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Buying Monopoly: Antitrust Limits On Damages For Externally Acquired Patents, Erik N. Hovenkamp, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2017 Northwestern University

Buying Monopoly: Antitrust Limits On Damages For Externally Acquired Patents, Erik N. Hovenkamp, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

The “monopoly” authorized by the Patent Act refers to the exclusionary power of individual patents. That is not the same thing as the acquisition of individual patent rights into portfolios that dominate a market, something that the Patent Act never justifies and that the antitrust laws rightfully prohibit.

Most patent assignments are procompetitive and serve to promote the efficient commercialization of patented inventions. However, patent acquisitions may also be used to combine substitute patents from external patentees, giving the acquirer an unearned monopoly position in the relevant technology market. A producer requires only one of the substitutes, but by acquiring ...


Louis Brandeis And Contemporary Antitrust Enforcement, Kenneth G. Elzinga, Micah Webber 2017 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Louis Brandeis And Contemporary Antitrust Enforcement, Kenneth G. Elzinga, Micah Webber

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Troubled Waters Between U.S. And European Antitrust, D. Daniel Sokol 2017 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Troubled Waters Between U.S. And European Antitrust, D. Daniel Sokol

UF Law Faculty Publications

Antitrust is an important area of law and policy for most companies in the world. Having divergent rules across antitrust systems means that the same economic behavior may be treated differently depending on the jurisdiction, leading to disparate outcomes in which one jurisdiction finds illegal behavior (but the other does not) when the underlying behavior may be pro-competitive. This disparate set of outcomes creates a world in which the most stringent antitrust system may produce the global standard. As a result, if the antitrust rules applied are too rigid, they threaten to hurt consumers not merely in the jurisdiction where ...


The Ultimate Fighting Championship And Zuffa: From ‘Human Cock-Fighting' To Market Power, Carl J. Gaul IV 2017 American University Washington College of Law

The Ultimate Fighting Championship And Zuffa: From ‘Human Cock-Fighting' To Market Power, Carl J. Gaul Iv

American University Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Major League Soccer's Exceptionalism In Fifa's Transfer System: For How Much Longer?, Remo Decurtins 2017 Marquette University Law School

Major League Soccer's Exceptionalism In Fifa's Transfer System: For How Much Longer?, Remo Decurtins

Marquette Sports Law Review

None


Pharmaceutical M&A Activity: Effects On Prices, Innovation, And Competition, Barak D. Richman, Will Mitchell, Elena Vidal, Kevin Schulman 2017 Duke Law School

Pharmaceutical M&A Activity: Effects On Prices, Innovation, And Competition, Barak D. Richman, Will Mitchell, Elena Vidal, Kevin Schulman

Faculty Scholarship

The rise of blockbuster pharmaceutical acquisitions has prompted fears that unprecedented market concentration will weaken competition. Two of the most prominent concerns focus on the upstream and downstream ends of the pharmaceutical industry: (1) the concern that these mergers will concentrate the market for discovery and will therefore lead to fewer discoveries; and (2) the concern that merging large marketing, sales, and distribution forces will strengthen the hands of select pharmaceutical manufacturers and weaken downstream competition. Having considered potential dynamic effects in the industry and conducted a series of preliminary interviews with knowledgeable observers, though, this Article argues that neither ...


Aggregated Royalties For Top-Down Frand Determinations: Revisiting "Joint Negotiation", Jorge L. Contreras 2017 S.J. Quinney College of Law, University of Utah

Aggregated Royalties For Top-Down Frand Determinations: Revisiting "Joint Negotiation", Jorge L. Contreras

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

In an environment in which widely-adopted technical standards may each be covered by large numbers of patents, there have been increasing calls for courts to determine “fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory” (FRAND) royalties payable to holders of standardsessential patents (SEPs) using “top-down” methodologies. Top-down royalty approaches begin with the aggregate royalty that should be payable with respect to all SEPs covering a particular standard, and then allocate a portion of the total to individual SEPs. Top-down approaches avoid many drawbacks associated with bottom-up approaches in which royalties for individual SEPs are assessed, often in an inconsistent and piecemeal manner, without regard ...


Constraining Monitors, Veronica Root 2017 Notre Dame Law School

Constraining Monitors, Veronica Root

Journal Articles

Monitors oversee remediation efforts at dozens, if not hundreds, of institutions that are guilty of misconduct. The remediation efforts that the monitors of today engage in are, in many instances, quite similar to activities that were once subject to formal court oversight. But as the importance and power of monitors has increased, the court’s oversight of monitors and the agreements that most often result in monitorships has, at best, been severely diminished and, at worst, vanished altogether. Additionally, statutory efforts to provide formal guidance and restrictions on monitorships have stalled and published bar guidance has taken a nonbinding advisory ...


