Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

European Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,901 Full-Text Articles 1,670 Authors 1,093,298 Downloads 117 Institutions

All Articles in European Law

Faceted Search

1,901 full-text articles. Page 7 of 57.

Complicity In The Perversion Of Justice: The Role Of Lawyers In Eroding The Rule Of Law In The Third Reich, Cynthia Fountaine 2020 Southern Illinois University

Complicity In The Perversion Of Justice: The Role Of Lawyers In Eroding The Rule Of Law In The Third Reich, Cynthia Fountaine

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

A fundamental tenet of the legal profession is that lawyers and judges are uniquely responsible—individually and collectively—for protecting the Rule of Law. This Article considers the failings of the legal profession in living up to that responsibility during Germany’s Third Reich. The incremental steps used by the Nazis to gain control of the German legal system—beginning as early as 1920 when the Nazi Party adopted a party platform that included a plan for a new legal system—turned the legal system on its head and destroyed the Rule of Law. By failing to uphold the integrity and independence of the profession, …


Saving Small Business From The Big Impact Of Data Breach: A Tiered Federal Approach To Data Protection Law, Nadia Udeshi 2020 Brooklyn Law School

Saving Small Business From The Big Impact Of Data Breach: A Tiered Federal Approach To Data Protection Law, Nadia Udeshi

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Small businesses provide a significant positive impact on the American economy. However, the current fragmented federal and state data protection and breach notification legal scheme puts the viability of small businesses at risk. While the probability of data breaches occurring continues to increase, small businesses lack the financial and technological resources to contend with the various state and federal laws that impose different monetary penalties and remedial requirements in the event of such breaches. To preserve the viability of small businesses, Congress should enact a centralized, multi-tiered federal data protection and breach notification framework that preempts state laws, imposes minimum …


Saving The Marketplace From Market Failure: Reorienting Marketplace Theory In The Era Of Ai Communicators, Jared Schroeder 2020 William & Mary Law School

Saving The Marketplace From Market Failure: Reorienting Marketplace Theory In The Era Of Ai Communicators, Jared Schroeder

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Artificially Intelligent (AI) communicators represent a new type of actor within public discourse. These entities have played influential roles in recent elections in the U.S. and Europe. This Article examines expression rights for AI actors through the lenses provided by the foundational assumptions of the marketplace of ideas theory and existing free-expression-related rationales regarding non-human actors in the U.S. and European legal systems. The Article contends that the fundamental assumptions of the marketplace model must be revised to focus on the flow of information, the development of truth, rather than the more Enlightenment-oriented competition of ideas that leads to the …


The Gdpr And The Consequences Of Big Regulation, Matthew R. A. Heiman 2020 Pepperdine University

The Gdpr And The Consequences Of Big Regulation, Matthew R. A. Heiman

Pepperdine Law Review

This Article summarizes the key features of the European Union’s General Data Privacy Regulation (GDPR) that became effective on May 25, 2018. The stated purpose of the law is to give individuals greater control over personal information that is handled by companies and organizations. The Article argues that the GDPR is fundamentally flawed. Key terms within the GDPR are undefined; the burdens of the GDPR will fall heaviest on small businesses; the GDPR disrupts a valuable business model; the GDPR will stymie growth, innovation, and information sharing; and it may be the product of protectionist impulses rather than concerns for …


Ride-Hailing Drivers As Autonomous Independent Contractors: Let Them Bargain!, Ronald C. Brown 2020 University of Hawaii Law School

Ride-Hailing Drivers As Autonomous Independent Contractors: Let Them Bargain!, Ronald C. Brown

Washington International Law Journal

“Autonomous” workers include most gig-platform drivers, like those working globally for Uber and Lyft, who are usually classified as independent contractors and are ineligible for labor protections and benefits. The “new economy” and its business model, with its fissurization and increased use of contingent and outsourced workers hired as independent contractors, provide employers flexibility and lower costs by shifting labor costs to the workers. Many of these workers operate more as employees rather than genuine independent contractors or self-employed entrepreneurs, causing lost employee labor benefits and costing the government billions of lost tax dollars. Legal attempts continue to classify these …


Kosovo's Controversial 100 Percent Tariff: An Analysis Of Its Imposition And The Issues Bleeding Into The Conflict Between Kosovo And Serbia, Ernira Mehmetaj 2020 Brooklyn Law School

Kosovo's Controversial 100 Percent Tariff: An Analysis Of Its Imposition And The Issues Bleeding Into The Conflict Between Kosovo And Serbia, Ernira Mehmetaj

