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Cultural Heritage Law Commons

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All Articles in Cultural Heritage Law

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Res Extra Commercium And The Barriers Faced When Seeking The Repatriation And Return Of Potent Cultural Objects, Sara Gwendolyn Ross 2017 Seattle University School of Law

Res Extra Commercium And The Barriers Faced When Seeking The Repatriation And Return Of Potent Cultural Objects, Sara Gwendolyn Ross

American Indian Law Journal

No abstract provided.


How Photographs Infringe, Terry S. Kogan 2017 S.J. Quinney College of Law

How Photographs Infringe, Terry S. Kogan

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Courts and commentators have lavished attention on the question of what makes a photograph original and entitled to copyright protection. Far less attention has been devoted to the issue of how photographs infringe. This is the first Article to systematically explore the different ways in which a photograph can steal intellectual property. Photographs can infringe in two ways: by replication and by imitation. A photograph infringes by replication when, without permission, a photographer points her camera directly at a copyright-protected work—a sculpture, a painting, another photograph—and clicks the shutter. A photograph can also infringe by imitation. In such ...


The Global Protection Of Traditional Knowledge: Searching For The Minimum Consensus, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 42 (2017), Aman Gebru 2017 John Marshall Law School

The Global Protection Of Traditional Knowledge: Searching For The Minimum Consensus, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 42 (2017), Aman Gebru

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The protection of traditional knowledge (TK) – the know-how, skills, innovations and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities has been a subject of heated debate in many international forums. TK has proved to be useful as an input in modern industries. For instance, pharmaceutical companies have used medicinal TK to develop drugs more quickly. Despite its value, TK faces an alarming rate of loss and there are many initiatives that attempt to preserve it for posterity. However, almost every major issue on TK protection is contentious, including whether international TK protection is necessary or if domestic legislation alone would suffice ...


Traditional Knowledge Digital Library: "A Silver Bullet" In The War Against Biopiracy?, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 214 (2017), Seemantani Sharma 2017 John Marshall Law School

Traditional Knowledge Digital Library: "A Silver Bullet" In The War Against Biopiracy?, 17 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 214 (2017), Seemantani Sharma

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

India has long been a victim of the emotionally expulsive wrong of biopiracy at the behest of Western corporations. Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL), a digital repository of traditional medicinal knowledge was a reaction to this act of “unjust enrichment”. While there is ample scholarly discourse on the biopiracy of Indian traditional knowledge (TK), there is scant literature critically evaluating TKDL as a tool for the protection of TK. This paper attempts to highlight some of the defects and inadequacies pervading TKDL, which inhibits its characterisation as a “silver bullet” in the war against biopiracy. Though laudatory, TKDL with its ...


Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber, Kelly Murdoch-Kitt 2017 Rochester Institute of Technology

Lost & Found, Owen Gottlieb, Ian Schreiber, Kelly Murdoch-Kitt

Presentations and other scholarship

Lost & Found is a strategy card-to-mobile game series that teaches medieval religious legal systems with attention to period accuracy and cultural and historical context.

The Lost & Found games project seeks to expand the discourse around religious legal systems, to enrich public conversations in a variety of communities, and to promote greater understanding of the religious traditions that build the fabric of the United States. Comparative religious literacy can build bridges between and within communities and prepare learners to be responsible citizens in our pluralist democracy.

The first game in the series is a strategy game called Lost & Found (high-school and up). In Lost & Found, players take on the role of villagers who must balance family needs with communal needs. They must balance cooperative actions even while addressing individual needs. The game emphasizes the pro-social aspects of religious legal systems including collaboration and cooperation.

Both this game and the second game in the series (Order in the Court) are set in Fustat (Old Cairo) in the 12th Century, a crossroads of religions. Lost & Found and Order in the Court both teach elements of the Mishneh Torah, the Jewish legal code written by Moses Maimonides. Maimonides was influenced by the works of Islamic legal scholars and philosophers such as Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Al Ghazahli; he also influenced Islamic scholars.


How New York Investors Financed The Looting Of Syria, Ukraine, And Iraq: The Need To Increase Civil Liabilities For "Current Possessors" Of Stolen Antiquities In The 21st Century, Lukas Padegimas 2016 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law

How New York Investors Financed The Looting Of Syria, Ukraine, And Iraq: The Need To Increase Civil Liabilities For "Current Possessors" Of Stolen Antiquities In The 21st Century, Lukas Padegimas

The Global Business Law Review

This note argues that the U.S. should pass its own self-policing legislation that will make it less enticing for thieves to try to sell stolen antiquities to the U.S. market. Our world heritage is under threat from undeterred looting, which results in antiquities vanishing from museum storerooms and archeological sites before ending up in the storerooms of investors. Currently, source nations that attempt to have stolen antiquities returned are deterred by the high legal costs involved. As the biggest market for stolen cultural property, states within the U.S. should amend current replevin laws so that the possessors ...


