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Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 The University of Akron School of Law

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Ryan G. Vacca

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


"Show Me The Money!"-Analyzing The Potential State Tax Implications Of Paying Student-Athletes, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze, Adam Epstein 2014 SelectedWorks

"Show Me The Money!"-Analyzing The Potential State Tax Implications Of Paying Student-Athletes, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze, Adam Epstein

Adam Epstein

On March 26, 2014, the Chicago district (Region 13) of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) ruled that Northwestern University football players qualify as employees and can unionize and bargain collectively, a decision which contravenes the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) core principle of amateurism. Shortly after, Northwestern University filed an appeal with the NLRB in Washington, D.C. to quash the prior Region 13 decision. This case has added fuel to the longstanding debate over whether student-athletes should be paid. Amidst arguments both for and against supporting the pay-for-play model from a purely compensatory stance, there has been ...


Troubled Waters: Diana Nyad And The Birth Of The Global Rules Of Marathon Swimming, Hadar Aviram 2014 SelectedWorks

Troubled Waters: Diana Nyad And The Birth Of The Global Rules Of Marathon Swimming, Hadar Aviram

Hadar Aviram

On September 3, 2013, Diana Nyad reported having completed a 110-mile swim from Cuba to Florida. The general enthusiasm about her swim was not echoed in the marathon swimming community, whose members expressed doubts about the integrity and honesty of the swim. The community debate that followed gave rise to the creation of the Global Rules of Marathon Swimming, the first effort to regulate the sport. This Article uses the community’s reaction to Nyad’s deviance to examine the role that crime and deviance plays in the creation and modification of legal structures. Relying on Durkheim’s functionalism theory ...


A European Solution To America’S Basketball Problem: Reforming Amateur Basketball In The United States, Jaimie K. McFarlin, Joshua Lee 2014 SelectedWorks

A European Solution To America’S Basketball Problem: Reforming Amateur Basketball In The United States, Jaimie K. Mcfarlin, Joshua Lee

Jaimie K. McFarlin

The system of amateur and collegiate basketball in America is flawed, as every year, thousands of young men and women pursue their basketball dreams under the shadow of a multi-million dollar, predatory business model. Integral to telling the history of the NCAA and AAU organizations are recruiting horror stories and other examples of young talents who were taken advantage of by unscrupulous actors, both of which continue today. The commercialization and professionalization of amateur basketball has fed an ecosystem of exploitation in which private actors and institutions capitalize on the American mantra of "amateurism." The European system of amateur athletics ...


The Nba's 2011 Collectively Bargained Amnesty Clause-Exploring The Fundamentals, Adam Epstein, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze 2014 SelectedWorks

The Nba's 2011 Collectively Bargained Amnesty Clause-Exploring The Fundamentals, Adam Epstein, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze

Adam Epstein

The purpose of this article is to fundamentally introduce the amnesty clause, a relatively new provision in the labor and employment law discussions involving sport. The expression amnesty clause or amnesty provision is found in the 2011 NBA CBA. To date, academic references to the amnesty clause within the sport genre are virtually non-existent. The amnesty clause provides NBA teams a tool to release players from their contracts if they feel that the player turned out to be a bad investment, regardless of the reason. Additionally, by releasing a player under an amnesty clause provision, the team exercising the clause ...


Trademark Law And The Prickly Ambivalence Of Post-Parodies, Charles E. Colman 2014 SelectedWorks

Trademark Law And The Prickly Ambivalence Of Post-Parodies, Charles E. Colman

Charles E. Colman

This Essay examines what I call "post-parodies" in apparel. This emerging genre of do-it-yourself fashion is characterized by the appropriation and modification of third-party trademarks — not for the sake of dismissively mocking or zealously glorifying luxury fashion, but rather to engage in more complex forms of expression. I examine the cultural circumstances and psychological factors giving rise to post-parodic fashion, and conclude that the sensibility causing its proliferation is one grounded in ambivalence. Unfortunately, current doctrine governing trademark parodies cannot begin to make sense of post-parodic goods; among other shortcomings, that doctrine suffers from crude analytical tools and a cramped ...


“Can I Profit From My Own Name And Likeness As A College Athlete?” The Predictive Legal Analytics Of A College Player’S Publicity Rights Vs. First Amendment Rights Of Others, Roger M. Groves 2014 Florida Coastal School of Law

“Can I Profit From My Own Name And Likeness As A College Athlete?” The Predictive Legal Analytics Of A College Player’S Publicity Rights Vs. First Amendment Rights Of Others, Roger M. Groves

Roger M. Groves

Two federal court decisions during 2013 have changed the game for college students versus the schools, the NCAA and video game makers. This article explores whether for the first time in history these athletes can profit from their own name and likeness and prevent others from doing so.