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

On November 6, 2018, Kosovo imposed a 10 percent tariff on products imported from Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Later that month, on November 28, 2018, after Kosovo was denied membership in the International Criminal Police Organization, Kosovo increased the custom tariffs on Serbian and Bosnian goods from 10 to 100 percent. These actions resulted in a standstill of the European Union–mandated Belgrade-Pristina dialogue—a dialogue seeking to normalize the relations between the two states. Having the tumultuous history shared by Kosovo and Serbia as a backdrop, this Note analyzes the international agreements Kosovo is party to, specifically the Central European …


Social Responsibility In Advertising: Extending Protections For Children In California’S Modeling Industry, Jordyn Sifferman 2020 Seattle University School of Law

Social Responsibility In Advertising: Extending Protections For Children In California’S Modeling Industry, Jordyn Sifferman

Seattle Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Can Soft Words Lead To Strong Deeds? A Comparative Analysis Of Corporate Human Rights Commitments’ Enforcement, Adeline Michoud 2020 Seattle University School of Law

Can Soft Words Lead To Strong Deeds? A Comparative Analysis Of Corporate Human Rights Commitments’ Enforcement, Adeline Michoud

Seattle Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Privacy's Constitutional Moment And The Limits Of Data Protection, Woodrow Hartzog, Neil Richards 2020 Northeastern University

Privacy's Constitutional Moment And The Limits Of Data Protection, Woodrow Hartzog, Neil Richards

Boston College Law Review

America’s privacy bill has come due. Since the dawn of the internet, Congress has repeatedly failed to build a robust identity for American privacy law. But now both California and the European Union have forced Congress’s hand by passing the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). These data protection frameworks, structured around principles for fair information processing called the “FIPs,” have industry and privacy advocates alike clamoring for a “U.S. GDPR.” States seem poised to blanket the country with FIPs-based laws if Congress fails to act. The United States is thus in the midst …


The Bumpy Road Of Home States’ Regulation Of Globalized Businesses—Legal And Institutional Disruptions To Supply Chain Disclosure Under The Modern Slavery Act, Shuangge Wen, Jingchen Zhao 2020 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

The Bumpy Road Of Home States’ Regulation Of Globalized Businesses—Legal And Institutional Disruptions To Supply Chain Disclosure Under The Modern Slavery Act, Shuangge Wen, Jingchen Zhao

Catholic University Law Review

In response to the paradigm shift from territorial corporations to global businesses and supply chains, states are increasingly engaging in regulating extraterritorial business activities, supply chain disclosure regulation being a primary example. Much ink has thus far spilled on the intrinsic doctrinal and conceptual aspects of this regulatory approach, with its interactions to the external regulatory and institutional environment far less considered. This article seeks to correct the scholarly imbalance by critically examining how s.54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act (MSA) – a prominent attempt among state-level initiatives designed to promote human rights protection within global supply chains – …


The More Things Change, The More They Stay The Same: The United States, Trade Sanctions, And International Blocking Acts, Meaghan Jennison 2020 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

The More Things Change, The More They Stay The Same: The United States, Trade Sanctions, And International Blocking Acts, Meaghan Jennison

Catholic University Law Review

When the United States unilaterally withdrew from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (“JCPOA,” colloquially known as the Iran Nuclear Deal) in May of 2018, that withdrawal signaled not only the United States withdrawal from that deal, of which it had been one of the chief negotiators, but also of a new level of trade engagement by the United States and the Trump Administration within the international community. European countries, in an attempt to continue existing business relationships with the Iranians, pulled an old tool from their toolbox – the blocking statute – to attempt to allow European and multinational …


Multi-Jurisdictional Anti-Corruption Enforcement: Time For A Global Approach, Sharon Oded 2020 Brooklyn Law School

Multi-Jurisdictional Anti-Corruption Enforcement: Time For A Global Approach, Sharon Oded

Journal of Law and Policy

With the rise of globalization, foreign corruption has become a prominent enemy of the world’s economy. Over time, numerous international initiatives―such as the OECD and United Nations conventions against foreign corruption―have enlisted a growing number of sovereign states to join in the global war against that enemy. As a consequence, global enhancement of anti-foreign corruption enforcement often results in duplicative, multi-jurisdictional enforcement, such that multiple enforcement actions are initiated against the same corporation by several authorities, in one or more jurisdictions, in relation to the same misconduct. This phenomenon, which was recently addressed by the US Department of Justice in …