An Issue Of Monumental Proportions: The Necessary Changes To Be Made Before International Cultural Heritage Laws Will Protect Immoveable Cultural Property, Matthew Smart 2016 IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law

An Issue Of Monumental Proportions: The Necessary Changes To Be Made Before International Cultural Heritage Laws Will Protect Immoveable Cultural Property, Matthew Smart

Chicago-Kent Law Review

Cultural heritage has been targeted during military conflicts throughout history. Currently, the conflict in Syria is resulting in the destruction of ancient immoveable cultural heritage property. This destruction is particularly devastating because Syria has served as a melting pot of Eastern and Western cultures throughout history. This note examines the history of international laws aimed at the protection of cultural heritage property. After applying those laws to the current Syrian conflict, this note offers multiple suggestions to improve the protection of immoveable cultural heritage property. The improvements advanced by this note include necessary changes to the current regime of international ...


Ahead Of The Curve: Promoting Land Tenure Security In Sub-Saharan Africa To Protect The Environment, Andrew R. Falk 2016 Seattle University School of Law

Ahead Of The Curve: Promoting Land Tenure Security In Sub-Saharan Africa To Protect The Environment, Andrew R. Falk

Seattle Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


A Crackerjack Of A Sea Yarn: The Triumphs, Tributes And Trials Of Treasure Hunter Tommy Thompson, Taylor Simpson-Wood 2016 Barry University

A Crackerjack Of A Sea Yarn: The Triumphs, Tributes And Trials Of Treasure Hunter Tommy Thompson, Taylor Simpson-Wood

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Cultural Plunder And Restitution And Human Identity, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 460 (2016), Ori Soltes 2016 John Marshall Law School

Cultural Plunder And Restitution And Human Identity, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 460 (2016), Ori Soltes

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Oregon Tribal Historic Preservation Offices: The Problems And Challenges Of Starting And Maintaining A Thpo, Karly R. Law 2016 University of Montana

Oregon Tribal Historic Preservation Offices: The Problems And Challenges Of Starting And Maintaining A Thpo, Karly R. Law

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

As of December 31, 2015, of the 567 federally recognized tribes, 167 have established a THPO (at the time of this writing) that is recognized by the National Park Service (NPS). To manage a federally recognized THPO, a tribe must officially enter into agreements with the National Park Service on behalf of the Secretary of the Interior. There are a total of nine federally recognized tribes in Oregon, of which six have a federally recognized THPO. Two of the Oregon THPO’s were interviewed: The Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde Indian Community and the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe ...


Amber Tears And Copyright Fears: The Inadequate Protection Of Cultural Heritage In The United States, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 543 (2016), Ingrida Latoza 2016 John Marshall Law School

Amber Tears And Copyright Fears: The Inadequate Protection Of Cultural Heritage In The United States, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 543 (2016), Ingrida Latoza

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The United States is comprised of many different cultural communities, each rich with expressions of language and custom. Cultural diversity promotes respect among individuals and harmonizes differences between communities—nationally and globally. Through the preservation of cultural heritage, diversity is maintained. Since World War II, with the exile of many from Lithuania, members of the Lithuanian-American community have strived to maintain the cultural heritage of their beloved homeland. After several decades, a Lithuanian-American cultural identity has developed, creating unique and individual traditions, adding to the cultural heritage of the United States as a whole. Most of the international community has ...


The Destruction Of Cultural Heritage: A Crime Against Property Or A Crime Against People?, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 336 (2016), Patty Gerstenblith 2016 John Marshall Law School

The Destruction Of Cultural Heritage: A Crime Against Property Or A Crime Against People?, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 336 (2016), Patty Gerstenblith

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The destruction of cultural heritage has played a prominent role in the ongoing conflicts in Syria and Iraq and in the recent conflict in Mali. This destruction has displayed the failure of international law to effectively deter these actions. This article reviews existing international law in light of this destruction and the challenges posed by the issues of non-international armed conflict, non-state actors and the military necessity exception. By examining recent developments in applicable international law, the article proposes that customary international law has evolved to interpret existing legal instruments and doctrines concerning cultural heritage in light of the principles ...


