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A Comparison Of Public Defenders Vs. Private Attorneys, Tiffany Costello 2021 Merrimack College

A Comparison Of Public Defenders Vs. Private Attorneys, Tiffany Costello

Honors Senior Capstone Projects

This study seeks to determine whether there are any differences in conviction rates or client satisfaction between public defenders and private attorneys in state or federal courts. Although researchers have spent time examining differences between attorney type and client satisfaction or conviction rates, little information exists on the assessment of attorney type in the federal system. The study will consist of a two-part survey with approximately twenty-seven closed-ended questions about client satisfaction, conviction, court, and attorney type. The target population will be any criminal defendant in federal or state court with an attorney. In this study, the sampling method will ...


The Ethics Of Interrogation: How Unethical Interrogations Lead To False Confessions And What It Means For The Criminal, Janelle Havens 2021 Merrimack College

The Ethics Of Interrogation: How Unethical Interrogations Lead To False Confessions And What It Means For The Criminal, Janelle Havens

Criminology Student Work

Forensic interrogation is a vital step in the process of criminal investigations in order to extract information about suspects and the crime at hand. However, tunnel vision, artificial time constraints, lack of thorough training, and noble-cause corruption can influence how an investigator decides to interrogate a suspect or witness. When these influences are exerted on an investigator, the need to secure an arrest and conviction overpowers the need for justice - this results in false confessions and wrongful convictions. This is otherwise known as “the end doesn't justify the means” mindset. This causes investigators to engage in unethical interrogations, whether ...


Flipping The Script On Brady, Ion Meyn 2020 University of Wisconsin - Madison

Flipping The Script On Brady, Ion Meyn

Indiana Law Journal

Brady v. Maryland imposes a disclosure obligation on the prosecutor and, for this

reason, is understood to burden the prosecutor. This Article asks whether Brady also

benefits the prosecutor, and if so, how and to what extent does it accomplish this?

This Article first considers Brady’s structural impact—how the case influenced

broader dynamics of litigation. Before Brady, legislative reform transformed civil

and criminal litigation by providing pretrial information to civil defendants but not

to criminal defendants. Did this disparate treatment comport with due process?

Brady arguably answered this question by brokering a compromise: in exchange for

imposing minor ...


Masthead, 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Masthead

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Editors’ Foreword, Tatiana Herschlikowicz, Christopher Johnson 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Editors’ Foreword, Tatiana Herschlikowicz, Christopher Johnson

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


Should Consistency Be Part Of The Reform Prosecutor’S Playbook?, Kay Levine 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Should Consistency Be Part Of The Reform Prosecutor’S Playbook?, Kay Levine

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

In this piece, I explore the value of consistency in a prosecutor’s office that is committed to racial justice, fiscal responsibility, and strategies to reduce the size of the carceral state. I argue that consistency of process, rather than consistency of outcome, is the principal value that leadership ought to embrace in furtherance of its reformist goals. In prioritizing consistency of process, the office would design a “prosecutorial calculus” to guide line prosecutors’ case management decisions (i.e., it would identify the factors that should influence whether and what to file, how to handle pre-trial release, and what to ...


Regressive Prosecutors: Law And Order Politics And Practices In Trump’S Doj, Mona Lynch 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Regressive Prosecutors: Law And Order Politics And Practices In Trump’S Doj, Mona Lynch

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

No abstract provided.


United States V. Stevens At 10: Adding A “Prurient Intent” Element To Resolve Constitutional Overbreadth In The Federal Anti-Animal Cruelty Statute, 18 U.S.C. § 48, Dale Radford 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

United States V. Stevens At 10: Adding A “Prurient Intent” Element To Resolve Constitutional Overbreadth In The Federal Anti-Animal Cruelty Statute, 18 U.S.C. § 48, Dale Radford

Hastings Journal of Crime and Punishment

Ten years ago, in United States v. Stevens, the United States Supreme Court overturned the federal anti-animal cruelty statute 18 U.S.C. § 48 for the first time. The statute was specifically drafted to target the clandestine underground production of so-called “crush videos,” adult entertainment videos depicting animals being purposefully tortured to death by scantily clad women.

The Court overturned the statute for potentially criminalizing portrayals of legal activity with redeeming socio-cultural value, such as hunting. While the Court relied heavily on analyzing speech as it relates to child pornography, it did not address whether depictions of animal torture constitute ...


