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Legal Literature Review Of Social Entrepreneurship And Impact Investing (2007-2017): Doing Good By Doing Business, Deborah Burand, Anne Tucker 2020 William & Mary Law School

Legal Literature Review Of Social Entrepreneurship And Impact Investing (2007-2017): Doing Good By Doing Business, Deborah Burand, Anne Tucker

William & Mary Business Law Review

Although the ambition to do good by doing business is not new, the burgeoning realization of this ambition is. As the fields of social entrepreneurship and impact investing advance in size, scope and complexity, questions about the roles of corporations and capital markets in society intensify.

What is legal scholarship contributing to this discussion? This Article reviews the scholarly contributions of 260 articles written by over 150 authors about the fields of social enterprise, social finance, and impact investing. The Article maps the contributions of legal scholarship over the last decade—from 2007 (when the term “impact investing” was first ...


Dankruptcy: When The Green Runs Out, Marijuana Debtors Have Few Options, Jorge J. Rodriguez 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dankruptcy: When The Green Runs Out, Marijuana Debtors Have Few Options, Jorge J. Rodriguez

Arkansas Law Review

The legalized marijuana industry is lucrative but surrounded with uncertainties. The divergence between state and federal law has pushed this industry into a state of limbo. Furthermore, at the federal level, the lack of enforcing the prohibition has only exacerbated the uncertainty. Historically, the federal government has taken a very relaxed approach and allowed marijuana businesses to operate with minimal interference. As a result, there is a thriving legalized marijuana industry operating throughout the majority of the United States. However, there are many obstacles which plague and threaten the future of this relatively young industry. Of particular importance, and the ...


The Cost Of Doing Business: Corporate Crime And Punishment Post-Crisis, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin 2020 USC Gould School of Law

The Cost Of Doing Business: Corporate Crime And Punishment Post-Crisis, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

For many years, law and economics scholars, as well as politicians and regulators, have debated whether corporate criminal enforcement overdeters beneficial corporate activity or in the alternative, lets corporate criminals off too easily. This debate has recently expanded in its polarization: On the one hand, academics, judges, and politicians have excoriated the DOJ for failing to send guilty bankers to jail in the wake of the financial crisis; on the other, the DOJ has since relaxed policies aimed to secure individual lability and reduced the size of fines and number of prosecutions.

A crucial and yet understudied piece of evidence ...


Private Equity Value Creation In Finance: Evidence From Life Insurance, Divya Kirti, Natasha Sarin 2020 International Monetary Fund

Private Equity Value Creation In Finance: Evidence From Life Insurance, Divya Kirti, Natasha Sarin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper studies how private equity buyouts create value in the insurance industry, where decentralized regulation creates opportunities for aggressive tax and capital management. Using novel data on 57 large private equity deals in the insurance industry, we show that buyouts create value by decreasing insurers' tax liabilities; and by reaching-for-yield: PE firms tilt their subsidiaries' bond portfolios toward junk bonds while avoiding corresponding capital charges. Previous work on affiliated or "shadow" reinsurance and capital management misses the important role that private equity buyouts play as recent drivers of these phenomenon. The trend we document is of growing importance in ...


Causing A Sanctions Violation With U.S. Dollars: Differences In Regulatory Language Across Ofac Sanctions Programs, Christine Abely 2020 Middleton Shrull & Bock

Causing A Sanctions Violation With U.S. Dollars: Differences In Regulatory Language Across Ofac Sanctions Programs, Christine Abely

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Overturning Of Quill And The New Nexus Standard, Ethan T. Kirner 2020 DePaul University

The Overturning Of Quill And The New Nexus Standard, Ethan T. Kirner

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Blowing The Whistle In The Digital Age: Are You Really Anonymous? The Perils And Pitfalls Of Anonymity In Whistleblowing Law, Tanya M. Marcum J.D., Jacob Young D.B.A., Ethan T. Kirner 2020 DePaul University

Blowing The Whistle In The Digital Age: Are You Really Anonymous? The Perils And Pitfalls Of Anonymity In Whistleblowing Law, Tanya M. Marcum J.D., Jacob Young D.B.A., Ethan T. Kirner

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Segregation Of Markets, Christian Turner 2020 University of Georgia School of Law

The Segregation Of Markets, Christian Turner

Texas A&M Law Review

Campaign-finance reformers fear that rich donors’ money can be used disproportionately to influence the content of campaign advertising and thus, perhaps, the results of elections. In European football, UEFA has attempted to ban “financial doping”—rich owners’ use of money earned in sectors other than football to pay large sums for the best football players. Campaign-finance reform efforts and “financial fair play” rules in sport may seem like bespoke solutions to different problems. In fact, they are the same solution to the same problem. Both are attempts to ensure that power accumulated in one market is not brought into another ...


