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Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 University of Akron

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Ryan G. Vacca

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


"Show Me The Money!"-Analyzing The Potential State Tax Implications Of Paying Student-Athletes, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze, Adam Epstein 2014 SelectedWorks

"Show Me The Money!"-Analyzing The Potential State Tax Implications Of Paying Student-Athletes, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze, Adam Epstein

Adam Epstein

On March 26, 2014, the Chicago district (Region 13) of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) ruled that Northwestern University football players qualify as employees and can unionize and bargain collectively, a decision which contravenes the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s (NCAA) core principle of amateurism. Shortly after, Northwestern University filed an appeal with the NLRB in Washington, D.C. to quash the prior Region 13 decision. This case has added fuel to the longstanding debate over whether student-athletes should be paid. Amidst arguments both for and against supporting the pay-for-play model from a purely compensatory stance, there has been ...


Intellectual Property, Marathons, And Other Running Events, John C. Zwisler 2014 SelectedWorks

Intellectual Property, Marathons, And Other Running Events, John C. Zwisler

John C Zwisler

No abstract provided.


Simply A Dress Rehearsal? U.S. Olympic Sports Arbitration And De Novo Review At The Court Of Arbitration For Sport, Maureen A. Weston 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Simply A Dress Rehearsal? U.S. Olympic Sports Arbitration And De Novo Review At The Court Of Arbitration For Sport, Maureen A. Weston

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Making The Game Beautiful Again: Lessons From Brazil Provide A Roadmap For Rebuilding Soccer In Nigeria, John Cates 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Making The Game Beautiful Again: Lessons From Brazil Provide A Roadmap For Rebuilding Soccer In Nigeria, John Cates

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Bcs Europa: An Analysis Of The Bowl Championship Series Under The European Commission White Paper On Sport, Deanna Brock 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Bcs Europa: An Analysis Of The Bowl Championship Series Under The European Commission White Paper On Sport, Deanna Brock

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Human Rights Violations By Canadian Companies Abroad: Choc V Hudbay Minerals Inc, Susana C. Mijares Peña 2014 Western University

Human Rights Violations By Canadian Companies Abroad: Choc V Hudbay Minerals Inc, Susana C. Mijares Peña

Western Journal of Legal Studies

Canadian mining corporations operating abroad represent a challenge to the international legal system and Canadian legal system in the field of human rights. Currently, there are no legal mechanisms available to ensure that these corporations abide by international standards and voluntary codes. For this reason, some argue that Canadian courts should be more active in holding Canadian companies accountable for the human rights violations of their affiliates operating abroad. The recent Ontario Superior Court of Justice decision of Choc v Hudbay Minerals suggests that for the first time, a Canadian court is ready to play a regulatory role in preventing ...


Moving All-In With The World Trade Organization: Ignoring Adverse Rulings And Gambling With The Future Of The Wto, Paul Rothstein 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Moving All-In With The World Trade Organization: Ignoring Adverse Rulings And Gambling With The Future Of The Wto, Paul Rothstein

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Troubled Waters: Diana Nyad And The Birth Of The Global Rules Of Marathon Swimming, Hadar Aviram 2014 SelectedWorks

Troubled Waters: Diana Nyad And The Birth Of The Global Rules Of Marathon Swimming, Hadar Aviram

Hadar Aviram

On September 3, 2013, Diana Nyad reported having completed a 110-mile swim from Cuba to Florida. The general enthusiasm about her swim was not echoed in the marathon swimming community, whose members expressed doubts about the integrity and honesty of the swim. The community debate that followed gave rise to the creation of the Global Rules of Marathon Swimming, the first effort to regulate the sport. This Article uses the community’s reaction to Nyad’s deviance to examine the role that crime and deviance plays in the creation and modification of legal structures. Relying on Durkheim’s functionalism theory ...


A European Solution To America’S Basketball Problem: Reforming Amateur Basketball In The United States, Jaimie K. McFarlin, Joshua Lee 2014 SelectedWorks

A European Solution To America’S Basketball Problem: Reforming Amateur Basketball In The United States, Jaimie K. Mcfarlin, Joshua Lee

Jaimie K. McFarlin

The system of amateur and collegiate basketball in America is flawed, as every year, thousands of young men and women pursue their basketball dreams under the shadow of a multi-million dollar, predatory business model. Integral to telling the history of the NCAA and AAU organizations are recruiting horror stories and other examples of young talents who were taken advantage of by unscrupulous actors, both of which continue today. The commercialization and professionalization of amateur basketball has fed an ecosystem of exploitation in which private actors and institutions capitalize on the American mantra of "amateurism." The European system of amateur athletics ...


The Nba's 2011 Collectively Bargained Amnesty Clause-Exploring The Fundamentals, Adam Epstein, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze 2014 SelectedWorks

The Nba's 2011 Collectively Bargained Amnesty Clause-Exploring The Fundamentals, Adam Epstein, Kathryn Kisska-Schulze

Adam Epstein

The purpose of this article is to fundamentally introduce the amnesty clause, a relatively new provision in the labor and employment law discussions involving sport. The expression amnesty clause or amnesty provision is found in the 2011 NBA CBA. To date, academic references to the amnesty clause within the sport genre are virtually non-existent. The amnesty clause provides NBA teams a tool to release players from their contracts if they feel that the player turned out to be a bad investment, regardless of the reason. Additionally, by releasing a player under an amnesty clause provision, the team exercising the clause ...


