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Return Of The De Minimis Exception In Digital Music Sampling: The Ninth Circuit's Recent Holding In Vmg Salsoul Improves Upon The Sixth Circuit's Holding In Bridgeport, But Raises Questions Of Its Own, Francesco Di Cosmo 2017 Washington University School of Law

Return Of The De Minimis Exception In Digital Music Sampling: The Ninth Circuit's Recent Holding In Vmg Salsoul Improves Upon The Sixth Circuit's Holding In Bridgeport, But Raises Questions Of Its Own, Francesco Di Cosmo

Washington University Law Review

Sampling is a musical production practice that has become increasingly common since the 1980s. A producer samples by copying a section of a sound recording and inserting it into the piece of music she is producing. The type of sound recording sampled by producers can vary vastly from piece to piece. Numerous pop and hip hop songs sample from songs of various genres (rock, classical music, or other pop songs, for example). Audio from a film, commercial, or speech may also be inserted into a song. Typically, the purpose of these samples is either to make use of the musical ...


Ip, R.I.P., Andrew Gilden 2017 Willamette University College of Law

Ip, R.I.P., Andrew Gilden

Washington University Law Review

Death is an inevitably disruptive event. When a famous artist or public figure dies, the fallout can be particularly complex and contentious. An artist’s surviving family and close friends frequently seek privacy and solitude as they process a deeply personal loss, while millions of fans, by contrast, seek to widely share, rework, and celebrate the decedent’s archive of work. When these very different mourning processes intersect, intellectual property laws play a pivotal role in deciding how an artist is mourned, commemorated, and remembered.

This Article reexamines the interests of an artist’s families, friends, and other heirs (IP ...


The Boogeyman: Derek Boogaard And The Detrimental Effects Of Section 301 Preemption, Tyler V. Friederich 2017 Washington University School of Law

The Boogeyman: Derek Boogaard And The Detrimental Effects Of Section 301 Preemption, Tyler V. Friederich

Washington University Law Review

This Note focuses on the preemptive effect of section 301 of the Labor Management Relations Act (LMRA) in the suit against the National Hockey League (NHL) by the Estate of former NHL player Derek Boogaard. The Note will contrast Boogaard v. National Hockey League, in which section 301 preempted the Estate’s negligence claims, with several National Football League (NFL) cases. Boogaard will also be contrasted with In re National Hockey League Players’ Concussion Injury Litigation, a similar case brought by a class of NHL players in which the court declared that section 301 did not preempt claims for negligence ...


Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen F. Ross, Roy Eisenhardt 2017 Penn State Law

Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen F. Ross, Roy Eisenhardt

Journal Articles

Under the common law, employment contracts are submitted to civil courts to resolve disputes over interpretation, breach, and remedies. As an alternative, parties in labor contexts can agree to resolution by an impartial arbitrator, whose decision is reviewed deferentially by judges. Where employees are subject to rules of a private association, they are often contractually obligated to submit their claims to an internal association officer or committee; the common law provides for judicial review more limited than a civil contract but more searching than is the case for an impartial labor arbitrator. Recently, the National Football League and its players ...


The Reflection And Reification Of Racialized Language In Popular Media, Kelly E. Wright 2017 University of Kentucky

The Reflection And Reification Of Racialized Language In Popular Media, Kelly E. Wright

Theses and Dissertations--Linguistics

This work highlights specific lexical items that have become racialized in specific contextual applications and tests how these words are cognitively processed. This work presents the results of a visual world (Huettig et al 2011) eye-tracking study designed to determine the perception and application of racialized (Coates 2011) adjectives. To objectively select the racialized adjectives used, I developed a corpus comprised of popular media sources, designed specifically to suit my research question. I collected publications from digital media sources such as Sports Illustrated, USA Today, and Fortune by scraping articles featuring specific search terms from their websites. This experiment seeks ...


Incidental Intellectual Property, Brian L. Frye 2017 University of Kentucky College of Law

Incidental Intellectual Property, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

As Mark Twain apocryphally observed, “History doesn’t repeat itself, but it often rhymes.” The history of the right of publicity reflects a common intellectual property rhyme. Much like copyright, the right of publicity is an incidental intellectual property right that emerged out of regulation. Over time, the property right gradually detached itself from the regulation and evolved into an independent legal doctrine.

Copyright emerged from the efforts of the Stationers’ Company to preserve its members’ monopoly on the publication of works of authorship. Similarly, it can be argued the right of publicity emerged from the efforts of bubblegum companies ...


Droit De Suite, Copyright’S First Sale Doctrine And Preemption Of State Law, David E. Shipley 2017 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Droit De Suite, Copyright’S First Sale Doctrine And Preemption Of State Law, David E. Shipley

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

The primary focus of this article is whether California’s forty-year old droit de suite statute; the California Resale Royalty Act (CRRA), is subject to federal preemption under the Copyright Act. This issue is now being litigated in the Ninth Circuit, and this article concludes that the CRRA is preempted under section 301(a) of the Copyright Act and under the Supremacy Clause because it at odds with copyright’s well-established first sale doctrine.