توجه الخوارزمية لحل مشكلة انسياب العمل, بثينة فرحان, Hisham Al-Rawi 2020 بغداد/العراق

توجه الخوارزمية لحل مشكلة انسياب العمل, بثينة فرحان, Hisham Al-Rawi

Al-Balqa Journal for Research and Studies البلقاء للبحوث والدراسات

تعرض الورقة توجها جديداً لحل مشكلة انسيابية العمل الورشي . يعتمد النظام الحاسوبي المعروض على الخوارزمية الجينية وعلى تمثيل مشكلة انسياب العمل الورشي على صورة مشكلة البائع المتجول . وعلى هذا الأساس تعرض الورقة حل مشكلة جدولة الماكنة . العمل . تتطرق إلى الاختيارات المناسبة للعوامل الأساسية في الخوارزمية الجينية. أظهرت النتائج المعطاة انحيازاً شديداً نحو الجدولة المثلى .


Transactional Scripts In Contract Stacks, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Transactional Scripts In Contract Stacks, Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Deals accomplished through software persistently residing on computer networks—sometimes called smart contracts, but better termed transactional scripts—embody a potentially revolutionary contracting innovation. Ours is the first precise account in the legal literature of how such scripts are created, and when they produce errors of legal significance.

Scripts’ most celebrated use case is for transactions operating exclusively on public, permissionless, blockchains: such exchanges eliminate the need for trusted intermediaries and seem to permit parties to commit ex ante to automated performance. But public transactional scripts are costly both to develop and execute, with significant fees imposed for data storage ...


O Tell Me The Truth About Bail-In: Theory And Practice, Marco Ventoruzzo, Giulio Sandrelli 2020 Pepperdine University

O Tell Me The Truth About Bail-In: Theory And Practice, Marco Ventoruzzo, Giulio Sandrelli

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

In this perspective, the purpose of this Article is to analyze the functioning of the European regulatory framework for the crisis of credit institutions in the light of its early applications, and with a special focus on the bail-in tool. We investigate how the new resolution mechanisms—rooted in the principle of private sector involvement in banking restructurings—have interplayed with (and tried to re-shape) legal and institutional contexts still characterized by an attitude to bail-out rescues and by non-harmonized national insolvency legislations.


Drawing The Line: Can Lawyers Invest In Their Client's Business Without Crossing An Ethical Line?, Ali Ghassemi 2020 Pepperdine University

Drawing The Line: Can Lawyers Invest In Their Client's Business Without Crossing An Ethical Line?, Ali Ghassemi

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

I will begin with a look inside the history of entrepreneurship and its rise and decline throughout various times in our country’s history. I will then shift the focus towards the history of startup companies and what the modern trend is today in startups. After laying the foundation for startups, I will look into the complexities of creating a startup company and looking at the role that attorneys play in the lifetime of startups. From there, I will dive into the history and trend of lawyers who have invested in their client’s companies - through direct investment or bartering ...


Basel Iii G: Shadow Banking And Project Finance, Christian M. McNamara, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii G: Shadow Banking And Project Finance, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

The Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR), a liquidity standard introduced by Basel III, seeks to promote a better match between the liquidity of a bank’s assets and the manner in which the bank funds those assets. The NSFR requires banks to maintain a minimum amount of funding deemed “stable” by the Basel framework based on the liquidity of the banks’ assets and activities over a one-year timeframe. One of the areas seen as most affected by this development may be bank participation in project finance for infrastructure development. Since the global demand for infrastructure development remains robust, the shadow ...


