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Intellectual Property Policies For Solar Engineering, Jesse L. Reynolds, Jorge L. Contreras, Joshua D. Sarnoff 2018 Utrecht University

Intellectual Property Policies For Solar Engineering, Jesse L. Reynolds, Jorge L. Contreras, Joshua D. Sarnoff

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Governance of solar geoengineering is important and challenging, with particular concern arising from commercial actors’ involvement. Policies relating to intellectual property, including patents and trade secrets, and to data access will shape private actors’ behavior and regulate access to data and technologies. There has been little careful consideration of the possible roles of and interrelationships among commercial actors, intellectual property, and intellectual property policy. Despite the current low level of commercial activity and intellectual property rights in this domain, we expect both to grow as research and development continue. Given the public good nature of solar geoengineering, the relationship between ...


Free Trade In Electric Power, Joel B. Eisen, Felix Mormann 2018 SJ Quinney College of Law, University of Utah

Free Trade In Electric Power, Joel B. Eisen, Felix Mormann

Utah Law Review

This Article develops the core legal framework of a new electricity trading ecosystem in which anyone, anytime, anywhere, can trade electricity in any amount with anyone else. The proliferation of solar and other distributed energy resources, business model innovation in the sharing economy, and climate change present enormous challenges—and opportunities—for America’s energy economy. But the electricity industry is ill-equipped to adapt to and benefit from these transformative forces, with much of its physical infrastructure, regulatory institutions, and business models relics of the early days of electrification. This Article suggests a systematic rethinking to usher in a new ...


Beyond The Pipeline Wars: Reforming Environmental Assessment Of Energy Transport Infrastructure, James W. Coleman 2018 SJ Quinney College of Law, University of Utah

Beyond The Pipeline Wars: Reforming Environmental Assessment Of Energy Transport Infrastructure, James W. Coleman

Utah Law Review

In recent years, the role of transport infrastructure in energy markets has become a flashpoint for legal conflict. On one hand, the world is experiencing an unprecedented buildout of all kinds of energy transport: oil and gas pipelines, liquefied natural gas projects, power transmission, and port facilities for coal and oil. On the other hand, environmental advocates have increasingly insisted that pipelines and other transport projects should not be built if they would encourage fossil fuel production in markets “upstream” and fossil fuel consumption in markets “downstream” of these projects.

Governments have struggled with how to respond. President Obama famously ...


Grasping For Energy Democracy, Shelley Welton 2018 University of South Carolina School of Law

Grasping For Energy Democracy, Shelley Welton

Michigan Law Review

Until recently, energy law has attracted relatively little citizen participation. Instead, Americans have preferred to leave matters of energy governance to expert bureaucrats. But the imperative to respond to climate change presents energy regulators with difficult choices over what our future energy sources should be, and how quickly we should transition to them—choices that are outside traditional regulatory expertise. For example, there are currently robust nationwide debates over what role new nuclear power plants and hydraulically fractured natural gas should play in our energy mix, and over how to maintain affordable energy for all while rewarding those who choose ...


An Electrifying Expansion Of Judicial Review Of Agency Actions In Pseg Energy Resources & Trade Llc, Anna Nikolayeva 2018 Boston College Law School

An Electrifying Expansion Of Judicial Review Of Agency Actions In Pseg Energy Resources & Trade Llc, Anna Nikolayeva

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) issues orders on electricity market auction results to ensure that electricity rates are just and reasonable. FERC issued an order accepting the results of the 2008 ISO New England forward capacity auction. PSEG Energy Resources (“PSEG”), a participant in the auction, challenged the order on the grounds that it resulted in undue discrimination for the most necessary resources for reliability and violated the basic market policy goals. When FERC rejected this challenge, PSEG petitioned for review of the FERC order. The United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit reviewed the FERC ...


Wyoming V. Zinke, Jaclyn Van Natta 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Wyoming V. Zinke, Jaclyn Van Natta

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In Wyoming v. Zinke, the Bureau of Land Management attempted to update a regulation governing hydraulic fracturing from the 1980s, but oil and gas industry companies opposed, and brought suit. The district court held in favor of the industry petitioners, and the Bureau of Land Management and citizen group intervenors appealed. In the wake of appeal, Donald J. Trump became President of the United States. The administration change caused the Bureau of Land Management to alter its position and align with the new administration. Secretary of the Interior, Ryan Zinke, via executive order, began rescinding the new fracking regulation, which ...


California V. United States Bureau Of Land Management, Molly M. Kelly 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

California V. United States Bureau Of Land Management, Molly M. Kelly

Public Land & Resources Law Review

After President Trump’s Executive Order No. 13783 encouraging relaxing regulatory burdens on energy production, the Bureau of Land Management reevaluated its 2016 “Waste Prevention Rule” which addressed waste of natural gas from venting, flaring, or other leaks resulting from oil and natural gas production activities. The BLM sought to postpone the Rule’s compliance date to give the agency time to promulgate a new rule—effectively overruling the 2016 Rule. Plaintiffs challenged the agency’s compliance under the Administrative Procedures Act, and the court found the BLM did not properly follow APA requirements.


