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State Laws For Due Process Hearings Under The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act Iv: Expedited Hearings, Andrew M.I. Lee, Perry A. Zirkel 2022 Lehigh University

State Laws For Due Process Hearings Under The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act Iv: Expedited Hearings, Andrew M.I. Lee, Perry A. Zirkel

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This article is a follow-up to a triad of analyses of state law additions to the basic requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for due process hearings (DPHs). The former three articles covered the pre-hearing, hearing, and post-hearing stages of IDEA DPHs. The present article focuses on expedited DPHs, canvassing state law provisions specific to this more rapid, specialized proceeding in the IDEA. This article covers IDEA foundational requirements for expedited DPHs, and then summarizes and codes the state law provisions that supplement the federal template. Additionally, this article provides a discussion of federal preemption of state …


Superior Status: Relational Obstacles In The Law To Racial Justice And Lgbtq Equality, Osamudia James 2022 University of North Carolina School of Law

Superior Status: Relational Obstacles In The Law To Racial Justice And Lgbtq Equality, Osamudia James

Boston College Law Review

Animus and discrimination are the two legal lenses through which inequality is typically assessed and understood. Insufficient attention, however, is paid to the role of status in animating inequality, even in landmark cases thought to be equality-promoting. More than an animating force between intractable political conflicts, status also informs the development of equality law in the United States. When courts, advocates, and policymakers affirm, ignore, miss, or concede to status hierarchies instead of dismantling them, those groups that perceive a decrease in their status relative to others will only use “equality-promoting” doctrine to rebalance status hierarchy in their favor. Public …


Freedom, Democracy, And The Right To Education, Derek W. Black 2022 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Freedom, Democracy, And The Right To Education, Derek W. Black

Northwestern University Law Review

While litigation continues in an effort to establish a fundamental right to education under the U.S. Constitution, the full historical justification for this right remains missing—a fatal flaw for many jurists. This Article fills that gap, demonstrating that the central, yet entirely overlooked, justification for a federal right to education resides in America’s education story during the era of slavery and Reconstruction.

At that time, education was first and foremost about freedom. The South had criminalized education to maintain a racialized hierarchy that preserved slavery. Many African-Americans, seeing education as the means to both mental and physical freedom, made extraordinary …


The Chief Justice And The Page: Earl Warren, Charles Bush, And The Promise Of Brown V. Board Of Education, Todd C. Peppers 2022 Washington and Lee University School of Law

The Chief Justice And The Page: Earl Warren, Charles Bush, And The Promise Of Brown V. Board Of Education, Todd C. Peppers

Scholarly Articles

In October Term 1954, the Supreme Court heard oral arguments regarding the implementation of the Brown decision. The resulting opinion is commonly referred to as “Brown II.” In his unanimous opinion, Chief Justice Earl Warren ordered local school districts to desegregate their schools “with all deliberate speed.” Supporters of immediate integration were dismayed by the vague language, which ultimately allowed southern states to use a variety of tactics to deliberately evade and resist the Court’s mandate that public schools be desegregated.

What has been forgotten in the discussion of Brown II and the “all deliberate speed” standard is that …


Free Speech, Social Media, And Public Universities: How The First Amendment Limits University Sanctions For Online Expression And Empowers Students, Staff, And Faculty, Eric T. Kasper 2022 Mitchell Hamline School of Law

Free Speech, Social Media, And Public Universities: How The First Amendment Limits University Sanctions For Online Expression And Empowers Students, Staff, And Faculty, Eric T. Kasper

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


When Binding Doesn't Really Mean Binding: The Early Decision College Application, Jean Steadman 2022 Mitchell Hamline School of Law

When Binding Doesn't Really Mean Binding: The Early Decision College Application, Jean Steadman

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


Expression Of Lgbtq Student Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity In The K-12 Educational System, Brian Boggs 2022 Mitchell Hamline School of Law

Expression Of Lgbtq Student Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity In The K-12 Educational System, Brian Boggs

Mitchell Hamline Law Journal of Public Policy and Practice

No abstract provided.


Are Discipline Code Proceedings Another Example Of Racial Disparities In Legal Education?, Andrea A. Curcio, Alexis Martinez 2022 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Are Discipline Code Proceedings Another Example Of Racial Disparities In Legal Education?, Andrea A. Curcio, Alexis Martinez

University of Maryland Law Journal of Race, Religion, Gender and Class

No abstract provided.


