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Taxing The Ivory Tower: Evaluating The Excise Tax On University Endowments, Jennifer Bird-Pollan 2021 Pepperdine University

Taxing The Ivory Tower: Evaluating The Excise Tax On University Endowments, Jennifer Bird-Pollan

Pepperdine Law Review

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 introduced the first-ever excise tax imposed on the investment income of university endowments. While it is a relatively small tax, this new law is a first step towards the exploration of taxing non-profit entities on the vast sums of wealth they hold in their endowments. In this essay I take the new tax as a starting place for investigating the justification for tax exemption for universities and thinking through the consequences of changing our approach, both in the form of the new excise tax and possible alternatives. There remain reasons to be ...


Intent, Inequality, And The Berlin Walls Of The Mind, Bobby L. Dexter 2021 Pepperdine University

Intent, Inequality, And The Berlin Walls Of The Mind, Bobby L. Dexter

Pepperdine Law Review

Although acknowledging that various provisions in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 appear responsive to normative arguments presented in tax literature, this article posits that, true to its core intent, the law aggressively advanced the persistent effort to shift the tax burden away from the nation’s wealthiest citizens to the great bulk of taxpayers of more modest financial means. Thus, those with political power successfully employed the tax law to protect, preserve, and enhance prevailing wealth and income inequality. With the election of President Joe Biden and the assumption of Democratic control in both chambers of Congress ...


Access To University Education By Learners With Physical Disabilities: Combating The Barriers, Edwin O. Abuya, Jane W. Githinji 2021 University of Nairobi Law School

Access To University Education By Learners With Physical Disabilities: Combating The Barriers, Edwin O. Abuya, Jane W. Githinji

Buffalo Human Rights Law Review

No abstract provided.


It's Alright, Ma, It's Life And Life Only: Have Universities Been Meeting Their Legal Obligations To High-Risk Faculty During The Pandemic?, Gary J. Simson, Mark L. Jones, Cathren K. Page, Suzianne D. Painter-Thorne 2021 Pepperdine University

It's Alright, Ma, It's Life And Life Only: Have Universities Been Meeting Their Legal Obligations To High-Risk Faculty During The Pandemic?, Gary J. Simson, Mark L. Jones, Cathren K. Page, Suzianne D. Painter-Thorne

Pepperdine Law Review

Even those universities most firmly committed to returning to in-person instruction in fall semester 2020 recognized that for health reasons some exceptions would need to be made. The CDC had identified two groups—people age sixty-five and over and people with certain medical conditions—as persons "at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19," and it had spelled out various special precautions they should take to avoid contracting the virus. Given the CDC's unique stature, universities very reasonably could have been expected to grant exceptions to faculty falling into either group, but that's not what many universities did ...


Homeward Bound: The Current Rise Of Homeschooling And The Need For Regulation, Mary Fletcher 2021 Saint Louis University School of Law

Homeward Bound: The Current Rise Of Homeschooling And The Need For Regulation, Mary Fletcher

SLU Law Journal Online

With the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of American homeschoolers has drastically increased. While all fifty states have passed legislation allowing for homeschooling, regulations of homeschooling vary from state-to-state, with some states having virtually no regulation at all. In this essay, Mary Fletcher examines homeschooling laws and discusses the need for consistent federal regulation to ensure that homeschooled students receive an adequate education.


How The Shift To Pass/Fail Grading In Law School Affects Student Learning, Delara Jamshidi 2021 Western University

How The Shift To Pass/Fail Grading In Law School Affects Student Learning, Delara Jamshidi

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

In the Spring of 2020, law schools across North America rapidly shifted to pass/fail grading in response to the COVID-19 global pandemic. To help answer what the impact of this shift was on student learning, we analyzed a large dataset of approximately 2,000 survey responses from faculty and students. We tested two hypotheses, our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that learning outcomes improved under a pass/fail grading system. Many students talked about how the shift helped them learn in a deep and meaningful way.


“Meyoru-Т-Tadoyyun” As Religious And Moral Source, Naimov Ismat 2021 Basic doctoral student of the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

“Meyoru-Т-Tadoyyun” As Religious And Moral Source, Naimov Ismat

The Light of Islam

In the second half of the 19th century, marked by intensive scientific researches, the educator and encyclopedist Ahmad Donish left behind a rich scientific legacy, particularly his work Me’yoru-t-tadoyun, which to this day remains poorly studied. Even though the name of this work is known to the scientific community, few people are still familiar with its content. The article analyzes the religious and moral factors that caused the creation of the work Me’yoru-t-tadoyun, the recommendations of Ahmad Donish regarding the coverage of the history of world religions, and the rights of representatives of different religions to consider their ...