Basel Iii F: Callable Commercial Paper, Christian M. McNamara, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii F: Callable Commercial Paper, Christian M. Mcnamara, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

One of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s responses to the global financial crisis of 2007-09 was to introduce the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR), a short-term measure that evaluates whether a bank has enough liquidity to meet expected cash outflows during a 30-day stress scenario. One area in which this incentive has already resulted in changed practices is in the market for commercial paper. Banks often provide backup liquidity facilities to the issuers of commercial paper that the issuers can draw upon to repay a maturing issue of commercial paper if they are unable to sell a new issue ...


Basel Iii E: Synthetic Financing By Prime Brokers, Christian M. McNamara, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii E: Synthetic Financing By Prime Brokers, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

Hedge funds rely on “prime brokerage” units within banks to provide leverage. With the enhanced capital requirements and new liquidity standards introduced by Basel III driving up the cost to banks of engaging in such financing, prime brokers have begun to offer an alternative means of providing hedge fund clients with leveraged exposure to securities. Known as synthetic financing, this alternative requires the prime broker to enter into derivatives contracts with the clients. Under the Basel III framework, the ability of banks to hedge and net such derivative positions results in capital and liquidity costs for synthetic financing that are ...


Basel Iii D: Swiss Finish To Basel Iii, Christian M. McNamara, Natalia Tente, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii D: Swiss Finish To Basel Iii, Christian M. Mcnamara, Natalia Tente, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III—enhanced requirements applicable to Switzerland’s “too-big-to-fail” banks Credit Suisse and UBS that go beyond the base requirements established by the BCBS. Yet the prominent role played by relatively ...


Basel Iii B: Basel Iii Overview, Christian M. McNamara, Michael Wedow, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii B: Basel Iii Overview, Christian M. Mcnamara, Michael Wedow, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

In the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-09, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) faced the critical task of diagnosing what went wrong and then updating regulatory standards aimed at preventing it from occurring again. In seeking to strengthen the microprudential regulation associated with the earlier Basel Accords while also adding a macroprudential overlay, Basel III consists of proposals in three main areas intended to address 1) capital reform, 2) liquidity standards, and 3) systemic risk and interconnectedness. This case considers the causes of the 2007-09 financial crisis and what they suggest about weaknesses in the Basel regime ...


Basel Iii A: Regulatory History, Christian M. McNamara, Thomas Piontek, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii A: Regulatory History, Christian M. Mcnamara, Thomas Piontek, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

From the earliest efforts to mandate the amount of capital banks must maintain, regulators have grappled with how best to accomplish this task. Until the 1980s, regulation had been based largely on discretion and judgment. In the wake of two bank failures, the central bank governors of the G10 countries established the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and in 1988, the BCBS introduced a capital measurement system, Basel I. The system represented a triumph of the fixed numerical approach, however, critics worried that it was too blunt an instrument. In 1999, the BCBS issued Basel II, a proposal to ...


Jpmorgan Chase London Whale Z: Background & Overview, Arwin G. Zeissler, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Jpmorgan Chase London Whale Z: Background & Overview, Arwin G. Zeissler, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

In December 2011, the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of JPMorgan Chase (JPM) instructed the bank’s Chief Investment Office to reduce the size of its Synthetic Credit Portfolio (SCP) during 2012, so that JPM could decrease its Risk-Weighted Assets as the bank prepared to adopt the impending Basel III bank capital regulations. However, the SCP traders were also told to minimize the trading costs incurred to reduce Risk-Weighted Assets, while still maintaining the opportunity to profit from unexpected corporate bankruptcies. In an attempt to balance these competing objectives, head SCP derivatives trader Bruno Iksil suggested in January ...


Incorporating Macroprudential Financial Regulation Into Monetary Policy, Aaron Klein 2020 The Brookings Institution

Incorporating Macroprudential Financial Regulation Into Monetary Policy, Aaron Klein

Journal of Financial Crises

This paper proposes two insights into financial regulation and monetary policy. The first enhances understanding the relationship between them, building on the automobile metaphor that describes monetary policy: when to accelerate or brake for curves miles ahead. Enhancing the metaphor, financial markets are the transmission. In a financial crisis, markets cease to function, equivalent to a transmission shifting into neutral. This explains both monetary policy’s diminished effectiveness in stimulating the economy and why the financial crisis shock to real economic output greatly exceeded central bank forecasts.

The second insight is that both excess leverage and fundamental mispricing of asset ...


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