Hostile Learning Environments, The First Amendment, And Public Higher Education, Todd E. Pettys 2022 University of Connecticut

Hostile Learning Environments, The First Amendment, And Public Higher Education, Todd E. Pettys

Connecticut Law Review

The Supreme Court has never squarely addressed the First Amendment status of student-on-student verbal harassment at public institutions of higher education. Does the First Amendment permit public colleges and universities to discipline students on the grounds that their speech has created a hostile learning environment for others on campus? If so, what is the analysis underlying that constitutional judgment, and what are the requisite hallmarks of such an environment? Does it matter whether a student’s speech created the hostile learning environment on its own or whether it wielded that power only by virtue of its combination with the speech of …


Stereotypes, Sexism, And Superhuman Faculty, Teneille R. Brown 2022 University of Utah

Stereotypes, Sexism, And Superhuman Faculty, Teneille R. Brown

FIU Law Review

This symposium article explores how law professors with caretaking responsibilities struggled so greatly during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Because legal academia prioritizes masculine ideals of competence over warmth, faculty were expected to suppress their emotions and mental health needs in order to maintain the appearance of competence. While students were allowed to be seen as vulnerable individuals needing accommodations, we did not extend this same compassion to our faculty colleagues. To explain why the treatment was so disparate, I incorporated existing research on the stereotype content model (SCM) and psychological theories of dehumanization. These theories help to …


The Golem In The Machine: Ferpa, Dirty Data, And Digital Distortion In The Education Record, Najarian R. Peters 2022 University of Kansas School of Law

The Golem In The Machine: Ferpa, Dirty Data, And Digital Distortion In The Education Record, Najarian R. Peters

Washington and Lee Law Review

Like its counterpart in the criminal justice system, dirty data—data that is inaccurate, incomplete, or misleading—in K-12 education records creates and catalyzes catastrophic life events. The presence of this data in any record suggests a lack of data integrity. The systemic problem of dirty data in education records means the data stewards of those records have failed to meet the data integrity requirements embedded in the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). FERPA was designed to protect students and their education records from the negative impact of erroneous information rendered from the “private scribblings” of educators. The legislative history …


The Litigation Landscape Of Fraternity And Sorority Hazing: Defenses, Evidence, And Damages, Gregory S. Parks, Elizabeth Grindell 2022 Wake Forest University School of Law

The Litigation Landscape Of Fraternity And Sorority Hazing: Defenses, Evidence, And Damages, Gregory S. Parks, Elizabeth Grindell

Washington and Lee Law Review

In recent years, increasing public and media attention has focused on hazing, especially in collegiate fraternities and sororities. Whether it is because of the deaths, major injuries, or litigation, both criminal and civil, collegiate fraternities and sororities have received increased scrutiny. In this Article, we explore a range of tactical considerations that lawyers must consider—from defenses to evidentiary concerns. We also explore how damages are contemplated in the context of hazing litigation.


The Great (Un)Equalizer: Education As A Fundamental Right, 55 Uic L. Rev. 803 (2022), Nicholas Kresl 2022 UIC School of Law

The Great (Un)Equalizer: Education As A Fundamental Right, 55 Uic L. Rev. 803 (2022), Nicholas Kresl

UIC Law Review

No abstract provided.


Blood, Sweat, Tears: A Re-Examination Of The Exploitation Of College Athletes, Keely Grey Fresh 2022 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Blood, Sweat, Tears: A Re-Examination Of The Exploitation Of College Athletes, Keely Grey Fresh

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

2021 Louise Halper Award Winner for Best Student Note

The unrest revolving around compensation for college athletes is not a new concept. However, public attitudes are shifting. With spirited arguments on both sides, and the recent Supreme Court decision of National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Alston regarding antitrust exemptions, the issue has been placed in a spotlight. This Note examines the buildup of discontentment through the history of the NCAA and amateurism, specifically how the term “student-athlete” became coined. It will then move to litigation efforts by athletes in an attempt to gain employment status, and an alternative route of …


A Miser’S Rule Of Reason: Student Athlete Compensation And The Alston Antitrust Case, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

A Miser’S Rule Of Reason: Student Athlete Compensation And The Alston Antitrust Case, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The unanimous Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Alston is its most important probe of antitrust’s rule of reason in decades. The decision implicates several issues, including the role of antitrust in labor markets, how antitrust applies to institutions that have an educational mission as well as involvement in a large commercial enterprise, and how much leeway district courts should have in creating decrees that contemplate ongoing administration.

