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Protecting The Throne: The Third Circuit's Decision To Preserve Sovereign Immunity In Gentile V. Sec, Ryan Brady, John Reid 2021 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

Protecting The Throne: The Third Circuit's Decision To Preserve Sovereign Immunity In Gentile V. Sec, Ryan Brady, John Reid

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Good Corporate Governance Policies And Disclosure Mechanisms In Startup Companies, Yahel Kaplan 2021 Columbia University

Good Corporate Governance Policies And Disclosure Mechanisms In Startup Companies, Yahel Kaplan

University of Miami Business Law Review

In the past decades, particularly following the collapse of huge corporation such as WorldCom and Enron due to dubious or illegal financial management, countries began gradually increasing the oversight of publicly traded companies with few jurisdictions conjuring recommended corporate governance codes (RCGC) to ensure sufficient oversight, reduce manager’s ability to loot their companies, and ensure that shareholders’ and stakeholders’ interests are monitored effectively by companies. While RCGC was intended namely for public company, several organizations called for the adoption of RCGC in startup companies. Startup companies suffer from various failures which the classic corporate laws are not equipped to ...


Analysis Of Section 230 Under A Theory Of Premises Liability: A Focus On Herrick V.Grindr And Daniel V. Armslist, Kassandra C. Cabrera 2021 University of Miami School of Law

Analysis Of Section 230 Under A Theory Of Premises Liability: A Focus On Herrick V.Grindr And Daniel V. Armslist, Kassandra C. Cabrera

University of Miami Business Law Review

Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act (“CDA”) has been held to give online service providers acting as interactive computer services sweeping immunity for content posted on their platforms. The intention behind the creation of Section 230 was not to immunize online service providers from all liability. Rather, Section 230 was enacted to protect online intermediaries acting as “Good Samaritans” – those who made “good faith” efforts to restrict unlawful or harmful content, but due to the breadth of the internet and advancements in technology over or under-filtered content on their platforms. This note outlines an approach for courts to hold ...


The Occ Fintech Charter And The Bank Holding Company Act, Lauren Bomberger 2021 American University Washington College of Law

The Occ Fintech Charter And The Bank Holding Company Act, Lauren Bomberger

University of Miami Business Law Review

The definition of a bank under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (“BHCA”) has changed several times since the statute was first enacted. Congress has identified a number of underlying rationales for applying the BHCA to certain entities thus necessitating a change in the definition. Recent innovations in technology, however, have made it challenging to adapt the U.S. financial regulatory regime to these advances, particularly for the financial technology (“FinTech”) industry. The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency’s (“OCC”) FinTech charter is one example of an attempt by a U.S. financial regulator to grapple with ...


Publicly Traded Justice, Samuel Ludington 2021 University of Miami School of Law

Publicly Traded Justice, Samuel Ludington

University of Miami Business Law Review

Private prisons, like hotels, are most profitable when they are at maximum occupancy and their guests stay for longer periods of time. Because the business-model for private prisons is predicated on incarceration rates dictated by public policy, one would presume that private prison corporations expend great resources to advocating for stricter criminal laws and sentencing. This note explores the role of political lobbying and campaign contributions of private prison corporations to see if a correlative relationship exists between their advocacy and stricter crime laws. Part I of the note provides a history of private prisons in America and explores the ...


Ftc Enforcement Authority In The Modern Era: A Commission In Crisis?, Brandon Mantilla 2021 University of Miami School of Law

Ftc Enforcement Authority In The Modern Era: A Commission In Crisis?, Brandon Mantilla

University of Miami Business Law Review

This note provides a brief history of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)’s enforcement authority before analyzing the U.S. Court of Appeals for the seventh Circuit’s circuit-splitting decision in FTC v. Credit Bureau Center, LLC. As the Supreme Court prepares to tackle questions surrounding authority to seek monetary relief, I contextualize how enforcement authority has historically been derived before analyzing how the issue may be resolved. Doing so involves engaging several cases that may prove consequential in determining the outcome and outlines potential legislative solutions to the battle over restitution. Before arriving at the most likely scenarios, a ...


Regulation Best Interest: Is The Sec Finally Choosing Main Street Over Wall Street?, Ana Marcos 2021 University of Miami School of Law

Regulation Best Interest: Is The Sec Finally Choosing Main Street Over Wall Street?, Ana Marcos

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Lessons For Today By The Deregulation Of Yesteryear: Analyzing Modern Capital Market Deregulation With Historical Examples, Jordan J. Saddoris 2021 University of Miami School of Law

Lessons For Today By The Deregulation Of Yesteryear: Analyzing Modern Capital Market Deregulation With Historical Examples, Jordan J. Saddoris

University of Miami Business Law Review

Financial market regulators in the US have proposed cutting down their own rulebooks in recent years. However, when it comes to deregulating modern capital markets, the outcomes of historical alterations of similar natures should serve as lessons in what works and what doesn’t. This comment analyzes three modern-day proposals to deregulate US financial markets, using historical actions to argue for the likely efficacy of each.