But those cases still leave many untested applications to new facts – facts that the courts have not faced. Particularly intriguing is how 21st Century technology will apply to this area in future litigation. No publicity rights case or article to date has explored the application of predictive analytics, computer programs, algorithms ...


Off-Road Torts: The Difficulties Of Representing A Client Injured Due To Defects In Vehicles Modified For Off-Road Use Or Injured Due To A Dangerous Condition Of The Land., Nicholas Morgan 2014 SelectedWorks

Off-Road Torts: The Difficulties Of Representing A Client Injured Due To Defects In Vehicles Modified For Off-Road Use Or Injured Due To A Dangerous Condition Of The Land., Nicholas Morgan

Nicholas Morgan

No abstract provided.


The Olympics, Ambush Marketing And Sochi Media, Adam Epstein 2014 SelectedWorks

The Olympics, Ambush Marketing And Sochi Media, Adam Epstein

Adam Epstein

The purpose of this article is to explore the concept of ambush marketing and the legal environment surrounding it. With the advent of the Sochi Olympic Games held in February, 2014, ambush marketing again makes its way to the forefront of national and international attention. Certainly, the discussion of ambush marketing in advertising strategies would be a useful tool at any point in a law course that addresses intellectual property such as trademarks and domain names, and consumer protection issues in general. For decades, non-official sponsors of the Olympic Games have found ways to use the Olympic event platform to ...


Is There An Estoppel Issue In The Cronulla Sharks And Essendon Bombers Doping Scandal?, David Thorpe 2014 Bond University

Is There An Estoppel Issue In The Cronulla Sharks And Essendon Bombers Doping Scandal?, David Thorpe

Sports Law eJournal

This paper considers the application of the doctrine of estoppel to ‘shield’ from contract-based prosecution those players of the Cronulla Sharks and Essendon Bombers implicated in recent accusations of doping. The arguably different application of estoppel as between the clubs (which are contractually entitled to punish players for doping) on one hand, and the organising bodies of the National Rugby League (NRL) and the Australian football League (AFL), on the other, is also considered.


Breaking Up Is Hard To Do: Examining Whether College Conference Exit Fees Are An Enforceable Form Of Liquidated Damages Clause, Adam T. Kahn 2014 SelectedWorks

Breaking Up Is Hard To Do: Examining Whether College Conference Exit Fees Are An Enforceable Form Of Liquidated Damages Clause, Adam T. Kahn

Adam T Kahn

No abstract provided.


Is Cricket Taxing? The Taxation Of Cricket Players In India, Rishi Shroff 2014 Pace University

Is Cricket Taxing? The Taxation Of Cricket Players In India, Rishi Shroff

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Essay examines the taxation of crickets in the context of Indian law. It examines the concept of non-resident “star” companies created by Indian cricketers as a mechanism to avoid the taxation of their global income in India.


Protecting A Celebrity’S Child From Harassment: Is California’S Amendment Penal Code § 11414 Too Vague To Be Constitutional?, Michelle N. Robinson 2014 Pace University

Protecting A Celebrity’S Child From Harassment: Is California’S Amendment Penal Code § 11414 Too Vague To Be Constitutional?, Michelle N. Robinson

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Note will describe a brief history of the legal attempts to restrict the paparazzi and the legislative history behind A.B. 3592 and its amendment, S.B. 606. The bills are controversial and have received a significant amount of criticism, due to the fact that they restrict speech by essentially prohibiting paparazzi, known for their harassing behavior, from taking pictures of the children of celebrities. The Note will conclude with an analysis utilizing the void-for-vagueness doctrine of whether the bill is in violation of the First Amendment.


The Copyright Infringement Test: A New Approach To Literary Misappropriation In Film, Rikki Bahar 2014 Pace University

The Copyright Infringement Test: A New Approach To Literary Misappropriation In Film, Rikki Bahar

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Note argues that courts’ emphasis on the ordinary observer test to prove illicit copying in film is misguided. The ordinary observer test relies on whether the accused work captures the total feel of the copyrighted work, but overlooks an essential aspect of unlawful appropriation and copyright law – the idea that only particular elements of a work are copyrightable. If a jury is exposed to expert testimony regarding probative similarity before making their evaluation, it is unlikely they will forget such evidence when evaluating the illicit copying.