The Court accepted what has come to be the accepted framework: the plaintiff must make out a prima facie case of competitive harm. Then the burden shifts to the defendant to produce …


There’S No “Gender” In Team: Developing State Policies For The Inclusion Of The Transgender Interscholastic Athlete, Brianna Weppler 2022 Touro Law Center

There’S No “Gender” In Team: Developing State Policies For The Inclusion Of The Transgender Interscholastic Athlete, Brianna Weppler

Touro Law Review

The transgender athlete is a relatively new concept challenging the norm of gender division in sports. Multiple states across the United States have yet to update their policies to include the transgender athlete in interscholastic athletics. State policies that do include transgender student athletes are currently being challenged on the grounds that they violate Title IX of the Educational Amendments to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. This review considers the different state policies dictating the inclusion of transgender student athletes in school sports. After evaluating the impact of omitting transgender students from participating on sports teams, this review maintains that …


This Aggression Will Not Stand, Schools: The Need For Federal Legislation Protecting Bullied Students With Disabilities, Russell A. Vogel 2022 Touro Law Center

This Aggression Will Not Stand, Schools: The Need For Federal Legislation Protecting Bullied Students With Disabilities, Russell A. Vogel

Touro Law Review

A boy with Autism comes home from school, visibly upset. His parents ask him why, and he responds that nobody in his class likes him. To his parents’ horror, they learn that their son’s teacher encouraged a class discussion about why they dislike their son. When the boy’s parents complain to the school about this issue, school administrators brush it aside. The next day, students sitting near the boy move their desks away from him and taunt him for the way he acts every time he tries to socialize with them. The boy then refuses to go to school each …


Tinkering With The Schoolhouse Gate: The Future Of Student Speech After Mahanoy Area School District V. B.L., Victoria R. Bonds 2022 LMU Loyola Law School, Los Angeles

Tinkering With The Schoolhouse Gate: The Future Of Student Speech After Mahanoy Area School District V. B.L., Victoria R. Bonds

Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review

When the Supreme Court last created a rule about students’ First Amendment rights, MySpace was the most popular social media platform. Students’ use of social media and technology has radically changed since then, and it is time the First Amendment case law reflects that. With the transition to online learning after the COVID-19 pandemic and overall increased reliance on technology, students need clear answers about when school officials can punish them for their social media posts.

The Supreme Court had a chance to clarify First Amendment student speech law this year in Mahanoy Area School District v. B.L., but …


Assessing Amateurism In College Sports, Casey E. Faucon 2022 University of Alabama School of Law

Assessing Amateurism In College Sports, Casey E. Faucon

Washington and Lee Law Review

College sports generate approximately $8 billion each year for the National C[artel] Athletic Association and its member institutions. Most of this revenue flows from lucrative television broadcasting deals, which often incorporate the right to commercialize and sell the names, images, and likenesses of college athletes. Under its current revenue scheme, student-athletes—85 percent of whom live below the poverty line—receive a share of zero. For over a century, we’ve justified this exploitative distribution scheme under a cloak of student-athlete “amateurism.” Antitrust challenges to the NCAA’s amateurism rules clash with the assumption that “amateurism” is a revered tradition and an important tenet …


The Assault On Critical Race Theory As Pretext For Populist Backlash On Higher Education, Danielle M. Conway 2022 Penn State Dickinson Law

The Assault On Critical Race Theory As Pretext For Populist Backlash On Higher Education, Danielle M. Conway

Faculty Scholarly Works

The rightwing is carrying out its most recent effort to install an authoritarian regime in America, which has been boosted by Donald Trump’s white supremacist rhetoric and actions before, during, and after his four years holding the Office of the President of the United States. Resolute in the effort to destabilize American Democracy by forcing on to the populist, among other messages, “The Big Lie,” the rightwing is committed to a coordinated strategy of attacking and delegitimizing democratic institutions for the purpose of retaining economic and political power.

The attack on Critical Race Theory (“CRT”) is one element of the …


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