Trademark Law And The Prickly Ambivalence Of Post-Parodies, Charles E. Colman 2014 SelectedWorks

Trademark Law And The Prickly Ambivalence Of Post-Parodies, Charles E. Colman

Charles E. Colman

This Essay examines what I call "post-parodies" in apparel. This emerging genre of do-it-yourself fashion is characterized by the appropriation and modification of third-party trademarks — not for the sake of dismissively mocking or zealously glorifying luxury fashion, but rather to engage in more complex forms of expression. I examine the cultural circumstances and psychological factors giving rise to post-parodic fashion, and conclude that the sensibility causing its proliferation is one grounded in ambivalence. Unfortunately, current doctrine governing trademark parodies cannot begin to make sense of post-parodic goods; among other shortcomings, that doctrine suffers from crude analytical tools and a cramped ...


“Can I Profit From My Own Name And Likeness As A College Athlete?” The Predictive Legal Analytics Of A College Player’S Publicity Rights Vs. First Amendment Rights Of Others, Roger M. Groves 2014 Florida Coastal School of Law

“Can I Profit From My Own Name And Likeness As A College Athlete?” The Predictive Legal Analytics Of A College Player’S Publicity Rights Vs. First Amendment Rights Of Others, Roger M. Groves

Roger M. Groves

Two federal court decisions during 2013 have changed the game for college students versus the schools, the NCAA and video game makers. This article explores whether for the first time in history these athletes can profit from their own name and likeness and prevent others from doing so.

But those cases still leave many untested applications to new facts – facts that the courts have not faced. Particularly intriguing is how 21st Century technology will apply to this area in future litigation. No publicity rights case or article to date has explored the application of predictive analytics, computer programs, algorithms ...


Off-Road Torts: The Difficulties Of Representing A Client Injured Due To Defects In Vehicles Modified For Off-Road Use Or Injured Due To A Dangerous Condition Of The Land., Nicholas Morgan 2014 SelectedWorks

Off-Road Torts: The Difficulties Of Representing A Client Injured Due To Defects In Vehicles Modified For Off-Road Use Or Injured Due To A Dangerous Condition Of The Land., Nicholas Morgan

Nicholas Morgan

No abstract provided.


The Olympics, Ambush Marketing And Sochi Media, Adam Epstein 2014 SelectedWorks

The Olympics, Ambush Marketing And Sochi Media, Adam Epstein

Adam Epstein

The purpose of this article is to explore the concept of ambush marketing and the legal environment surrounding it. With the advent of the Sochi Olympic Games held in February, 2014, ambush marketing again makes its way to the forefront of national and international attention. Certainly, the discussion of ambush marketing in advertising strategies would be a useful tool at any point in a law course that addresses intellectual property such as trademarks and domain names, and consumer protection issues in general. For decades, non-official sponsors of the Olympic Games have found ways to use the Olympic event platform to ...


Is There An Estoppel Issue In The Cronulla Sharks And Essendon Bombers Doping Scandal?, David Thorpe 2014 Bond University

Is There An Estoppel Issue In The Cronulla Sharks And Essendon Bombers Doping Scandal?, David Thorpe

Sports Law eJournal

This paper considers the application of the doctrine of estoppel to ‘shield’ from contract-based prosecution those players of the Cronulla Sharks and Essendon Bombers implicated in recent accusations of doping. The arguably different application of estoppel as between the clubs (which are contractually entitled to punish players for doping) on one hand, and the organising bodies of the National Rugby League (NRL) and the Australian football League (AFL), on the other, is also considered.


Breaking Up Is Hard To Do: Examining Whether College Conference Exit Fees Are An Enforceable Form Of Liquidated Damages Clause, Adam T. Kahn 2014 SelectedWorks

Breaking Up Is Hard To Do: Examining Whether College Conference Exit Fees Are An Enforceable Form Of Liquidated Damages Clause, Adam T. Kahn

Adam T Kahn

No abstract provided.


Is Cricket Taxing? The Taxation Of Cricket Players In India, Rishi Shroff 2014 Pace University

Is Cricket Taxing? The Taxation Of Cricket Players In India, Rishi Shroff

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Essay examines the taxation of crickets in the context of Indian law. It examines the concept of non-resident “star” companies created by Indian cricketers as a mechanism to avoid the taxation of their global income in India.


Protecting A Celebrity’S Child From Harassment: Is California’S Amendment Penal Code § 11414 Too Vague To Be Constitutional?, Michelle N. Robinson 2014 Pace University

Protecting A Celebrity’S Child From Harassment: Is California’S Amendment Penal Code § 11414 Too Vague To Be Constitutional?, Michelle N. Robinson

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Note will describe a brief history of the legal attempts to restrict the paparazzi and the legislative history behind A.B. 3592 and its amendment, S.B. 606. The bills are controversial and have received a significant amount of criticism, due to the fact that they restrict speech by essentially prohibiting paparazzi, known for their harassing behavior, from taking pictures of the children of celebrities. The Note will conclude with an analysis utilizing the void-for-vagueness doctrine of whether the bill is in violation of the First Amendment.


The Copyright Infringement Test: A New Approach To Literary Misappropriation In Film, Rikki Bahar 2014 Pace University

The Copyright Infringement Test: A New Approach To Literary Misappropriation In Film, Rikki Bahar

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

This Note argues that courts’ emphasis on the ordinary observer test to prove illicit copying in film is misguided. The ordinary observer test relies on whether the accused work captures the total feel of the copyrighted work, but overlooks an essential aspect of unlawful appropriation and copyright law – the idea that only particular elements of a work are copyrightable. If a jury is exposed to expert testimony regarding probative similarity before making their evaluation, it is unlikely they will forget such evidence when evaluating the illicit copying.

A better test for infringement would be one that allows the ordinary observer ...


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