de la CJUE.

English Abstract: This essay was delivered as a keynote address to the conference to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Institut Édouard Lambert at the University of Lyon. It argues for the usefulness of comparative law in today’s world from a technical angle in …


The Rise Of 5g Technology: How Internet Privacy And Protection Of Personal Data Is A Must In An Evolving Digital Landscape, Justin Rabine 2022 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

The Rise Of 5g Technology: How Internet Privacy And Protection Of Personal Data Is A Must In An Evolving Digital Landscape, Justin Rabine

Catholic University Journal of Law and Technology

No abstract provided.


The Application Of The Right To Be Forgotten In The Machine Learning Context: From The Perspective Of European Laws, Zeyu Zhao 2022 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

The Application Of The Right To Be Forgotten In The Machine Learning Context: From The Perspective Of European Laws, Zeyu Zhao

Catholic University Journal of Law and Technology

The right to be forgotten has been evolving for decades along with the progress of different statutes and cases and, finally, independently enacted by the General Data Protection Regulation, making it widely applied across Europe. However, the related provisions in the regulation fail to enable machine learning systems to realistically forget the personal information which is stored and processed therein.

This failure is not only because existing European rules do not stipulate standard codes of conduct and corresponding responsibilities for the parties involved, but they also cannot accommodate themselves to the new environment of machine learning, where specific information can …


European Union Law In The Member State Courts: A Comparative View, Michael Wells 2022 University of Georgia School of Law

European Union Law In The Member State Courts: A Comparative View, Michael Wells

Scholarly Works

Both the European Union and the United States are federal systems. Both divide law-making authority between the central government and the member states. Each has a dual judicial system, consisting of member state courts and central government courts. But the EU and the U.S. approaches to federalism diverge in two important ways. First, unlike the U.S., the EU has no system of lower federal courts. Second, in the U.S., the Supreme Court may review state court rulings that turn on issues of federal law. The European Court of Justice has no power of appellate review over the Member State courts. …


Legal Coding Beyond Capital?, Katharina Pistor 2022 Columbia Law School

Legal Coding Beyond Capital?, Katharina Pistor

Faculty Scholarship

Capital, I argue in ‘The Code of Capital: How the Law Creates Wealth and Inequality’, is coded in law. Legal coding is a process that adapts and molds formal law over time, often without explicit ex ante sanctioning by a legislature or a court. Several characteristics of formal law make it susceptible to coding, including its inherent incompleteness, the strong endorsement for private autonomy, and decentralised access to a state’s consolidated means of coercion. Would a progressive European Code of Private Law (EPL-code), as proposed by Hesselink, alter any of this and what would it take to ensure that the …


In Defense Of Its Identity, Daniel H. Halberstam, Werner Schroeder 2022 University of Michigan Law School

In Defense Of Its Identity, Daniel H. Halberstam, Werner Schroeder

Articles

The Court of Justice has spoken. The Commission may now, under Regulation 2020/2092, withhold monies from Member States that do not observe the rule of law. This “budget conditionality”, if wielded smartly, should prove a powerful tool if comparative experience coaxing states through union money to follow union policies holds true in Europe. Given the limitations of national reference actions and infringement proceedings that lag behind the nefarious strategies of some governments, and the political obstacles to using Article 7 TEU, we cheer on this new tool of the Union. But we believe the urgency of rule of law concerns …


International Bureaucracies: Extraterritorial Reach Of The European Commission’S Legal Expertise, Anu Bradford 2022 Columbia Law School

International Bureaucracies: Extraterritorial Reach Of The European Commission’S Legal Expertise, Anu Bradford

Faculty Scholarship

The EU exercises significant influence over global regulatory standards, whether as a result of its ability to unilaterally export its rules to foreign markets via market mechanisms – a phenomenon that I have elsewhere described as ‘the Brussels Effect’ – or by entrenching them globally through bilateral or multilateral negotiations. In all cases, the legal expertise of the Commission is central. It either pro-actively supplies its expertise to their foreign counterparts or responds to the demand to offer technical expertise to create a rule-based order that closely imitates the regulatory state in Europe. Companies also resort to the Commission as …


Looking Out, Looking In: How India Can Respond To A Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism On The Principles Of Justice And Equity In The Net-Zero Transition, Paridhi Srivastava 2022 Columbia Law School

