Magnifying Deterrence By Prosecuting Professionals, 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
Magnifying Deterrence By Prosecuting Professionals, Scott Schumacher
Indiana Law Journal
This Article examines the recent series of criminal prosecutions against tax professionals and offshore bankers. These criminal cases, brought against the largest Swiss bank (UBS), the oldest Swiss bank (Wegelin), one of the largest accounting firms in the world (KPMG), as well as numerous lawyers and accountants, represent a dramatic shift for the U.S. Department of Justice. After decades of tolerating abusive tax shelters and tax haven banks, the government changed its policy. However, rather than indicting the individuals and corporations who invested in tax shelters or hid money in offshore accounts, the Justice Department indicted the lawyers, accountants ...
Dirty Debts Sold Dirt Cheap, 2014 SelectedWorks
Dirty Debts Sold Dirt Cheap, Dalie Jimenez
This Article examines the sale and purchase of consumer debts (e.g., delinquent credit card debts) through the lens of a rare collection of contracts.† It finds that in many instances, sellers disclaim all warranties about the underlying debts sold or the information transferred, sometimes as far as specifically refusing to stand by “the accuracy or completeness of any information provided.” The Article argues that the collection of consumer debts sold through these transactions violates the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act’s prohibition against using deceptive or misleading representations in connection with the collection of a debt. After considering potential ...
Aspectos Procesales De La Reforma Financiera En Mexico, 2014 SelectedWorks
Aspectos Procesales De La Reforma Financiera En Mexico, Jorge E. De Hoyos Walther, De Hoyos Y Aviles
Jorge E De Hoyos Walther
Resumen de los aspectos procesales de la reforma financiera aprobada en México en el año de 2014. Nuevas facultades de la CONDUSEF y derechos de los usuarios de servicios financieros.
Has The Cftc Gone Too Far In Trying To Keep The American Economy Safe From Cross-Border Swaps?, Gabriel Lau
With the passage of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank”) in 2010, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) received the daunting task regulating swap markets. Following two iterations of proposed guidance and comment periods, the CFTC released its finalized “Interpretive Guidance and Policy Statement Regarding Compliance with Certain Swap Regulations” (“Guidance”) on July 26, 2013. In the Guidance, the CFTC gives its interpretation and policy outlook for promulgating rules with respect to the regulation of cross-border swaps. This paper examines both the critiques of the Guidance, including issues of international comity and rule promulgation procedures, and ...
Crossing The Fault Line In Corporate Criminal Law, 2014 University of Pennsylvania
Crossing The Fault Line In Corporate Criminal Law, Amy Sepinwall
Amy J. Sepinwall
Why is it that so few bankers have been prosecuted and punished in the wake of the financial meltdown? Pundits are quick to point to inadequate funding for addressing financial crime or, more cynically, the revolving door between government regulatory agencies and Wall Street. But the ultimate answer may be at once more banal and more dispiriting, lying as it does at the very foundations of our criminal law.
The conception of responsibility underpinning much of our criminal law contemplates the individual in isolation from others. As a result, our criminal law has tremendous difficulty tracking culpability in organizational contexts ...
Bounties For Bad Behavior: Rewarding Culpable Whistleblowers Under The Dodd-Frank Act And Internal Revenue Code, Jennifer M. Pacella
Jennifer M. Pacella, Esq.
In 2012, Bradley Birkenfeld received a $104 million reward or “bounty” from the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for blowing the whistle on his employer, UBS, which facilitated a major offshore tax fraud scheme by assisting thousands of U.S. taxpayers to hide their assets in Switzerland. Birkenfeld does not fit the mold of the public’s common perception of a whistleblower. He was himself complicit in this crime and even served time in prison for his involvement. Despite his conviction, Birkenfeld was still eligible for a sizable whistleblower bounty under the IRS Whistleblower Program, which allows rewards for whistleblowers who ...
Paying For Risk: Bankers, Compensation, And Competition, 2014 Cornell Law Library
Paying For Risk: Bankers, Compensation, And Competition, Simone M. Sepe, Charles K. Whitehead
Cornell Law Faculty Working Papers
Efforts to control bank risk address the wrong problem in the wrong way. They presume that the financial crisis was caused by CEOs who failed to supervise risk-taking employees. The responses focus on executive pay, believing that executives will bring non-executives into line—using incentives to manage risk-taking—once their own pay is regulated. What they overlook is the effect on non-executive pay of the competition for talent. Even if executive pay is regulated, and executives act in the bank’s best interests, they ...