The basic idea of droit de suite is that each time an artist’s work is resold by a dealer or auction house, the artist is ...


#Ncaa Vs. Student Athletes: An Empirical Analysis Of Ncaa Social Media Policies, Elizabeth M. Heintzelman 2017 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

#Ncaa Vs. Student Athletes: An Empirical Analysis Of Ncaa Social Media Policies, Elizabeth M. Heintzelman

Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal

This article argues that the NCAA and its universities should not have any form of social media policy as it creates First and Fourth Amendment violations, as well as a liability for both the NCAA and its member schools. A social media policy should not limit constitutional rights, but rather any policy should educate the youth about important issues such as cyber-bullying, versus limiting constitutional rights. This article will focus on several issues: 1) whether the relationship between the NCAA and its student athletes constitutes an employer-employee relationship; 2) an evaluation of the social media policies concerning private employers and ...


If It's In The Game: Is There Liability For User-Generated Characters' Likeness?, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 291 (2017), Jason Zenor 2017 John Marshall Law School

If It's In The Game: Is There Liability For User-Generated Characters' Likeness?, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 291 (2017), Jason Zenor

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

In cases like Keller and No Doubt v. Activision, the federal courts held that the use of celebrity's likeness was a violation of the right of publicity. In response, EA Sports suspended production of college sports games. But most games still allow for gamers to create their own avatars. With game systems now being connected, gamers can download user-created content many of which will have the likeness of famous people, thus circumventing the holdings in Keller and No Doubt. Accordingly, this article examines how this type of user generated content fits within the law of appropriation. First, this article ...


Restoring Rogers: Video Games, False Association Claims, And The “Explicitly Misleading” Use Of Trademarks, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 306 (2017), William K. Ford 2017 John Marshall Law School

Restoring Rogers: Video Games, False Association Claims, And The “Explicitly Misleading” Use Of Trademarks, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 306 (2017), William K. Ford

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Courts have long struggled with how to balance false association claims brought under the Lanham Act with the protections for speech under the First Amendment. The leading approach is the Rogers test, but this test comes in multiple forms with varying degrees of protection for speech. A substantial portion of the litigation raising this issue now involves video games, a medium that more so than others, likely needs the benefit of a clear rule that protects speech. The original version of the test is the simplest and the one most protective of speech. In 2013, the Ninth Circuit endorsed the ...


The Ambush At Rio, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 350 (2017), Adam Epstein 2017 John Marshall Law School

The Ambush At Rio, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 350 (2017), Adam Epstein

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The purpose of this article is to explore the role of the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) codified marketing policy known as Rule 40 which emerged to prevent ambush marketing of its biennial events. Rule 40 has quickly evolved into a controversial rule for athletes, coaches and sponsors alike who are involved in the Olympic Movement. The IOC believes that social media is a ubiquitous threat to its intellectual property during the Olympic Games akin to traditional print and television ambush marketing campaigns. As a result, the 2016 Rio De Janeiro (Rio) Summer Olympic Games represented the most intense clash ...


Living To See His Glory Days: Why Hamilton's Lin Manuel Miranda Is Not Liable For Copyright Infringement, But Other Writers And Composers Are, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 92 (2017), Deidre Davis 2017 John Marshall Law School

Living To See His Glory Days: Why Hamilton's Lin Manuel Miranda Is Not Liable For Copyright Infringement, But Other Writers And Composers Are, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 92 (2017), Deidre Davis

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

This comment discusses the idea of individuals receiving preliminary permissions of copyrighted works before using the work as a component of their own. By doing so, an individual has a better opportunity to avoid copyright infringement. Lin Manuel Miranda, the writer of the musical Hamilton, took preliminary measures to avoid copyright infringement, and these measures will be examined throughout this comment. Copyright infringement cases and other infringement cases will be addressed, as well as a proposal to simplify obtaining preliminary permissions in copyrighted works.


Trying On Trade Dress: Using Trade Dress To Protect The Look And Feel Of Video Games, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 109 (2017), Benjamin Lockyer 2017 John Marshall Law School

Trying On Trade Dress: Using Trade Dress To Protect The Look And Feel Of Video Games, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 109 (2017), Benjamin Lockyer

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

With the creation of video games for smart phones, video games are some of the most accessible forms of entertainment on the market. What was once only an attraction inside the designated location of arcade halls, is now within the grip of nearly every smart phone user. With new game apps for smart phones going viral on a regular basis, the video game industry has become one of the most profitable in the entertainment realm. However, the industry's overall success has also led to increased competition amongst game developers. As a result, competing developers create near exact copies of ...