Looking Out, Looking In: How India Can Respond To A Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism On The Principles Of Justice And Equity In The Net-Zero Transition, Paridhi Srivastava

LL.M. Essays & Theses

The net-zero transition is a curious term. It is multi-dimensional. It must be inclusive, equitable, and just—considering the different realities of various economies and various pathways to achieving net-zero. One of the merits of global climate action since the Paris Agreement in 2015 has been its attempt to balance climate change justice with inter-generational justice and environmental justice. But as evidenced from the international momentum brewing in a post-Paris world leading up to Glasgow, the problems of justice are not abated with a net-zero transition — they are indeed being rendered more poignant by it. While it is just to …


Eia Directive Procedural Guarantees As Substantive Individual Rights In Il V. Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, Alexis Haddock 2021 University of Michigan Law School

Eia Directive Procedural Guarantees As Substantive Individual Rights In Il V. Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, Alexis Haddock

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Environmental impact assessments serve as a necessary tool for attaining the goals of the Aarhus Convention and the EIA Directive (2011/92). The Aarhus Convention and EIA Directive aim to guarantee the public’s right to participate in environmental decision-making, to be provided information necessary to effectively participate, and to have access to a procedure to challenge a decision. The ECJ’s recent case IL v. Land Nordrhein-Westfalen articulates the current interpretation of the European Union Member States’ obligations under the EIA Directive to provide individuals standing to challenge impact assessment decisions. This opinion reaffirmed that in cases where the procedural defect did …


From The Golden Gate To London: Bridging The Gap Between Data Privacy And The Right Of Publicity, Kristin Kuraishi 2021 Brooklyn Law School

From The Golden Gate To London: Bridging The Gap Between Data Privacy And The Right Of Publicity, Kristin Kuraishi

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Currently, there is no global standard or recognition for the right of publicity. Even within the United States, the recognition, scope, and protections vary by state. As the world becomes increasingly reliant on social media for news, information, communication, and recommendations, micro-influencers and non-celebrities require a way to control their developed and curated name, image, and likeness from unauthorized commercial uses by others. Advertising is occurring more frequently online, and brands recognize the power that micro-influencers have on commerce. Some countries, like the United Kingdom, do not recognize the right of publicity, potentially leaving many individuals without recourse for the …


High Time For A Change: How The Relationship Between Signatory Countries And The United Nations Conventions Governing Narcotic Drugs Must Adapt To Foster A Global Shift In Cannabis Law, Alexander Clementi 2021 Brooklyn Law School

High Time For A Change: How The Relationship Between Signatory Countries And The United Nations Conventions Governing Narcotic Drugs Must Adapt To Foster A Global Shift In Cannabis Law, Alexander Clementi

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Since the early 1970’s, the inclusion of cannabis and its byproducts in the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has mandated a strict prohibition on cultivation and use of the substance, which has led to a largely global practice of criminalization and imprisonment of anyone found to be in its possession. Yet recently, mostly in response to growing public health concerns, countries like Uruguay, Portugal, The Netherlands, Canada, and the United States have enacted laws which seek to decriminalize or even legalize cannabis use and possession. Yet, cannabis remains classified as a Schedule IV narcotic under the Single Convention, …


Level-Up: Towards A More Competitive & Labor-Friendly E-Sports Industry, Andrew Ramstad 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Level-Up: Towards A More Competitive & Labor-Friendly E-Sports Industry, Andrew Ramstad

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Despite humble beginnings, the advent of the modern internet has seen the explosion of e-sports into an industry commanding hundreds of millions of annual viewers and nearly a billion dollars in annual advertising revenue. Facilitating this expansion has been a shift from independently run competitive e-sports leagues to leagues created and operated by the developers of the league’s underlying game. This vertical integration by developers increases e-sports accessibility to viewers, but at the cost of decreased player bargaining power and professional flexibility. The integration further incentivizes ever-increasing working hours and self-destructive or rule-breaking behavior by players to stay competitive. This …


The Case For An International Solution To The Restitution Of Cultural Property: Morality, Legality And Righting Western Wrongs, Ariana Catarisano 2021 Brooklyn Law School

The Case For An International Solution To The Restitution Of Cultural Property: Morality, Legality And Righting Western Wrongs, Ariana Catarisano