From Tragedy To Triumph In The Pursuit Of Looted Art: Altmann, Benningson, Portrait Of Wally, Von Saher And Their Progeny, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 394 (2016), Donald Burris 2016 John Marshall Law School

From Tragedy To Triumph In The Pursuit Of Looted Art: Altmann, Benningson, Portrait Of Wally, Von Saher And Their Progeny, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 394 (2016), Donald Burris

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

This article is a broad and approachable overview of American law regarding the potential repatriation of Nazi-looted art—an area which the author and his now-retired partner, Randy Schoenberg, helped develop from the ground up starting with the development of the Altmann case, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2004, and continuing on through a number of fascinating looted-art cases of a more recent vintage. Parts of the article read as much like a detective story as a summary of cases and Mr. Burris has been kind enough to share both his approach to these cases and his ...


Where Are We And Where Are We Going: Legal Developments In Cultural Property And Nazi Art Looting, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 435 (2016), Thomas Kline 2016 John Marshall Law School

Where Are We And Where Are We Going: Legal Developments In Cultural Property And Nazi Art Looting, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 435 (2016), Thomas Kline

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Nagpra And Its Limitations: Repatriation Of Indigenous Cultural Heritage, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 472 (2016), Kevin Ray 2016 John Marshall Law School

Nagpra And Its Limitations: Repatriation Of Indigenous Cultural Heritage, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 472 (2016), Kevin Ray

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The historical conditions under which indigenous (and specifically Native American) cultural heritage objects have been collected present tremendous difficulties, since collecting efforts were frequently influenced, or even directed, by racist or colonialist ideologies. Recent decades have seen efforts to redress past wrongs, as well as to correct misunderstandings and misrepresentations. The restitution and repatriation processes of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990, enacted as human rights legislation, provide powerful, but imperfect tools for the protection of Native American cultural heritage. The challenges are both domestic and international. Recent French auction sales of Hopi, Zuni, and Navajo ...


Illusory Borders: The Myth Of The Modern Nation-State And Its Impact On The Repatriation Of Cultural Artifacts, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 486 (2016), Lubna El-Gendi 2016 John Marshall Law School

Illusory Borders: The Myth Of The Modern Nation-State And Its Impact On The Repatriation Of Cultural Artifacts, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 486 (2016), Lubna El-Gendi

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

While the current world order of independent nation-states may seem like a natural state that has existed for centuries, in reality, it is a relatively new development that was forged after the demise of imperial rule. Yet, the nation-state is the foundational entity of our current international political and legal framework. International treaties and relations are structured around the nation-state, which is recognized as the core entity in which rights are vested and on which obligations are imposed. This prioritization of the nation-state leads to issues when we consider the repatriation of cultural heritage, particularly in light of the history ...


Beyond The Destruction Of Syria: Considering A Future In Syria And The Protection Of The Right To Culture, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 522 (2016), Sarah Dávila-Ruhaak 2016 John Marshall Law School

Beyond The Destruction Of Syria: Considering A Future In Syria And The Protection Of The Right To Culture, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 522 (2016), Sarah Dávila-Ruhaak

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Although the right to culture has been widely recognized under international human rights, its reach and practical application has been limited in cultural preservation efforts. Individuals and communities that attempt to be part of the decision-making process in preservation efforts often face barriers to access in that process. The need to re-conceptualize the right to culture is vital for its protection and preservation. This article proposes that the right to self-determination must be utilized as a core fundamental principle that enables a disenfranchised individual or community to have ownership in preservation efforts and decide how to shape their identity. It ...


Cultural Heritage & New Media: A Future For The Past, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 604 (2016), Ann Marie Sullivan 2016 John Marshall Law School

Cultural Heritage & New Media: A Future For The Past, 15 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 604 (2016), Ann Marie Sullivan

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The application of new media to cultural heritage is consistent with the policy objectives that the copyright law of the United States stands to promote. However, the practical application of the law currently hinders these objectives, often stifling the creation and dissemination of new media works of cultural heritage. In this context, copyright law presents a problem and not a solution, a barrier and not a protection, dissuasion of creation and not encouragement and incentive. Defining the legal scope and reach of digital property and new media within the realm of art and cultural heritage law is critical for the ...


The Competing Objectives Underlying The Protection Of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Peter K. Yu 2016 Texas A&M University School of Law

The Competing Objectives Underlying The Protection Of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

One topic that has received considerable academic and policy attention concerns the key objectives underlying the establishment of this new framework. To help us develop a better and deeper understanding, this article outlines eight most widely documented objectives. While some of these objectives overlap or conflict with each other, others touch on issues that are of only marginal concern to some constituencies. By focusing on each objective in turn, this article aims to underscore the divergent, and at times competing, interests among the many stakeholders involved in the framework.

Although some readers may find the description of all eight underlying ...


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