Baseball And The U.S.-Cuban Diplomatic Relationship: Why Did Baseball Serve As An Ineffective Diplomatic Tool For The United States And Cuba?, Abbygale Sarah Martinen 2017 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Baseball And The U.S.-Cuban Diplomatic Relationship: Why Did Baseball Serve As An Ineffective Diplomatic Tool For The United States And Cuba?, Abbygale Sarah Martinen

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


If The Shoe Fits: The Effects Of A Uniform Copyright Design Test On Local Fashion Designers, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 262 (2017), Elise Ruff 2017 John Marshall Law School

If The Shoe Fits: The Effects Of A Uniform Copyright Design Test On Local Fashion Designers, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 262 (2017), Elise Ruff

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Fashion design is a revolutionary walking art form, becoming increasingly accessible to consumers. The increase in accessibility is, in part, due to the presence of technology and social media platforms. While this allows the consumer to have access to a designer’s goods at unprecedented levels, this has led to an increase in claims of copyright infringement against large fashion corporations. This comment discusses how local-based fashion designers have lodged complaints against large fashion corporations of stealing their designs. Additionally, this comment discusses a recent United States Supreme Court case Star Athletica, L.L.C., v. Varsity Brands, Inc., and ...


Subsidized Internet Access Law Review Article.Docx.Pdf, Rob Frieden 2016 Penn State University

Subsidized Internet Access Law Review Article.Docx.Pdf, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

This paper will assess the potential for harm to broadband consumers and competitors when United States Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”) tier service by combining so-called unlimited usage with reduced video image resolution, and also by not metering usage when subscribers access specific content sources.  ISPs previously generated no regulatory concerns when they developed different tiers of service and price points based on content transmission speeds and monthly allotment of data consumption. 

            However, recent “zero rating” and “unlimited” data offers have triggered questions whether ISPs engage in unlawful paid prioritization of certain traffic from specific sources as well as traffic degradation ...


Tackling Abuse In Sport Through Dispute System Design, Maureen A. Weston Prof. 2016 Pepperdine University

Tackling Abuse In Sport Through Dispute System Design, Maureen A. Weston Prof.

Maureen A Weston

Reports of sexual abuse in the youth sports community require sport at every level to be concerned about ensuring the emotional and physical safety of its athletes. To address the problem of sexual abuse in sport, the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) commissioned a Working Group on Safe Training Environments, which employed a Dispute System Design (DSD) process in undertaking a comprehensive study focused on the issue of abuse in sport and how to provide a safe training athletic environment for athletes that is free of abuse, also known as SafeSport. The process of Dispute Systems Design provides an analytical ...


The Pop Culture Business Handbook For Cons And Festivals: Event Revenues And Expenses, Jon M. Garon 2016 Nova Southeastern University - Shepard Broad College of Law

The Pop Culture Business Handbook For Cons And Festivals: Event Revenues And Expenses, Jon M. Garon

Jon M. Garon

When organizing a festival or Con, the economic model used to develop the event will drive many of the key decisions. If one accepts that the designing of the Con is a form of building a complex game for the attendees, then the Con economy will define many of the structural design choices which will come later in the planning. These chapters describe the revenue sources and the types of expenses that will be incurred and the approaches to help assure that the revenue exceeds the expenses.


Putting Fair Use On Display: Ending The Permissions Culture In The Museum Community, Rosemary Chandler 2016 Duke Law

Putting Fair Use On Display: Ending The Permissions Culture In The Museum Community, Rosemary Chandler

Duke Law & Technology Review

Digital technologies present museums with tremendous opportunities to increase public access to the arts. But the longstanding “permissions culture” entrenched in the museum community—in which licenses are obtained for the use of copyrighted materials regardless of whether such uses are “fair,” such that licenses are not legally required—likely will make the cost of many potential digital projects prohibitively expensive. Ending the permissions culture is therefore critically important to museums as they seek to connect with diverse audiences in the Digital Age. In this issue brief, I argue that such a development will require clear and context-specific information about ...


Between The Hash Marks: The Absolute Power The Nfl’S Collective Bargaining Agreement Grants Its Commissioner, Eric L. Einhorn 2016 Brooklyn Law School

Between The Hash Marks: The Absolute Power The Nfl’S Collective Bargaining Agreement Grants Its Commissioner, Eric L. Einhorn

Brooklyn Law Review

The National Football League has recently faced an onslaught of public criticism stemming from its handling of disciplinary matters over the last few years. This note engages in a comparative analysis of the disciplinary processes of the four major professional sports leagues, the National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL), to determine why Commissioner Goodell’s disciplinary decisions have received such public criticism and have been challenged by the National Football League Players Association. While examining the cases of Tom Brady and Adrian Peterson, this note will address the question ...


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