Proving Economic Loss For In-And-Out Traders In Light Of First Solar, Daniel Roy Settana III 2021 University of Miami School of Law

Proving Economic Loss For In-And-Out Traders In Light Of First Solar, Daniel Roy Settana Iii

University of Miami Business Law Review

Federal courts have grappled with the issue of whether or not to include in-and-out traders in federal securities class action lawsuits. One set of courts has excluded in-and-out traders on the grounds that they could not prove loss causation, while another set of courts has included in-and-out traders because of the possibility that they could prove that they had suffered a loss. In Mineworker’s Pension Scheme versus First Solar, Inc., the Ninth Circuit recently addressed what should be the correct standard for loss causation. While the Ninth Circuit’s decision resolved its own intra-circuit split, the Court’s decision ...


Reexamining The Vicarious Criminal Liability Of Corporations For The Willful Crimes Of Their Employees, Evan Tuttle 2021 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law

Reexamining The Vicarious Criminal Liability Of Corporations For The Willful Crimes Of Their Employees, Evan Tuttle

Cleveland State Law Review

Corporate compliance programs in the United States have evolved substantially in the past several decades, expanding exponentially in both number and scope. Yet, our legal standard of corporate criminal liability for the acts of employees has remained largely unchanged for the past fifty years. United States v. Hilton Hotels established that a corporation can be held liable for the acts of its employee, even though the employee’s conduct may be contrary to their actual instructions or contrary to the employer’s stated policies. That holding, cited with favor by the Supreme Court, was based on a deeply flawed interpretation ...


Corporate Family Matters, Carliss N. Chatman 2021 University of California, Irvine School of Law

Corporate Family Matters, Carliss N. Chatman

UC Irvine Law Review

Corporate groups dominate the American economy. Known publicly by a single name—Chevron, Apple, McDonald’s, or Google—these companies are a web of affiliated entities, each with its own separate legal identity. Yet, corporate laws have failed to develop a statutory scheme that acknowledges these relationships among entities. While corporate personhood, separateness, and the accompanying liability protection are the primary reasons for using the corporate form, or business entities in general, form can be exploited by bad actors who seek to take advantage of the natural legal silos that define each legal entity in a corporate group as a ...


Optimizing The World’S Leading Corporate Law: A 20-Year Retrospective And Look Ahead, Lawrence Hamermesh, Jack B. Jacobs, Leo E. Strine Jr. 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Optimizing The World’S Leading Corporate Law: A 20-Year Retrospective And Look Ahead, Lawrence Hamermesh, Jack B. Jacobs, Leo E. Strine Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In a 2001 article (Function Over Form: A Reassessment of Standards of Review in Delaware Corporation Law) two of us, with important input from the other, argued that in addressing issues like hostile takeovers, assertive institutional investors, leveraged buyouts, and contested ballot questions, the Delaware courts had done exemplary work but on occasion crafted standards of review that unduly encouraged litigation and did not appropriately credit intra-corporate procedures designed to ensure fairness. Function Over Form suggested ways to make those standards more predictable, encourage procedures that better protected stockholders, and discourage meritless litigation, by restoring business judgment rule protection for ...


The Cost Of Doing Business? Corporate Registration As Valid Consent To General Personal Jurisdiction, Matthew D. Kaminer 2021 Washington and Lee University School of Law

The Cost Of Doing Business? Corporate Registration As Valid Consent To General Personal Jurisdiction, Matthew D. Kaminer

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

Every state has a statute that requires out-of-state corporations to register with a designated official before doing business there, but courts disagree on what impact, if any, those statutes can or should have on personal jurisdiction doctrine. A minority of states interpret compliance with their registration statutes as the company’s consent to general personal jurisdiction, meaning it can be sued on any cause of action there, even those unrelated to the company’s conduct in that state. The United States Supreme Court upheld this “consent by registration” theory over 100 years ago, but since then has manifested a sea ...


The Federal Option: Delaware As A De Facto Agency, Omari Scott Simmons 2021 University of Washington School of Law

The Federal Option: Delaware As A De Facto Agency, Omari Scott Simmons

Washington Law Review

Despite over 200 years of deliberation and debate, the United States has not adopted a federal corporate chartering law. Instead, Delaware is the “Federal Option” for corporate law and adjudication. The contemporary federal corporate chartering debate is, in part, a referendum on its role. Although the federal government has regulated other aspects of interstate commerce and has the power to charter corporations and preempt Delaware pursuant to its Commerce Clause power, it has not done so. Despite the rich and robust scholarly discussion of Delaware’s jurisdictional dominance, its role as a de facto national regulator remains underdeveloped. This Article ...