Digitizing Scent And Flavor: A Copyright Perspective, Amara Lopez 2020 University of Michigan Law School

Digitizing Scent And Flavor: A Copyright Perspective, Amara Lopez

Michigan Technology Law Review

Should the flavor of a cheese fall under copyright protection? The Court of Justice of the European Union recently confronted this question in Levola Hengelo BV v. Smilde Foods. Although the court ultimately denied protection, its reasoning opened many doors for those seeking intellectual property protection for scents and flavors. The court implied that it was the subjective nature of a cheese flavor that bars it from enjoying the protection copyright affords, which begs the question of what would happen if there were a sufficiently objective way to describe a flavor.

Recent developments in technology have led to the digitization …


Comments On Executive Ruilemaking And Democratic Legitimacy: "Reform" In The United States And The United Kingdom's Brexit Bt Susan Rose-Ackerman, Nicholas Almendares 2020 Seton Hall University School of Law

Comments On Executive Ruilemaking And Democratic Legitimacy: "Reform" In The United States And The United Kingdom's Brexit Bt Susan Rose-Ackerman, Nicholas Almendares

Chicago-Kent Law Review

No abstract provided.


National Minorities And European Union Accession: A Consideration Of Communist Legacies And Eu Conditionality In Central And Eastern Europe, Esther Moriah Yeung 2020 University of Pennsylvania

National Minorities And European Union Accession: A Consideration Of Communist Legacies And Eu Conditionality In Central And Eastern Europe, Esther Moriah Yeung

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe prompted Western Europe to integrate the region with European Union (EU) expansion. The collapse of the Eastern bloc was concerning to the West, which viewed the nationalist tensions in the region as having the potential to trigger destabilization and conflict. This thesis evaluates the treatment of Hungarian national minorities in three states that eventually joined the EU: Slovakia, Romania, and Slovenia. Marxist-Leninist legacies, in combination with democratization and EU membership, determined key differences in state compliance with EU national minority recommendations in the wake of membership. I identify how both communist-era …


Gdpr And The Importance Of Data To Ai Startups, James Bessen, Stephen Michael Impink, Lydia Reichensperger, Robert Seamans 2020 Boston University School of Law

Gdpr And The Importance Of Data To Ai Startups, James Bessen, Stephen Michael Impink, Lydia Reichensperger, Robert Seamans

Faculty Scholarship

What is the impact of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regime (“GDPR”) and data regulation on AI startups? How important is data to AI product development? We study these questions using unique survey data of commercial AI startups. AI startups rely on data for their product development. Given the scale and scope of their business models, these startups are particularly susceptible to policy changes impacting data collection, storage and use. We find that training data and frequent model refreshes are particularly important for AI startups that rely on neural nets and ensemble learning algorithms. We also find that firms …


The Deficiencies Of The European Union's Regulatory System Governing The Classification Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, Elissa Sanford 2020 William & Mary Law School

The Deficiencies Of The European Union's Regulatory System Governing The Classification Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, Elissa Sanford

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


New Media, Free Expression, And The Offences Against The State Acts, Laura K. Donohue 2020 Georgetown University Law Center

New Media, Free Expression, And The Offences Against The State Acts, Laura K. Donohue

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

New media facilitates communication and creates a common, lived experience. It also carries the potential for great harm on an individual and societal scale. Posting integrates information and emotion, with study after study finding that fear and anger transfer most readily online. Isolation follows, with insular groups forming. The result is an increasing bifurcation of society. Scholars also write about rising levels of depression and suicide that stem from online dependence and replacing analogical experience with digital interaction, as well as escalating levels of anxiety that are rooted in the validation expectation of the ‘like’ function. These changes generate instability …


The Cost Of Ensuring Privacy: How The General Data Protection Regulation Acts As A Barrier To Trade In Violation Of Articles Xvi And Xvii Of The General Agreement On Trade In Services, Elisabeth Meddin 2020 American University Washington College of Law

The Cost Of Ensuring Privacy: How The General Data Protection Regulation Acts As A Barrier To Trade In Violation Of Articles Xvi And Xvii Of The General Agreement On Trade In Services, Elisabeth Meddin

American University International Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Lesson Learned From The Taricco Saga: Judicial Nationalism And The Constitutional Review Of E.U. Law, Gino Scaccia 2020 University of Teramo

The Lesson Learned From The Taricco Saga: Judicial Nationalism And The Constitutional Review Of E.U. Law, Gino Scaccia

American University International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress