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State Laws For Due Process Hearings Under The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act Ii: The Post-Hearing Stage, Perry A. Zirkel 2020 Pepperdine University

State Laws For Due Process Hearings Under The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act Ii: The Post-Hearing Stage, Perry A. Zirkel

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

A recent issue of this journal contained an article that canvassed state laws that added to the basic requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for due process hearings (DPHs). The purpose of this follow-up analysis is to supplement the earlier article by canvassing state law provisions specific to the post-hearing stage of IDEA DPHs. The length is relatively brief because (1) the springboard article on the hearing stage provided the detailed foundation, (2) the scope of the post-hearing stage is much more limited, and (3) the previous literature has largely unexplored this stage. Otherwise in accordance with ...


Masthead, 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Masthead

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Artificial Entities With Natural Rights: Pursuing Profits At The Expense Of Human Capital, Loren M. Findlay 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Artificial Entities With Natural Rights: Pursuing Profits At The Expense Of Human Capital, Loren M. Findlay

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This Note explores the legal and constitutional rights granted to corporations and highlights how these corporate benefits are often at the expense of individuals. Over the past century, the corporation has evolved, taking on human-like characteristics. While many statutes and the Constitution use the word “person,” courts have inconsistently interpreted the definition of “person” in determining when it expands to corporations. In courts’ ad hoc analysis and interpretation, individuals get the metaphorical short-end of the stick.

The First Amendment of the Constitution was interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to afford the right of free speech to corporations in ...


Sentencing Disparities And The Dangerous Perpetuation Of Racial Bias, Jelani Jefferson Exum 2020 University of Detroit Mercy School of Law

Sentencing Disparities And The Dangerous Perpetuation Of Racial Bias, Jelani Jefferson Exum

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This Article addresses the role that racial disparities—specifically sentencing disparities—play in perpetuating the racial bias that increases the daily danger of living as a Black American in the United States. As documented in the news and by sometimes humorous internet memes, White people have called the police many times to report Black people who were simply living as any other American. This trend highlights the manner in which the U.S. criminal justice system’s racial inequities feed into biased beliefs about Black criminality. This Article argues that instead of tackling implicit bias as a means to fight ...


Article Iii Adultification Of Kids: History, Mystery, And Troubling Implications Of Federal Youth Transfers, Mae C. Quinn, Grace R. McLaughlin 2020 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Article Iii Adultification Of Kids: History, Mystery, And Troubling Implications Of Federal Youth Transfers, Mae C. Quinn, Grace R. Mclaughlin

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

There is no federal juvenile court system in the United States. Rather, teens can face charges in Article III courts and can be transferred to be tried and sentenced as adults in these venues. This Article is the first of two articles in the Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice seeking to shed light on the largely invisible processes and populations involved in federal youth prosecution. This Article focuses on the federal transfer and prosecution of American youth as adults. It considers constitutional and statutory law relating to these federal transfers and then considers why current ...


Enforcement Of The Americans With Disabilities Act: Remedying “Abusive” Litigation While Strengthening Disability Rights, Evelyn Clark 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Enforcement Of The Americans With Disabilities Act: Remedying “Abusive” Litigation While Strengthening Disability Rights, Evelyn Clark

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This Note explores the Americans with Disabilities Act and the private litigation used to enforce compliance. While the ADA was designed to be enforced by private citizens, many have called for reform to limit what they see as “abusive” litigants. This Note focuses on (1) the perceived problem of vexatious litigants abusing the ADA and its state counterparts to benefit monetarily, (2) the attempted solutions on both a state and federal level, and (3) recommended solutions that focus on protecting the rights of individuals with disabilities while limiting abusive litigation meant to extort businesses.


Crime And Punishment: Considering Prison Disciplinary Sanctions As Grounds For Departure Under The U.S. Sentencing Guidelines, Madison Peace 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Crime And Punishment: Considering Prison Disciplinary Sanctions As Grounds For Departure Under The U.S. Sentencing Guidelines, Madison Peace

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

There are currently over 175,000 federal inmates in the United States, 146,000 of whom are held in custody by the Federal Bureau of Prisons. When an inmate in federal prison commits a federal crime, he can be both sanctioned by the Federal Bureau of Prisons and referred to a United States Attorney for prosecution of the crime in federal district court. In the federal district court, a judge will look to the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines as a starting point to determine an appropriate sentence.

One question that the U.S. Sentencing Commission has not addressed, and on ...


