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Excessive Corporate Risk-Taking And The Decline Of Personal Blame, Steven L. Schwarcz 2016 Duke Law School

Excessive Corporate Risk-Taking And The Decline Of Personal Blame, Steven L. Schwarcz

Faculty Scholarship

Government agencies and prosecutors are being criticized for seeking so few indictments against individuals in the wake of the 2008-09 financial crisis and its resulting banking failures. This article analyzes why — contrary to a longstanding historical trend — personal liability may be on the decline, and whether agencies and prosecutors should be doing more. The analysis confronts fundamental policy questions concerning changing corporate and social norms. The public and the media perceive the crisis’s harm as a “wrong” caused by excessive risk-taking. But that view can be too simplistic, ignoring the reality that firms must take greater risks to try ...


Crisis In Iceland: Deposit-Guarantee Scheme Failure And State Liability, Benjamin C. Kelsey 2015 Boston College Law School

Crisis In Iceland: Deposit-Guarantee Scheme Failure And State Liability, Benjamin C. Kelsey

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

On January 28, 2013, the Court of Justice of the European Free Trade Association States held that Iceland was not required to compensate foreign depositors of Landsbanki, an Icelandic bank, when the deposit-guarantee scheme failed to reimburse depositors following the 2008 financial crisis. The court supported its conclusion with the text of the Directive that established deposit-guarantee schemes as well as policy arguments regarding consumer protection and moral hazard. The court also found that Iceland’s failure to repay foreign depositors did not constitute an act of discrimination. Although the court correctly interpreted both the text and policy goals of ...


Canadian Mortgage Law And Prepayment Penalties, Peter Spiro 2015 University of Toronto

Canadian Mortgage Law And Prepayment Penalties, Peter Spiro

Western Journal of Legal Studies

This article illustrates the imbalance of power between the mortgagor and mortgagee, which is particularly apparent for individual mortgagors. Prepayment and due on sale provisions are standard mortgage terms that contribute to this imbalance. Although these clauses purport to operate separately, in reality, both are frequently triggered by the sale of a property; the law of contract suggests that these provisions should not be enforceable. Relevant legislation is lacking in this area and should be reformed to provide more effective consumer protection while acknowledging that banks operate with the goal of maximizing business. A reasonable compromise would involve basing the ...


The Bank-Centered View Of The Money Market, Part Ii: Re-Evaluating The Real Bills Approach To Macro-Prudential Regulation, Carolyn Sissoko 2015 USC Center for Law and Social Science

The Bank-Centered View Of The Money Market, Part Ii: Re-Evaluating The Real Bills Approach To Macro-Prudential Regulation, Carolyn Sissoko

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This paper argues that an early 20th century central banker, had he been alive at the turn of the 21st century, would have predicted the 2007-08 crisis and its severity. This paper is Part II of a series which contends that early 20th century banking theory is a valuable framework for understanding the relationship between banks, financial markets, and the central bank. This paper builds on Part I which explained that because a social norm supports the circulation of bank deposits as money, deposits are a network good and this makes possible monetary finance, or the expansion of the money ...


Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor 2015 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

Protectionism can come in a variety of methods including the use of internal taxation policies that discriminate against imports making those imports more expensive on the domestic market and thus favoring domestically-produced goods. Discriminatory taxation policies have been developed by member-states to mask protectionism by distinguishing products based on import status, product similarity, product life cycle, consumption, tax collection practices, transportation charges, and state aid. The Framers of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) wrote Article 110 with the objective in mind to prohibit internal taxation policies from discriminating against goods in made in other member-states ...


The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor 2015 Kent State University - Kent Campus

The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

The benefits to free movement of international financial flows are numerous but include an efficient asset market and the opportunity for economic growth and development for countries engaged in an agreement allowing for such freedom. The free movement of capital is one of the four pillars of the Treaty on the Function of the European Union (TFEU) along with the free movement of goods, services, and labor. Article 63 of the TFEU prohibits limitations on the free movement of capital while Article 65 of the TFEU allows for some exceptions. Not only does the free movement of capital doctrine suppose ...


Extraterritorial Financial Regulation: Why E.T. Can't Come Home, John C. Coffee Jr. 2015 Columbia Law School

Extraterritorial Financial Regulation: Why E.T. Can't Come Home, John C. Coffee Jr.

International Financial Regulation Seminar

No abstract provided.


Current Legal Matters Affecting Central Banks, Robert C. Effros 2015 International Monetary Fund

Current Legal Matters Affecting Central Banks, Robert C. Effros

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Public Actors In Private Markets: Toward A Developmental Finance State, Robert C. Hockett, Saule T. Omarova 2015 Cornell Law School

Public Actors In Private Markets: Toward A Developmental Finance State, Robert C. Hockett, Saule T. Omarova

Robert C. Hockett

The recent financial crisis brought into sharp relief fundamental questions about the social function and purpose of the financial system, including its relation to the “real” economy. This Article argues that, to answer these questions, we must recapture a distinctively American view of the proper relations among state, financial market, and development. This programmatic vision – captured in what we call a “developmental finance state” – is based on three key propositions: (1) that economic and social development is not an “end-state” but a continuing national policy priority; (2) that the modalities of finance are the most potent means of fueling continuous ...


Scouting For Approval: Lessons On Medical Device Regulation In An Era Of Crowdfunding From Scanadu’S “Scout”, Colleen Smith 2015 College of William & Mary Law School

Scouting For Approval: Lessons On Medical Device Regulation In An Era Of Crowdfunding From Scanadu’S “Scout”, Colleen Smith

Student Award Winning Papers

This Article will argue that medical device companies should be able to utilize crowdfunding to raise the necessary capital to develop a product. However, because of the risks medical devices pose, any solution that allows medical device companies to employ crowdfunding should ensure the continuing commitment to consumer safety that is at the core of FDA regulation. This Article uses the Scanadu Scout as an example and a staring point for evaluating the use of crowdfunding in the medical device industry. This Article explains how and why Scanadu broke the law when it moved the Scout, an “adulterated or misbranded ...