The Acquisition Of Scientific Evidence Between Frye And Daubert. From Ad Hominem Arguments To Cross-Examination Among Experts, Lorenzo Zoppellari 2020 University of Trento

The Acquisition Of Scientific Evidence Between Frye And Daubert. From Ad Hominem Arguments To Cross-Examination Among Experts, Lorenzo Zoppellari

OSSA Conference Archive

The Frye and Daubert rulings give us two very different ways to intend the relation between law and science. Through the contributions of Wellman and Walton, we will see how the main method to question the expert’s testimony before a judge deferent to science is to question her personal integrity by using ad hominem arguments. Otherwise, using Alvin Goldman’s novice/expert problem, we will investigate if other manners of argumentative cross-examinations are possible.


Federal Protection For "Fur-Babies": A Legislative Proposal, Rebecca Ferrari 2020 Pepperdine University

Federal Protection For "Fur-Babies": A Legislative Proposal, Rebecca Ferrari

Pepperdine Law Review

Americans love their animals, but America doesn’t protect them. Across the country, animals continue to be classified as mere property, undeserving of any basic rights and unprotected by the animal welfare statutes that do exist, but often remain unenforced. This Article proposes a comprehensive animal protection system that includes the following components: (a) general prohibitions against animal crushing, cruelty, neglect, and abuse; (b) a civil action provision that will allow humane society officers to investigate violations of those prohibitions; (c) a provision establishing animal legal advocates to work alongside the officers and prosecute violations; and (d) an animal-suit provision ...


Controlled Observation: The Challenges Of Therapy For The Mentally Ill Incarcerated Population, Esther Tingué 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Controlled Observation: The Challenges Of Therapy For The Mentally Ill Incarcerated Population, Esther Tingué

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Popular perception and objective of incarceration is confinement, brutality and in some cases inhumane conditions. But what about the incarcerated population who suffer from the additional burden of mental illness? How does confinement affect mentally ill inmates? This capstone project asks: (1) how do individuals/organizations provide rehabilitative services in this evolved culture of crime and punishment? And (2) how is therapy provided in a restricted environment? I examine these questions from the perspective of the therapist, the person who (in a restricted environment) takes on the responsibility of treating and managing the effects of mental illness for this population.


Holding Both: Witness Aid Workers' Experiences Supporting Intimate Partner Violence Survivors In District Attorney Offices, Ovita Williams 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Holding Both: Witness Aid Workers' Experiences Supporting Intimate Partner Violence Survivors In District Attorney Offices, Ovita Williams

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Social workers and advocates practice in district attorney (DA) offices as witness or victim aid workers providing intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors counseling, advocacy, resources and information as they enter the criminal legal system (CLS). Their experiences, in particular how stress and vicarious trauma (VT) manifested for them in this unique setting within the criminal legal system, had not yet been examined. This phenomenological study sought to better understand (1) how social workers and advocates in a prosecutor’s office experience practice with intimate partner violence survivors, (2) their experiences of stress, secondary traumatic stress, vicarious trauma, and supports, and ...


Sentencing Disparities And The Dangerous Perpetuation Of Racial Bias, Jelani Jefferson Exum 2020 University of Detroit Mercy School of Law

Sentencing Disparities And The Dangerous Perpetuation Of Racial Bias, Jelani Jefferson Exum

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This Article addresses the role that racial disparities—specifically sentencing disparities—play in perpetuating the racial bias that increases the daily danger of living as a Black American in the United States. As documented in the news and by sometimes humorous internet memes, White people have called the police many times to report Black people who were simply living as any other American. This trend highlights the manner in which the U.S. criminal justice system’s racial inequities feed into biased beliefs about Black criminality. This Article argues that instead of tackling implicit bias as a means to fight ...


Article Iii Adultification Of Kids: History, Mystery, And Troubling Implications Of Federal Youth Transfers, Mae C. Quinn, Grace R. McLaughlin 2020 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Article Iii Adultification Of Kids: History, Mystery, And Troubling Implications Of Federal Youth Transfers, Mae C. Quinn, Grace R. Mclaughlin

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

There is no federal juvenile court system in the United States. Rather, teens can face charges in Article III courts and can be transferred to be tried and sentenced as adults in these venues. This Article is the first of two articles in the Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice seeking to shed light on the largely invisible processes and populations involved in federal youth prosecution. This Article focuses on the federal transfer and prosecution of American youth as adults. It considers constitutional and statutory law relating to these federal transfers and then considers why current ...