The New(Clear?) Electricity Federalism: Federal Preemption Of States’ “Zero Emissions Credit” Programs, Joel Eisen 2018 University of Richmond

The New(Clear?) Electricity Federalism: Federal Preemption Of States’ “Zero Emissions Credit” Programs, Joel Eisen

Law Faculty Publications

This Article proposes and applies a “conscious disregard” test for resolving the upcoming appellate litigation that involves the conflict between federal authority over the electric grid and state laws providing subsidies to nuclear power plants in the form of “zero emissions credits” (ZECs). This test draws upon principles of conflict preemption, as elaborated in three recent Supreme Court decisions on the intersection of state and federal jurisdiction over the electric grid under the Federal Power Act. It provides that if a state law explicitly aims to directly affect wholesale electricity market prices, terms or conditions, its subsidy program is impermissible ...


Free Trade In Electric Power, Joel Eisen 2018 University of Richmond

Free Trade In Electric Power, Joel Eisen

Law Faculty Publications

This Article develops the core legal framework of a new electricity-trading ecosystem in which anyone, anytime, anywhere, can trade electricity in any amount with anyone else. The proliferation of solar and other distributed energy resources, business model innovation in the sharing economy, and climate change present enormous challenges — and opportunities — for America’s energy economy. But the electricity industry is ill equipped to adapt to and benefit from these transformative forces, with much of its physical infrastructure, regulatory institutions, and business models a relic of the early days of electrification. We suggest a systematic rethinking to usher in a new ...


The New(Clear?) Electricity Federalism: Federal Preemption Of States' 'Zero Emissions Credit' Programs, Joel Eisen 2018 University of Richmond

The New(Clear?) Electricity Federalism: Federal Preemption Of States' 'Zero Emissions Credit' Programs, Joel Eisen

Law Faculty Publications

his Article proposes and applies a “conscious disregard” test for resolving the upcoming appellate litigation that involves the conflict between federal authority over the electric grid and state laws providing subsidies to nuclear power plants in the form of “zero emissions credits” (ZECs). This test draws upon principles of conflict preemption, as elaborated in three recent Supreme Court decisions on the intersection of state and federal jurisdiction over the electric grid under the Federal Power Act. It provides that if a state law explicitly aims to directly affect wholesale electricity market prices, terms or conditions, its subsidy program is impermissible ...


Standing Rock, The Sioux Treaties, And The Limits Of The Supremacy Clause, Carla F. Fredericks, Jesse D. Heibel 2018 University of Colorado Law School

Standing Rock, The Sioux Treaties, And The Limits Of The Supremacy Clause, Carla F. Fredericks, Jesse D. Heibel

Articles

The controversy surrounding the Dakota Access Pipeline (“DAPL”) has put the peaceful plains of North Dakota in the national and international spotlight, drawing thousands of people to the confluence of the Missouri and Cannonball Rivers outside of Standing Rock Sioux Reservation for prayer and peaceful protest in defense of the Sioux Tribes’ treaties, lands, cultural property, and waters. Spanning over 7 months, including the harsh North Dakota winter, the gathering was visited by indigenous leaders and communities from around the world and represents arguably the largest gathering of indigenous peoples in the United States in more than 100 years.

At ...


Regulation Of Radioactive Fracking Waste, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman, Nichole LeClair 2018 CUNY School of Public Health

Regulation Of Radioactive Fracking Waste, Elizabeth Ann Glass Geltman, Nichole Leclair

Publications and Research

Natural gas extracted form shale reached record production totals in 2015 in the United States and the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts natural gas production will continue to increase. Wastes from shale gas extraction can contain the radioactive isotopes radium-226 (Ra-226) and radium-228 (Ra-228), which decay further into radon (Rn). Exposure to radon, a form of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), is the leading cause of lung cancer in the United States, after smoking. This article explores how states handle the disposal of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) and/or NORM waste from oil and gas operations ...


Free Trade In Electric Power, Joel B. Eisen, Felix Mormann 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Free Trade In Electric Power, Joel B. Eisen, Felix Mormann

Faculty Scholarship

This Article develops the core legal framework of a new electricity-trading ecosystem in which anyone, anytime, anywhere, can trade electricity in any amount with anyone else. The proliferation of solar and other distributed energy resources, business model innovation in the sharing economy, and climate change present enormous challenges — and opportunities — for America’s energy economy. But the electricity industry is ill equipped to adapt to and benefit from these transformative forces, with much of its physical infrastructure, regulatory institutions, and business models a relic of the early days of electrification. We suggest a systematic rethinking to usher in a new ...