When Lenders Can Legally Provide Loans With Effective Annual Interest Rates Above 1,000 Percent, Is It Time For Congress To Consider A Federal Interest Cap On Consumer Loans?, Victor D. Lopez 2015 Hofstra University

When Lenders Can Legally Provide Loans With Effective Annual Interest Rates Above 1,000 Percent, Is It Time For Congress To Consider A Federal Interest Cap On Consumer Loans?, Victor D. Lopez

Victor D. Lopez

The question of whether interest rates should be regulated for the good of society has been debated by secular and religious authorities for millennia. Restrictions on the highest rate of interest allowed by law (if any) are generally set by the states. In the U.S., whether citizens are protected against unreasonably high interest rates is generally a matter for state legislatures to decide. In this article, the current laws of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are examined with regards to the issue of usury, as well as the challenges posed by federal law for states who ...


Mortgage Foreclosure In Buckhead, Terika L. Haynes 2015 Dr. Terika L. Haynes

Mortgage Foreclosure In Buckhead, Terika L. Haynes

Terika L Haynes

The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto study was to determine whether a relationship exists between home occupancy type, purchase price, residency duration, and the incidence of mortgage foreclosure of homeowners residing in single-family residential homes in the eight zip codes (30305, 30309, 30318, 30319, 30324, 30326, 30327, and 30342) within the Buckhead community, a high-income community located in Atlanta, Georgia. The possible relationships were explored and evaluated by conducting an archival analysis to examine the Georgia Public Notice Statewide Database of public foreclosure records, Fulton County Property Assessor records, and Fulton County tax data for 2009. The occupancy ...


Public Actors In Private Markets: Toward A Developmental Finance State, Saule Omarova 2015 Cornell University, Law School

Public Actors In Private Markets: Toward A Developmental Finance State, Saule Omarova

International Financial Regulation Seminar

No abstract provided.


The Dean Rusk Award 1983-1984: The Export Trading Company Act Of 1982: Theory And Application, Mark Grambergs 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

The Dean Rusk Award 1983-1984: The Export Trading Company Act Of 1982: Theory And Application, Mark Grambergs

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Sources Of Export Financing, Thomas Graham 2015 District of Columbia

Sources Of Export Financing, Thomas Graham

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Foreign Debt - Act Of State Doctrine - Unilateral Deferral Of Obligations By Debtor Nations Is Inconsistent With United States Law And Policy: Allied Bank International V. Banco Credito Agricola De Cartago, Marc J. Lewyn 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Foreign Debt - Act Of State Doctrine - Unilateral Deferral Of Obligations By Debtor Nations Is Inconsistent With United States Law And Policy: Allied Bank International V. Banco Credito Agricola De Cartago, Marc J. Lewyn

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. McNamara 2015 American University of Beirut, Olayan School of Business

The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara

Steven R. McNamara

Michael Lewis’s recent book Flash Boys has resurrected the controversy concerning “high-frequency trading” (HFT) in the stock markets. While HFT has been important in the stock markets for about a decade, and may have already peaked in terms of its economic significance, it touched a nerve with a public suspicious of financial institutions in the wake of the financial crisis of 2008-2009. In reality, HFT is not one thing, but a wide array of practices conducted by technologically adept electronic traders. Some of these practices are benign, and some even bring benefits such as liquidity and improved price discovery ...


Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert M. Lloyd, Nicholas J. Chase 2015 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert M. Lloyd, Nicholas J. Chase

Robert M Lloyd

ABSTRACT

Recovery of Damages for Lost Profits: The Historical Development

The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale is widely considered the most important rule of contract damages. In fact, however, the rule that damages must be proven with reasonable certainty is far more important in the modern practice of law. The reasonable certainty rule originated in Roman law and came to the common law through the civil law of Western Europe, developing first in the United States and spreading from the United States to England.

The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale developed much in the same way, and, contrary to popular ...


Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson II 2015 George Washington University School of Law

Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson Ii

William Alan Nelson II

Broker-dealers, unlike investment advisers, are not regulated as fiduciaries when providing investment advice, even though broker-dealers are holding themselves out as financial advisors and offering virtually identical services to investors. The lack of consistent regulation of financial service providers arises from the structure in which advice historically has been delivered. Financial services regulation since the Great Depression has developed along roughly dual tracks: laws governing the sale of financial products, which may or may not require that the products be suitable for the customer, and laws governing investment advice, which impose a fiduciary requirement on the adviser to act solely ...


Restructuring A Sovereign Bond Pari Passu Work-Around: Can Holdout Creditors Ever Have Equal Treatment?, Natalie A. Turchi 2015 Fordham University School of Law

Restructuring A Sovereign Bond Pari Passu Work-Around: Can Holdout Creditors Ever Have Equal Treatment?, Natalie A. Turchi

Fordham Law Review

The rise of vulture fund investing in sovereign bonds has created additional hurdles to successful restructuring in an already fragile ad hoc process. Recent litigation in NML Capital, Ltd. v. Argentina has proven courts’ willingness to utilize powers of equity to enforce a ratable payment interpretation of the pari passu clause—the equal treatment provision commonly found in sovereign bond contracts—creating much uncertainty on how the ruling will affect future restructuring efforts. By looking to the tension in interpretations of the pari passu clause, discrepancies in remedial relief awarded, and international institutions’ proposed solutions, this Note analyzes the role ...


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