Team Production Revisited, William W. Bratton 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Team Production Revisited, William W. Bratton

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article reconsiders Margaret Blair and Lynn Stout’s team production model of corporate law, offering a favorable evaluation. The model explains both the legal corporate entity and corporate governance institutions in microeconomic terms as the means to the end of encouraging investment, situating corporations within markets and subject to market constraints but simultaneously insisting that productive success requires that corporations remain independent of markets. The model also integrates the inherited framework of corporate law into an economically derived model of production, constructing a microeconomic description of large enterprises firmly rooted in corporate doctrine but neither focused on nor limited ...


A Gilti Fix For An Employment Tax Glitch, Richard Winchester 2021 Pepperdine University

A Gilti Fix For An Employment Tax Glitch, Richard Winchester

Pepperdine Law Review

Self-employed individuals who operate through a business entity can often dictate how much employment tax they pay, if any. That’s because the rules permit them to control whether their earnings count as labor income – which is subject to employment tax – or the returns on any capital invested in their business – which is not subject to the tax. The GILTI rules enacted as part of the 2017 Tax Act assume that capital investments generally earn a 10 percent annual rate of return. That same assumption can be used to allocate the earnings of a self-employed individual between the income from ...


A More Pixelated Union: A Look At The Path To Unionization In The Video Game Industry Under Trump’S National Labor Relations Board, William C. Selfridge 2021 University of Miami School of Law

A More Pixelated Union: A Look At The Path To Unionization In The Video Game Industry Under Trump’S National Labor Relations Board, William C. Selfridge

University of Miami Business Law Review

In the past twenty years, the video game industry has become one of the largest entertainment industries not only in the United States but in the entire world. Yet as video game sales continue to increase at massive rates, it seems the conditions for those making the games have not improved with it, at least according to some in the know. While other entertainment industries have moved to unionize, those in the video game industry have yet to take that leap. To make matters worse, during the administration of President Donald J. Trump, the National Labor Relations Board (“NLRB”) shifted ...


Rock The Cash-Bah! How Alston Presents A New Challenge To The Amateurism Justification And Ways The Ncaa Can Modernize To Remain Afloat, John Y. Doty 2021 University of Miami School of Law

Rock The Cash-Bah! How Alston Presents A New Challenge To The Amateurism Justification And Ways The Ncaa Can Modernize To Remain Afloat, John Y. Doty

University of Miami Business Law Review

During the last decade, antitrust litigation involving Division I athletes and the NCAA has resulted in changes to the NCAA’s rules, presenting a threat to amateurism. As athletes have voiced concerns about their likeness being used without permission in video games, the difficulty of balancing sports and academics, and going to bed hungry when millions of dollars in profits are being made off of them, the NCAA has allowed conferences and schools to provide student-athletes with stipends for cost of attendance expenses. However, even though the NCAA has modified its rules, athletes continue to ask for more, and courts ...


The Hottest Employee Benefit Of 2020: Employers Offer To Repay Employees’ Student Loan Debt, Anne Kotlarz 2021 University of Miami School of Law

The Hottest Employee Benefit Of 2020: Employers Offer To Repay Employees’ Student Loan Debt, Anne Kotlarz

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Student Loans Crisis has spread like wildfire reaching a whopping $1.56 trillion worth of debt. What started off as the Federal government’s initiative to encourage Americans to invest in their future through obtaining secondary education, has turned into a systemic crisis that burns just as hot as global warming. Lobbyists are currently petitioning Congress to enact meaningful legislation to extinguish the flames of the growing student loan debt. Most notably, the private sector is proposing congressional reform to amend the tax code to enable employers to offer employees student loan repayment assistance tax-free. This article delves into ...


Wells Fargo & Co. V. U.S.: A Potential Beginning Of The End Of The Objective Reasonable Basis Tax Penalty Defense, Beckett G. Cantley, Geoffrey C. Dietrich 2021 Northeastern University

Wells Fargo & Co. V. U.S.: A Potential Beginning Of The End Of The Objective Reasonable Basis Tax Penalty Defense, Beckett G. Cantley, Geoffrey C. Dietrich

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”) § 6662(a) permits the IRS to impose a twenty-percent (20%) accuracy-related penalty to an underpayment of tax, and there are several different defenses to this penalty depending on the facts of the case and the reason for the penalty.3 One of the most common accuracy-related penalties is the negligence penalty.4 Although there are multiple different reasons for the application of an accuracy-related penalty, only one penalty may be applied for each understatement.5 If a taxpayer faces the negligence penalty, one common defense is that the taxpayer’s return position has a reasonable ...


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