'Divisive Concepts' Law And The Big Chill, John M. Greabe 2021 University of New Hampshire Franklin Pierce School of Law

'Divisive Concepts' Law And The Big Chill, John M. Greabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "Much Critical commentary concerning the so-called "divisive concepts" provisions in this year's budget legislation has focused on their restrictions on speech. These restrictions, among other things, forbid public K-12 teachers from instructing that some persons are "inherently superior or inferior to [others]", "inherently racist or sexist," "should be discriminated against," or "should not attempt to treat others equally" because of their "age, sex gender identity, sexual orientation, race, creed, color, marital status, mental or physical disability, religion, or national origin."


New Hampshire's 'Divisive Concepts' Law And The Big Chill, John M. Greabe 2021 University of New Hampshire Franklin Pierce School of Law

New Hampshire's 'Divisive Concepts' Law And The Big Chill, John M. Greabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "

Much critical commentary on the so-called “divisive concepts” provisions in this year’s budget legislation – the label comes from language in an earlier version of the bill – has focused on their content- and viewpoint-based restraints on speech. These speech restrictions prohibit state public employers, including public K-12 school teachers, from (among other things) instructing that persons are “inherently superior or inferior to [others]” “inherently racist or sexist,” “should be discriminated against,” or “should not attempt to treat others equally” because of their “age, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, creed, color, marital status, familial status, mental or physical disability ...


School Police Reform: A Public Health Imperative, Thalia González, Emma Kaeser 2021 Georgetown University Law Center

School Police Reform: A Public Health Imperative, Thalia González, Emma Kaeser

SMU Law Review Forum

Out of the twin pandemics currently gripping the United States­—deaths of unarmed Black victims at the hands of police and racialized health inequities resulting from COVID-19—an antiracist health equity agenda has emerged that identifies racism as a public health crisis. Likewise, calls for reform of school policing by those advocating for civil rights, racial justice, and Black Lives Matter have simultaneously intensified. Yet each remains siloed, despite the natural connection and implicit overlap between these separate movements and debates. Indeed, there are documented negative health effects of school policing for Black, Indigenous, people of color (BIPOC) youth. But ...


A Case Against School Choice: Carson Ex Rel. O.C. V. Makin And The Future Of Maine's Nonsectarian Requirement, Blake E. McCartney 2021 University of Maine School of Law

A Case Against School Choice: Carson Ex Rel. O.C. V. Makin And The Future Of Maine's Nonsectarian Requirement, Blake E. Mccartney

Maine Law Review

School choice advocates, such as the nonprofit libertarian law firm, The Institute for Justice, have spent decades arguing that states violate the Free Exercise Clause when they exclude private religious schools from public programs that otherwise provide public dollars to non-religious private schools. Recently, in Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue, the Supreme Court effectively agreed with that sentiment. After this victory, the Institute for Justice returned to the state of Maine to represent three sets of parents in a renewed effort to defeat Maine’s nonsectarian requirement in federal court. Maine’s nonsectarian requirement provides that private religious schools ...


Children Of The Government: Affording A Higher Education A Review Of The State Of Pennsylvania’S Recently Implemented Law That Grants Children Who “Age Out” Of The Foster Care Tuition And Fee Waivers At Every University In The State, Erin K. Cooper 2021 Liberty University

Children Of The Government: Affording A Higher Education A Review Of The State Of Pennsylvania’S Recently Implemented Law That Grants Children Who “Age Out” Of The Foster Care Tuition And Fee Waivers At Every University In The State, Erin K. Cooper

Helms School of Government Undergraduate Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Miser’S Rule Of Reason: Student Athlete Compensation And The Alston Antitrust Case, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

A Miser’S Rule Of Reason: Student Athlete Compensation And The Alston Antitrust Case, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The unanimous Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Alston is its most important probe of antitrust’s rule of reason in decades. The decision implicates several issues, including the role of antitrust in labor markets, how antitrust applies to institutions that have an educational mission as well as involvement in a large commercial enterprise, and how much leeway district courts should have in creating decrees that contemplate ongoing administration.

The Court accepted what has come to be the accepted framework: the plaintiff must make out a prima facie case of competitive harm. Then the burden shifts to the defendant to ...


Brief For American Indian Law Scholars As Amicus Curiae, Stephen C., Et Al V. Bureau Of Indian Education, Et Al.,, Barbara L. Creel, Tierra N. Marks, Randolph H. Barnhouse 2021 University of New Mexico - School of Law

Brief For American Indian Law Scholars As Amicus Curiae, Stephen C., Et Al V. Bureau Of Indian Education, Et Al.,, Barbara L. Creel, Tierra N. Marks, Randolph H. Barnhouse

Faculty Scholarship

Indian Civil Rights/Education Lawsuit

View this and other court documents at Turtle Talk.