Caveat Emptor When ‘Purchasing’ (Using) A Corporate Governance Index – A Critical Perspective On ‘Law And Finance’, Sang Yop Kang
Sang Yop Kang
‘Law and Finance’ theory – which offers analytical frameworks to measure the protection of public investors and the quality of corporate governance – has dominated the comparative corporate governance scholarship in the last decade. So far, many proponents and critics have had debates on the relevance of the theory and the implications of the theory’s empirical studies. Several important points in relation to shareholder protection, however, have been highly neglected by in these debates. In particular, the significance of one-share-one-vote (OSOV) rule – although it is tangentially treated in Law and Finance theory – has been inappropriately underestimated. In response, this Article explores ...
Subjective Falsity Under Section 11 Of The Securities Act: Protecting Statements Of Opinion, Daniel H. Smith
Daniel H Smith
SUBJECTIVE FALSITY UNDER SECTION 11 OF THE SECURITIES ACT: PROTECTING STATEMENTS OF OPINION
Daniel Hooper Smith
Subjective Falsity Under Section 11 of the Securities Act: Protecting Statements of Opinion discusses the Sixth Circuit’s strict liability decision in Indiana State District Council of Laborers & Hod Carriers Pension & Welfare Fund v. Omnicare, Inc. for statements of opinion contained in registration statements, and its express departure from both the Second and Ninth Circuits. Consistent with the Second, Third, and Ninth Circuits, this Article proposes that both objective and subjective falsity should be the requisite pleading standard for section 11 opinion statement ...
Banking And The Social Contract, 2014 Notre Dame Law School
Banking And The Social Contract, Mehrsa Baradaran
Notre Dame Law Review
This Article asserts that there are three major tenets of the social contract: (1) safety and soundness, (2) consumer protection, and (3) access to credit. Regulators can and should require banks to meet standards in these areas to benefit society even if these measures reasonably reduce bank profits. Implicit in the social contract is the idea that each party must give up something in the exchange. This Article provides policymakers not only the appropriate narrative and justifications needed to frame their regulatory philosophy, but it also provides important textual support from the most prominent acts of banking legislation to give ...
Rollover Risk: Ideating A U.S. Debt Default, 2014 Boston College Law School
Rollover Risk: Ideating A U.S. Debt Default, Steven L. Schwarz
Boston College Law Review
This Article examines how a U.S. debt default might occur, how it could be avoided, its potential consequences if not avoided, and how those consequences could be mitigated. The most realistic default would result from rollover risk: the risk that the government will be temporarily unable to borrow sufficient funds to repay its maturing debt. The United States, like most governments, routinely finances itself through short-term debt, which is less expensive than long-term debt. But this cost-saving does not come free of charge: it increases the threat of default. A U.S. debt default—even a mere “technical” default ...
Admission Of Guilt: Sinking Teeth Into The Sec's Sweetheart Deals, 2014 SelectedWorks
Admission Of Guilt: Sinking Teeth Into The Sec's Sweetheart Deals, Larissa Lee
Throughout its existence, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has allowed defendants to settle cases without admitting to the allegations of wrongdoing. This “neither admit nor deny” policy has received heavy criticism by judges, Congress, and the public, especially in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis. On June 18, 2013, SEC Chairman Mary Jo White announced the agency’s intention to require admissions of guilt in certain cases. While Chairman White did not articulate a clear standard of when admissions would be required, she did say that the agency would focus on the egregiousness of the defendant’s conduct ...
Precluding The Treasure Hunt: How The World Bank Group Can Help Investors Circumnavigate Sovereign Immunity Obstacles To Icsid Award Execution, Joseph M. Cardosi
Pepperdine Law Review
This Comment highlights the frustrating road that investors travel in search of assets when states do not honor arbitration awards and discusses how the World Bank Group can unify investor–state arbitrations to preclude such hollow victories for investors. Part II introduces the contemporary framework of investor–state arbitration, including an overview of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID or the Centre), a summary of the scope of noncompliance with investor–state arbitration awards, and the unique ICSID enforcement mechanism used to address challenges to awards and noncompliance. Part III provides examples of the challenges investors face ...
Libor: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know But Were Afraid To Ask, 2014 Pepperdine University
Libor: Everything You Ever Wanted To Know But Were Afraid To Ask, Michael R. Koblenz, Kenneth M. Labbate, Carrie C. Turner
The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law
The goal of this article is to present the reader with a general overview of the LIBOR: its genesis and development, how and why London bankers manipulated the LIBOR, the liability of implicated parties, criminal penalties, the impact of criminal penalties on director and officer insurance carriers, and what the future holds for the LIBOR.