Crime And Punishment: Considering Prison Disciplinary Sanctions As Grounds For Departure Under The U.S. Sentencing Guidelines, Madison Peace 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Crime And Punishment: Considering Prison Disciplinary Sanctions As Grounds For Departure Under The U.S. Sentencing Guidelines, Madison Peace

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

There are currently over 175,000 federal inmates in the United States, 146,000 of whom are held in custody by the Federal Bureau of Prisons. When an inmate in federal prison commits a federal crime, he can be both sanctioned by the Federal Bureau of Prisons and referred to a United States Attorney for prosecution of the crime in federal district court. In the federal district court, a judge will look to the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines as a starting point to determine an appropriate sentence.

One question that the U.S. Sentencing Commission has not addressed, and on ...


Federal Sentencing: A Judge’S Personal Sentencing Journey Told Through The Voices Of Offenders He Sentenced, Mark W. Bennett 2020 Drake University Law School

Federal Sentencing: A Judge’S Personal Sentencing Journey Told Through The Voices Of Offenders He Sentenced, Mark W. Bennett

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Federal sentencing is a tragic mess. Thirty years of conflicting legislative experiments began with high hopes but resulted in mass incarceration. Federal sentences, especially in drug cases, are all too often bone-crushingly severe.

In this Article, the Honorable Mark Bennett, a retired federal judge, shares about his journey with federal sentencing and his strong disagreement with the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines by telling the stories of some of the 400 men and women he sentenced during his twenty-five years as a federal judge.


Reforming Federal Sentencing: A Call For Equality-Infused Menschlichkeit, Nora V. Demleitner 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Reforming Federal Sentencing: A Call For Equality-Infused Menschlichkeit, Nora V. Demleitner

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This piece is based on Professor Demleitner's introduction of the JCRSJ Symposium, Issues in Federal Sentencing: Privilege, Disparity, and a Way Forward, November 15, 2019.

This Introduction first focuses on the value of a symposium on federal sentencing as a teaching, research, and advocacy tool. The second section centers on questions of equality and equitable treatment in federal sentencing. It details how unfair sentencing has been to minority defendants and then highlights the broader ramifications of those injustices in reinforcing bias and racial stereotyping. The guidelines have both mitigated and reinforced racial disparities. Technology and empirical research may provide ...


Technology’S Influence On Federal Sentencing: Past, Present, And Future, Matthew G. Rowland 2020 Maloney, Rowland and Associates, LLC

Technology’S Influence On Federal Sentencing: Past, Present, And Future, Matthew G. Rowland

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

The comprehensive reforms that govern today’s federal sentencing processes were fashioned nearly forty years ago. Those reforms were designed to address concerns regarding the effectiveness, transparency, and fairness of the preexisting indeterminant sentencing system. Today, criticisms are mounting against the very reforms that were once held out to save the sentencing process. The more determinant system is being accused of being biased against minorities, overly harsh, and costly.

This Article explores how the criminal justice system might look to technology and build on the practical experience from the indeterminant and determinant systems. Tools such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) can ...


The California Cannabis Industry: The Complexities Since Recreational Legalization, Talia Lux 2020 Pepperdine University

The California Cannabis Industry: The Complexities Since Recreational Legalization, Talia Lux

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This comment will first provide a look into the history and legality of cannabis in the United States, followed by a look into California’s cannabis industry. There will be a discussion on both medical and recreational legality in California and the provisions surrounding both types of legality. Next, the complexities of the cannabis industries will be discussed in terms of opening and operating a cannabis business, the different cannabis business types and the requirements for starting them, and state and local limitations. Immediately following, there will be a federal illegality discussion and how federal illegality conflicts with California law ...


Ethical Implications Of Forensic Genealogy In Criminal Cases, Solana Lund 2020 Pepperdine University

Ethical Implications Of Forensic Genealogy In Criminal Cases, Solana Lund

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

The use of forensic genealogy to solve criminal cases is likely to increase in the coming years, especially given its success in solving cold cases. While its potential for good is impressive, there are also legitimate ethical concerns that need to be addressed. As society sees an increase in the use of forensic genealogy and DTC databases in criminal investigations as well as an increase in the media attention it garners, there will be more discussion regarding ethical implications. Legal scholars say that it is only a matter of time before courts weigh in on the privacy of DNA and ...


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