Federal Sentencing: A Judge’S Personal Sentencing Journey Told Through The Voices Of Offenders He Sentenced, Mark W. Bennett 2020 Drake University Law School

Federal Sentencing: A Judge’S Personal Sentencing Journey Told Through The Voices Of Offenders He Sentenced, Mark W. Bennett

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Federal sentencing is a tragic mess. Thirty years of conflicting legislative experiments began with high hopes but resulted in mass incarceration. Federal sentences, especially in drug cases, are all too often bone-crushingly severe.

In this Article, the Honorable Mark Bennett, a retired federal judge, shares about his journey with federal sentencing and his strong disagreement with the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines by telling the stories of some of the 400 men and women he sentenced during his twenty-five years as a federal judge.


“Opening The Door” To Presidential Press Conferences: A Framework For The Right Of Press Access, Alexandria R. Taylor 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

“Opening The Door” To Presidential Press Conferences: A Framework For The Right Of Press Access, Alexandria R. Taylor

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Since President Donald Trump took office in 2017, there has been tension between the White House and the press. While this tension has been present in prior presidencies, its current manifestation raises important First Amendment issues. This Note discusses the limitations of the President to restrict the press’s right of First Amendment access to presidential press conferences. After delving into the Supreme Court’s development and recognition of the press’s right of access and how the lower courts have interpreted this right, this Note proposes a framework to analyze the press’s right of access and addresses the ...


Table Of Contents, 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Table Of Contents

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Reforming Federal Sentencing: A Call For Equality-Infused Menschlichkeit, Nora V. Demleitner 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Reforming Federal Sentencing: A Call For Equality-Infused Menschlichkeit, Nora V. Demleitner

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This piece is based on Professor Demleitner's introduction of the JCRSJ Symposium, Issues in Federal Sentencing: Privilege, Disparity, and a Way Forward, November 15, 2019.

This Introduction first focuses on the value of a symposium on federal sentencing as a teaching, research, and advocacy tool. The second section centers on questions of equality and equitable treatment in federal sentencing. It details how unfair sentencing has been to minority defendants and then highlights the broader ramifications of those injustices in reinforcing bias and racial stereotyping. The guidelines have both mitigated and reinforced racial disparities. Technology and empirical research may provide ...


Technology’S Influence On Federal Sentencing: Past, Present, And Future, Matthew G. Rowland 2020 Maloney, Rowland and Associates, LLC

Technology’S Influence On Federal Sentencing: Past, Present, And Future, Matthew G. Rowland

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

The comprehensive reforms that govern today’s federal sentencing processes were fashioned nearly forty years ago. Those reforms were designed to address concerns regarding the effectiveness, transparency, and fairness of the preexisting indeterminant sentencing system. Today, criticisms are mounting against the very reforms that were once held out to save the sentencing process. The more determinant system is being accused of being biased against minorities, overly harsh, and costly.

This Article explores how the criminal justice system might look to technology and build on the practical experience from the indeterminant and determinant systems. Tools such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) can ...


Seeking Remedies For Lgbtq Children From Destructive Parental Authority In The Era Of Religious Freedom, Roy Abernathy 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Seeking Remedies For Lgbtq Children From Destructive Parental Authority In The Era Of Religious Freedom, Roy Abernathy

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This Note explores the intersection of parents’ rights, religious rights, state’s rights, and children’s rights. This Note analyzes the development of children’s rights and how those rights may be applied to current state religious exemption policies that affect the health of LGBTQ children. This Note will argue that in the absence of direct federal legislation to stop the harm of LGBTQ children, four possible remedies may exist to protect LGBTQ children. These remedies include states asserting parens patriae authority, children asserting substantive due process claims, children utilizing partial emancipation statutes, or children utilizing mature minor exemptions, which ...


Covid-19 And The Conundrum Of Mask Requirements, Robert Gatter, Seema Mohapatra 2020 Saint Louis University School of Law

Covid-19 And The Conundrum Of Mask Requirements, Robert Gatter, Seema Mohapatra

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

As states begin to loosen their COVID-19 restrictions, public debate is underway about what public health measures are appropriate. Many states have some form of mask-wearing orders to prevent the spread of COVID-19 infection. Public health guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization has conflicted. From a public health point of view, it is not clear what the right answer is. In the absence of directives, individuals are also making their own choices about mask use. At a time when public health measures, like shelter-in-place orders and social distancing, are being used to ...