Revisiting The Public Utility, Jim Rossi, Morgan Ricks 2018 Vanderbilt University Law School

Revisiting The Public Utility, Jim Rossi, Morgan Ricks

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This foreword introduces "Revisiting the Public Utility," a series of essays published in a special issue of Yale Journal on Regulation. We cluster the contributions to this issue around public utility regulation’s core rationales and its scope, its implications for innovation and industry stability, and its evolving approach to price regulation. The scholarship represented in this issue challenges the notion that public utility ideas are obsolete or irrelevant to modern issues in economic regulation. It questions whether public utility regulation has fallen short of its goals, and shows that there are some good reasons to question many embedded regulatory ...


Troubled Water: Building A Bridge To Clean Energy Through Small Hydropower Regulatory Reform, Samuel J. Panarella 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Troubled Water: Building A Bridge To Clean Energy Through Small Hydropower Regulatory Reform, Samuel J. Panarella

Faculty Law Review Articles

This Article is presented in four Parts. Part II outlines the history of hydropower regulation in the U.S., including the environmental, geographic, and human effects of big dam hydropower development that ultimately engendered the onerous regulations currently governing all hydropower development. Building off of this history, Part III discusses America’s hydropower potential, the available methods for tapping it, and the possible environmental impacts of these methods. Part IV provides an overview of the current regulations governing small hydropower. Part V concludes by proposing areas where the regulatory framework for low-impact small hydropower should be reformed to properly and ...


Mexico's Energy Reform And The 2012 U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Agreement. An Opportunity For Efficient, Effective And Safe Exploitation Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Mexico's Energy Reform And The 2012 U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Agreement. An Opportunity For Efficient, Effective And Safe Exploitation Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Faculty Scholarship

Nature knows no legal boundaries. Resources cannot be stopped by walls with barbwire; no matter how high some people want to build them. They cross- national territories and expand under their logic. They belong to many nations, and they are there for the responsible exploitation of their communities. The Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and its rich hydrocarbon deposits are no exceptions. The implication of this is that for the development of this enclosed sea area to be efficient, effective, and safe it requires not only the cooperation of government officials but also the inclusion of other actors, such as academic ...


The Fine Print Of The Mexican Energy Reform, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

The Fine Print Of The Mexican Energy Reform, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Faculty Scholarship

Five years ago, when Mexico transformed its energy sector, most commentators were worried about the government’s capacity to implement the reform. What would the upstream contracts look like? Would the auctions be transparent? How would international companies react? After two successful auction rounds, 107 signed contracts, and the creation of viable regulatory agencies to manage and monitor the reform agenda, the questions have changed. Today, Mexico’s capacity to implement energy reforms and attract foreign investment is no longer in doubt. Today, the most pressing questions about the reform concern its long-term sustainability. Can it survive the Mexican electoral ...


Can Clean Energy Policy Promote Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability?, Felix Mormann 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Can Clean Energy Policy Promote Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability?, Felix Mormann

Faculty Scholarship

Two and a half decades of clean energy policymaking focused primarily on environmental and economic sustainability have yielded considerable environmental and economic benefits. Along the way, however, other policy considerations, such as the social sustainability of the transition to a cleaner, renewably fueled energy economy, have gone largely overlooked. As clean energy technologies continue to gain ever-greater traction in the United States and global energy economies, the social impacts of their enabling policies become more and more salient. Already, ratepayers, taxpayers, and other stakeholders who fear being left behind by the clean energy transition question the “fairness” of today’s ...


Regulatory Cooperation In International Trade And Its Transformative Effects On Executive Power, Elizabeth Trujillo 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Regulatory Cooperation In International Trade And Its Transformative Effects On Executive Power, Elizabeth Trujillo

Faculty Scholarship

As international trade receives the brunt of local discontent with globalization trends and recent changes by the Trump administration have put into question the viability of such trade arrangements moving forward, there has been a clear trend in using international trade fora for managing regulatory barriers on economic development. This paper will discuss this recent trend in international trade toward increased regulatory cooperation through the creation of formalized transnational regulatory bodies, such as the U.S.-EU Regulatory Cooperation Body that was being discussed in the TTIP negotiations and comparable ones in the Canadian-EU Trade Agreement as well as U ...


Under The Radar: The Cost And Benefits Of Wind Energy Through The Lens Of National Security, David N. Cassuto 2018 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

Under The Radar: The Cost And Benefits Of Wind Energy Through The Lens Of National Security, David N. Cassuto

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article examines wind energy through the lens of national security. The benefit resides with helping the United States become energy independent. National-security concerns also present a cost because wind energy interferes with military radar, posing a potential threat to the systems that monitor possible attacks. This Article attempts to analyze the overall impact of wind energy while noting the inherent difficulties when so much uncertainty is involved in the process.

Part I of this Article discusses the benefits of wind energy. Part II examines its costs, specifically its interference with radar, and what that means for national security. This ...


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