Congress’s declared federal policy is “to fulfill the Federal Government’s unique and continuing trust relationship with and responsibility to the Indian people for the education of Indian children.” 25 U.S.C. § 2000. This federal policy is the touchstone of the federal government’s trust obligation to Indian families and their children. When the BIA (through the BIE) fails to protect the rights of Indian children to “educational opportunities that equal or exceed those for all other students in the United States,” courts have ...


Eyes Wide Shut: Using Accreditation Regulation To Address The “Pass-The-Harasser” Problem In Higher Education, Susan Saab Fortney, Theresa Morris 2021 Texas A&M University School of Law

Eyes Wide Shut: Using Accreditation Regulation To Address The “Pass-The-Harasser” Problem In Higher Education, Susan Saab Fortney, Theresa Morris

Faculty Scholarship

The #MeToo Movement cast a spotlight on sexual harassment in various sectors, including higher education. Studies reveal alarming percentages of students reporting that they have been sexually harassed by faculty and administrators. Despite annually devoting hundreds of millions of dollars to addressing sexual harassment and misconduct, nationwide university officials largely take an ostrich approach when hiring faculty and administrators with little or no scrutiny related to their past misconduct. Critics use the term “pass the harasser” or more pejoratively, “pass the trash” to capture the role that institutions play in allowing individuals to change institutions without the new employer learning ...


A Q&A With Homeschooling Reform Advocates Elizabeth Bartholet And James Dwyer, Elizabeth Bartholet, James Dwyer 2021 William & Mary Law School

A Q&A With Homeschooling Reform Advocates Elizabeth Bartholet And James Dwyer, Elizabeth Bartholet, James Dwyer

Popular Media

Elizabeth Bartholet, Morris Wasserstein Public Interest Professor and Faculty Director of the Child Advocacy Program (CAP), and James Dwyer, the Arthur B. Hanson Professor of Law at William & Mary Law School, were interviewed by Harvard Law Today about their virtual conference titled, Homeschool Summit: Problems, Politics, and Prospects for Reform. The June event was attended by leaders in education and child welfare policy, legislators and legislative staff, academics and policy advocates, medical professionals, homeschooling alumni, and others, to discuss children’s rights in connection with homeschooling in the United States.


The Elementary And Secondary Education Act (Esea) And Its Reauthorization As The Improving America’S Schools Act (Iasa) With Its Impact On Funding, Education Policy, And Supporting The Change For Improvement Of Student Achievement, Kaylee LaTocha 2021 Portland State University

The Elementary And Secondary Education Act (Esea) And Its Reauthorization As The Improving America’S Schools Act (Iasa) With Its Impact On Funding, Education Policy, And Supporting The Change For Improvement Of Student Achievement, Kaylee Latocha

University Honors Theses

A comparison of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 and the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) of 1994 within the time period they were written in, and contextualizing them historically to discuss their failures and successes.. This thesis will examine how they were shaped on a national level by politicians and political activists to create a more equitable system so that funding was beneficial to all students. Education policy formed itself to funding and student achievement as achievement was what determined funding.


Higher Education For All Law Enforcement Officers, Johana A. Constantino Madrigal 2021 Portland State University

Higher Education For All Law Enforcement Officers, Johana A. Constantino Madrigal

University Honors Theses

In this brief prospectus, the focus is on the many arguments for why it should be a requirement for all law enforcement officers to have a higher education background. Given light to recent events, the importance for more highly trained and educated officers has become more dire as people call for justice in an attempt to right the wrongs that have been done. The articles found all address the manner in which higher education can help with better judgement calls, analyze and respond to situations better, and the overall perception officers have, who have a form of higher education, on ...


Catalytic Courts And Enforcement Of Constitutional Education Funding Provisions, Hugh Spitzer, Andy Omara 2021 University of Washington School of Law

Catalytic Courts And Enforcement Of Constitutional Education Funding Provisions, Hugh Spitzer, Andy Omara

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

It is well-recognized that it is easier for judges to enforce constitutional “negative rights” provisions than positive social and economic rights. This article focuses on the challenges of enforcing one specific positive right: the constitutional right of children to attend adequately funded schools. Our article tests on-the-ground judicial implementation of education funding provisions against the general theoretical framework of judicial interaction with the political branches developed by Katharine Young. We analyze how, in multi-year, multi-decision litigation, constitutional court judges in the three jurisdictions we studied actively experimented with the challenging task of forcing, or enticing, reluctant legislative and executive branches ...


Modernizing Discrimination Law: The Adoption Of An Intersectional Lens, Marisa K. Sanchez 2021 St. Mary's University School of Law

Modernizing Discrimination Law: The Adoption Of An Intersectional Lens, Marisa K. Sanchez

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming.


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