Drastic Times Call For Drastic Risk Measures: Why Value-At-Risk Is (Still) A Flawed Preventative Of Financial Crises And What Regulators Can Do About It, Andrew L. Mcelroy
The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law
Bank regulators recently proposed the most fundamental reforms to U.S. banking law in decades, yet the value-at-risk statistic--replete with known deficiencies--remains the basis of the capital adequacy requirement. Consequently, there exists an unresolved tension in the law: the purpose of the banking rules is to require riskier financial institutions to hold additional capital, yet the value-at-risk statistic used to make this assessment induces a perverse incentive to hold the riskiest securities. Overlaid on this framework is the wide latitude afforded to banks in designing their value-at-risk models. This Article explores foreseeable issues with the regulatory reliance on value-at-risk. Moreover ...
Dodd-Frank’S Risk Retention Requirement: The Incentive Problem, 2014 SelectedWorks
Dodd-Frank’S Risk Retention Requirement: The Incentive Problem, Amy L. Mcintire
Amy L. McIntire
On July 21, 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act into law (Dodd-Frank). Promulgated by Congress to promote the financial stability of the United States by improving accountability and transparency in the financial system, the bill represented an almost complete overhaul of the entire financial regulation system. Specifically, a provision in the bill mandated that securitizers “retain not less than five percent of the credit risk for any asset,” and this requirement became known as the “risk retention requirement.” Legislators hoped that, by forcing securitizers to hold onto a percentage of the risk ...
Controlling Shareholders: Benevolent “King” Or Ruthless “Pirate”, 2014 SelectedWorks
Controlling Shareholders: Benevolent “King” Or Ruthless “Pirate”, Sang Yop Kang
Sang Yop Kang
Unfair self-dealing and expropriation of minority shareholders by a controlling shareholder are common business practices in developing countries (“bad-law countries”). Although controlling shareholder agency problems have been well studied so far, there are many questions unanswered in relation to behaviors and motivations of controlling shareholders. For example, a puzzle is that some controlling shareholders in bad-law countries voluntarily extract minority shareholders less than other controlling shareholders. Applying Mancur Olson’s framework of political theory of “banditry” to the context of corporate governance, this Article proposes that there are at least two categories of controlling shareholders. “Roving controllers” are dominant shareholders ...
Remic Tax Enforcement As Financial-Market Regulator, 2014 SelectedWorks
Remic Tax Enforcement As Financial-Market Regulator, Bradley T. Borden, David J. Reiss
David J Reiss
Lawmakers, prosecutors, homeowners, policymakers, investors, news media, scholars and other commentators have examined, litigated, and reported on numerous aspects of the 2008 Financial Crisis and the role that residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) played in that crisis. Big banks create RMBS by pooling mortgage notes into trusts and selling interests in those trusts as RMBS. Absent from prior work related to RMBS securitization is the tax treatment of RMBS mortgage-note pools and the critical role tax enforcement should play in ensuring the integrity of mortgage-note securitization.
This Article is the first to examine federal tax aspects of RMBS mortgage-note pools formed ...
Preventing And Countering The Financing Of Terrorism Within The Roman Catholic Church, Ryan J. Pulkrabek
Ryan J Pulkrabek
The Holy See/Vatican City State has taken vast measures toward international compliance with Anti-Money Laundering/Countering Financing of Terrorism laws since 2010. The HS/VCS submitted its original AML/CFT law to a MONEYVAL review. The key takeaway from the MONEVYAL assessment was that the Vatican has come a long way in a short period of time. Most of the deficiencies will be ironed out with continued communication with MONEYVAL, trial and error of enforcing Laws NN. CLXVI and XVIII, and continued efforts toward compliance with other international counter-terrorism conventions. Notably, Law No. CLXVI was passed after MONEYVAL’s ...
Improved Performance Guarantees, 2014 Yale University
Improved Performance Guarantees, Ian Ayres, Quinn Curtis
Many mutual fund shareholders invest in funds with supra-competitive fees that reduce their expected return even though lower cost alternatives are available. While financial arbitrage could address this problem, conventional arbitrage is difficult to implement in the mutual fund market. This article proposes legal reform to our system of mutual fund regulation that responds to the problem of high-cost funds by providing the investors who are making the most substantial mistakes with salient and transparent market information about the existence of superior investment alternatives. We first consider ways that regulation could be reformed to facilitate what we call “short redemption ...