A better test for infringement would be one that allows the ordinary observer ...


Let’S Talk About Sex: How Societal Value Evolution Has Redefined Obscenity, Kamilah Mitchell 2014 Pace University

Let’S Talk About Sex: How Societal Value Evolution Has Redefined Obscenity, Kamilah Mitchell

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Note seeks to examine the evolution of sex and sexuality in the media, by critically examining how the prevalence of sex and more recently the prevalence of topics and issues related to sexuality in television, literature, electronic media, and art have and continue to impact societal views and notions on obscenity. This Note will also examine the Miller test for obscenity, and the long term effects of societal value evolution on the application of the Miller test. This Note concludes by positing that at some point, the line between what is deemed sexually offensive and what is socially acceptable ...


Cash From Chaos: Sound Recording Authorship, Section 203 Recapture Rights And A New Wave Of Termination, Hector Martinez 2014 Pace University

Cash From Chaos: Sound Recording Authorship, Section 203 Recapture Rights And A New Wave Of Termination, Hector Martinez

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

The thesis of this Article is that under an exclusive recording agreement entered into in the United States between a record label and recording artist on or after January 1, 1978, any key member of recording artist that signed the recording contract is a bona fide author of a sound recording for purposes of claiming standing in order to effectuate a termination of transfer of grant under Section 203 of the 1976 Copyright Act.

Part I will summarize the history of sound recordings as copyrightable subject matter. Part II will examine record industry custom and practice as it relates to ...


Banksy Got Back? Problems With Chains Of Unauthorized Derivative Works And Arrangements In Cover Songs Under A Compulsory License, Matthew A. Eller 2014 Pace University

Banksy Got Back? Problems With Chains Of Unauthorized Derivative Works And Arrangements In Cover Songs Under A Compulsory License, Matthew A. Eller

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Article will analyze the scope of copyright ownership in relation to chains of unauthorized derivative works and chains of arrangement rights in cover versions of musical recordings. In particular, the analysis will focus on the gray area in the law where an unauthorized derivative work (“D1”) is created by an author and another author creates a second derivative work (“D2”) based off of D1. In situations such as these, does the creator of the original derivative work have any rights in their creation if their derivative work was unauthorized?

Further, depending on what rights do exist for D1, can ...


Pinning Your Way To Copyright Infringement: The Legal Implications Pinterest Could Face, Brittany Fink 2014 Pace University

Pinning Your Way To Copyright Infringement: The Legal Implications Pinterest Could Face, Brittany Fink

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

With the simple click of a button, anyone can copy an image from one place and paste it to another. What some people do not realize is that these actions could have them one click away from copyright infringement. Advancements in technology have made it easier for Internet users to infringe on the rights of copyright owners. Many popular websites, such as YouTube and Facebook, have seen the dangers of allowing users to upload videos and images onto their websites. However, one popular website has not yet seen the wrath of copyright owners. This Article looks at the rights copyright ...


The Patent Reform Debate: Has Patent Overprotection Resulted In Not-So-Smartphones?, Ryan A. Kraski 2014 Pace University

The Patent Reform Debate: Has Patent Overprotection Resulted In Not-So-Smartphones?, Ryan A. Kraski

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Article discusses the issue of excessive patent protection and possible remedies; the discussed remedies are the usage of antitrust laws or simply replacing certain patents with copyright protection. This Article first explores the relationship between patent protection and antitrust law. It then describes a number of tests that have been used in the past and one proposed new test, designed to confront this interrelationship. While considering these tests, this Article applies two controversial real-world patents to each in order to examine their benefits and problems. This Article then goes on to discuss the possible benefits of protecting inventors through ...


Cleaning Out The Closet: A Proposal To Eliminate The Aesthetic Functionality Doctrine In The Fashion Industry, Jessie A. Maihos 2014 Pace University

Cleaning Out The Closet: A Proposal To Eliminate The Aesthetic Functionality Doctrine In The Fashion Industry, Jessie A. Maihos

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

The aesthetic functionality doctrine seeks to promote competition, but is ineffective in the fashion industry because there is not one design that will be the most aesthetically appealing to everyone, as there is in other industries. This Article examines the various problems with the aesthetic functionality doctrine, and will argue that this doctrine, while relevant in other industries, should be eliminated from fashion.


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