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In 2020, the conversation surrounding the return of cultural property acquired during the colonial era was given new life after the world watched as Black Lives Matter activists exposed systemic racial injustice in the United States. Thousands of objects currently sit in western museums under the guise of sharing these cultures and civilizations with the world, but this brings little comfort to communities suffering the genocidal consequences of colonialism. As formerly colonized nations battle the western world for the return of their cultural property, success is often dictated by a combination of power, money, and the ability to turn the …


Prosecuting The Phone Scammer When Extradition Fails And Concurrent Jurisdiction Exists, Michelle Lepkofker 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Prosecuting The Phone Scammer When Extradition Fails And Concurrent Jurisdiction Exists, Michelle Lepkofker

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Advancements in technology allow people to place phone calls half a world away via the internet. This technology has made it easier and cheaper for consumers to communicate, but it has also made it easier for scammers to reach more unsuspecting victims. In 2020, TrueCaller, an app designed to block scam phone calls, successfully blocked, and identified 31.3 billion spam calls in 20 countries. In the same year, Americans alone lost a total of USD $ 29.8 billion to scam calls. This Note argues that phone scams continue to be lucrative, in part, because criminal prosecutions of transnational crimes are …


The Good, The Bad, And The Historically Anti-Semitic: An Analytical Comparison Of Anti-Hate Laws In Germany And The United States, Jamie Rauch 2021 Brooklyn Law School

The Good, The Bad, And The Historically Anti-Semitic: An Analytical Comparison Of Anti-Hate Laws In Germany And The United States, Jamie Rauch

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Confronted every day with drastically increasing accounts of hate crimes and hate speech, nations’ legislators have routinely tried and subsequently failed to implement effective legislation capable of curbing the hatred epidemic currently sweeping the globe. This failure is due in large part to the lack of a universal stance on hate crime regulation and criminalization. Two countries in particular, the United States and Germany, embody two diametrically opposing approaches taken by nations in the present-day war on hate speech. This Note explores the dramatic dichotomy between the legislative framework surrounding the regulation of hate speech in these two countries. This …


Copystrikes And Meme Bans: Social Media And Copyright Protections In The Digital Age, Angelina Sanchez 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Copystrikes And Meme Bans: Social Media And Copyright Protections In The Digital Age, Angelina Sanchez

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Social media is a pervasive and ever-present aspect of many peoples’ lives. Its use permeates nearly every aspect of our existence – there truly is an app for everything. Most notably, social media operates internationally both in scope and usage allowing for the creation of an astounding global society that shares cultures and perspectives in a way unprecedented in human history. Never before have societies been as interconnected as they are now. Unfortunately, such interconnectedness comes with the issue of globalizing enforcement of copyright laws. Infringement runs rampant online and forces creators to struggle against a seemingly faceless foe in …


"A Novel And Controversial Technology." Artificial Face Recognition, Privacy Protection, And Algorithm Bias In Europe, Andrea Pin 2021 William & Mary Law School

"A Novel And Controversial Technology." Artificial Face Recognition, Privacy Protection, And Algorithm Bias In Europe, Andrea Pin

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

R (Bridges) v. Chief Constable of South Wales Police's Court of Appeals ruling... showcases the variety and the thickness of the legal, ethical, and political considerations that lie underneath the deployment of [Artificial Face Recognition]-based police tools and its ramification within Europe and beyond. More broadly, the topic of "[f]acial recognition technologies provide[s] a useful case study of the complex and unpredictable ways that norms of procedural fairness, equality, and privacy interact when the state deploys machine-learning tools to draw inferences from otherwise unilluminating data." This Article uses Bridges as a proxy to sketch out the main legal issues …


A Strategic Vision For The Future [Online Conference], Adna Karamehic-Oates, Patrick McCarthy 2021 Fontbonne University

A Strategic Vision For The Future [Online Conference], Adna Karamehic-Oates, Patrick Mccarthy

Center for Bosnian Studies

Conference welcome and program overview by Patrick McCarthy, Working Group for Bosnia and Herzegovina

10 am: Ending Genocide Denial & Glorification of War Criminals, David Pettigrew and Adna Karamehic-Oates

11 am: NATO Membership for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sean Turcalo and Azem Dervisevic

12-1 pm: Break

1-2 pm: Euro-Atlantic Integration and EU Membership for B&H, Adnan Cerimagic and Vildana Bijedic

2-3 pm: Election and Constitutional Reform, Almira Delibegovic-Broome and Mead Misic

All times are EST.


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