Youth Suffrage: In Support Of The Second Wave, Mae C. Quinn, Caridad Dominguez, Chelsey Omega, Abrafi Osei-Kofi, Carlye Owens 2020 The University of Akron

Youth Suffrage: In Support Of The Second Wave, Mae C. Quinn, Caridad Dominguez, Chelsey Omega, Abrafi Osei-Kofi, Carlye Owens

Akron Law Review

The 19th Amendment is talked about as central to our nation’s suffrage story, with many situating women's suffrage work within feminist theory "wave" discourse. However, with this telling, scholars and others too frequently overlook young voters and efforts relating to their election law rights. This article seeks to remedy this oversight and complicate the voting rights canon, in addition to supporting efforts of today’s youth voting rights advocates. It does so by turning our attention to youth suffrage movements, which we argue also can be examined by way of a framework of "waves." The first to offer ...


Felony Disenfranchisement And The Nineteenth Amendment, Michael Gentithes 2020 The University of Akron

Felony Disenfranchisement And The Nineteenth Amendment, Michael Gentithes

Akron Law Review

The Nineteenth Amendment and the history of the women’s suffrage movement can offer a compelling argument against felony disenfranchisement laws. These laws leave approximately six million citizens unable to vote, often for crimes wholly unrelated to the political process. They also increasingly threaten gains in female enfranchisement.

Today’s arguments in support of felony disenfranchisement laws bear striking similarities to the arguments of anti-suffragists more than a century earlier. Both suggest that a traditionally subordinated class of citizens is inherently incapable of bearing the responsibility that the right to vote entails, and that their votes are somehow less worthy ...


The Nineteenth Amendment And The U.S. "Women's Emancipation Policy" In Post-World War Ii Occupied Japan: Going Beyond Suffrage, Cornelia Weiss 2020 The University of Akron

The Nineteenth Amendment And The U.S. "Women's Emancipation Policy" In Post-World War Ii Occupied Japan: Going Beyond Suffrage, Cornelia Weiss

Akron Law Review

This paper explores the influence of the Nineteenth Amendment on U.S. military occupation policy in Post-World War II Japan. A mere 25 years after the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, actions taken during the military occupation did not stop at suffrage for Japanese women. Actions included a constitution that provided for women’s “equality” (what, even 100 years after the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, is still absent in the U.S. constitution). In addition to addressing women’s suffrage and constitutional equality, this paper examines the successes and failures of the Occupation to eradicate the legal enslavement of ...


The Temperance Movement's Impact On Adoption Of Women's Suffrage, Richard H. Chused 2020 The University of Akron

The Temperance Movement's Impact On Adoption Of Women's Suffrage, Richard H. Chused

Akron Law Review

This paper examines the nature of the Progressive Era and the Prohibition Movement and the important links between the sentiments giving rise to prohibition and those stimulating adoption of suffrage. Though each arose from a somewhat distinct array of reform impulses and overcame varying opposition groups, they were closely related in some ways, supported by overlapping groups of people, advanced by large numbers of women, and, in part, lifted to enactment by similar motivations. Indeed, without the support of many conservative citizens approving both Amendments, it is not clear what the fate of suffrage would have been after World War ...


"A Woman Stumps Her State": Nellie G. Robinson And Women's Right To Hold Public Office In Ohio, Elizabeth D. Katz 2020 The University of Akron

"A Woman Stumps Her State": Nellie G. Robinson And Women's Right To Hold Public Office In Ohio, Elizabeth D. Katz

Akron Law Review

In recognition of the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, this essay provides an introduction to a largely overlooked yet essential component of the women’s movement: the pursuit of women’s legal right to hold public office. From the mid-nineteenth century through ratification of the federal suffrage amendment in 1920, women demanded access to appointed and elected positions, ranging from notary public to mayor. Because the legal right to hold office had literal and symbolic connections to the right to vote, suffragists and antisuffragists were deeply invested in the outcome. Courts and legislatures varied in their responses, with those in ...


Suffragist Prisoners And The Importance Of Protecting Prisoner Protests, Nicole B. Godfrey 2020 The University of Akron

Suffragist Prisoners And The Importance Of Protecting Prisoner Protests, Nicole B. Godfrey

Akron Law Review

This paper examines the role that public exposure to the conditions experienced by suffragist prisoners played in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. Using the experience of the suffragists as an example of how prisoner protest impacted democratic debate, the paper argues that robust protection of prisoners’ First Amendment rights is fundamental to the nation’s democratic values and political discourse and debate.

The paper begins with an historical overview of the arrests, convictions, and incarceration of the Silent Sentinels, women who began picketing outside the White House in 1917. Over the course of several months, local officials in the ...


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