Big Pharma Monopoly: Why Consumers Keep Landing On "Park Place" And How The Game Is Rigged, Mark S. Levy 2017 American University Washington College of Law

Big Pharma Monopoly: Why Consumers Keep Landing On "Park Place" And How The Game Is Rigged, Mark S. Levy

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Abuse Of The Hatch-Waxman Act: Mylan's Ability To Monopolize Reflects Weaknesses, Kieran Meagher 2017 Brooklyn Law School

Abuse Of The Hatch-Waxman Act: Mylan's Ability To Monopolize Reflects Weaknesses, Kieran Meagher

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, better known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, is intended to lower the average price paid by consumers for prescription drugs. The Hatch-Waxman Act attempts to do so by simplifying the application process for generic drug manufacturers, allowing generic drug applications to circumvent the lengthy FDA testing and approval process that brand-name manufacturers must undergo. Though the Hatch-Waxman Act has successfully created a clear path to the market for generic drugs, it contains loopholes that allow brand name and generic companies to engage in practices aimed at maximizing monopoly profits, effectively ...


The Courts' Interpretations Of Legitimate Business Purposes, With Applications To Lexmark, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 411 (2017), W. Lesser 2017 John Marshall Law School

The Courts' Interpretations Of Legitimate Business Purposes, With Applications To Lexmark, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 411 (2017), W. Lesser

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

Courts frequently must assess 'intent'. This article applies to the interpretation the intent of "legitimate business purposes" as a justification for restrictive use licensing agreements for patented products. Generally, the 'first sale' doctrine terminates the use rights of the patent holder. However, if the sale is conditioned on some use limitations and violators of those terms are liable for infringement. The courts, suggested in Mitchell v. Hawley (1872) and formalized in Mallinckrodt v. Medipart (1992), have allowed use restrictions based on license terms. Restrictions are disallowed under the affirmative defense of patent invalidity, such as from an antitrust violation. This ...


Trading Spaces: The Changing Role Of The Executive In U.S. Trade Lawmaking, Kathleen Claussen 2017 University of Miami School of Law

Trading Spaces: The Changing Role Of The Executive In U.S. Trade Lawmaking, Kathleen Claussen

Articles

Since the earliest days of the republic, the U.S. executive has wielded a significant but constitutionally bounded influence on the direction of U.S. trade law. In the twenty-first century, the growth of free trade agreements has led to an institutionalization of trade norms that permits the executive many more spaces for engagement with trading partners. In addition, other types of quotidian lawmaking extend the power of the executive in both public and hidden spaces beyond congressional delegation, even as that power remains substantially bounded by congressional control. This Article analyzes the dynamics between the branches that will direct ...


The Investment Protection Chapter Of The Eu-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: A Model For The Post-Brexit Uk Iias, Siraj Shaik AZIZ 2017 Singapore Management University

The Investment Protection Chapter Of The Eu-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: A Model For The Post-Brexit Uk Iias, Siraj Shaik Aziz

Research Collection School Of Law

The impending British exit (Brexit) from the European Union has placed the UK's investment policy at a crossroads. A post-Brexit UK will now have to reorganise its investment relationships with its economic partners through bespoke UK IIAs. This exercise will have to accommodate the shifting Zeitgeist concerning the balance of investors' rights and the right to regulate IIAs that is expected. This paper examines the continued relevance of the recently minted Investment Protection Chapter in the EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, acknowledged by Britain's power brokers, as a persuasive model for the UK to emulate for this purpose. This ...


E. Bement & Sons V. National Harrow Company: The First Skirmish Between Patent Law And The Sherman Act, Amelia Rinehart 2017 S.J. Quinney College of Law, University of Utah

E. Bement & Sons V. National Harrow Company: The First Skirmish Between Patent Law And The Sherman Act, Amelia Rinehart

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

In the 1890s, the Sherman Act presented a host of unknowns for patent owners and lax enforcement enabled the proliferation of trusts like the Harrow Trust embodied in the practices of National Harrow. Bement, a profligate license violator, ended up fighting the trust all the way to the Supreme Court, but the surprising outcome left an enduring impression on the interplay between antitrust and patent law. In this way, the case has been both important and forgotten over time. Given the outcome in Actavis, and the possibility for a change of personnel on the Court that may shift it further ...


Why Intra-Brand Dealer Competition Is Irrelevant To The Price Effects Of Tesla's Vertical Integration, Daniel A. Crane 2017 University of Michigan Law School

Why Intra-Brand Dealer Competition Is Irrelevant To The Price Effects Of Tesla's Vertical Integration, Daniel A. Crane

Articles

"In recent years, Tesla Motors (recently renamed Tesla) has been engaged in a state-by-state ground way for the right to distribute it’s all-electric vehicles directly to consumers. The car dealers' lobby, with the political backing of General Motors, has fiercely battled back, relying on decades-old state dealer protection laws to argue that Tesla is legally bound to distribute through franchised dealers. Through a combination of favorable state legislative and judicial decisions, Tesla has won the right to distribute directly in many states, but remains categorically barred from direct distribution in important states like Michigan and Texas--and hence all direct ...


The Raising Rivals' Cost Foreclosure Paradigm, Conditional Pricing Practices, And The Flawed Incremental Price-Cost Test, Steven C. Salop 2017 Georgetown University Law Center

The Raising Rivals' Cost Foreclosure Paradigm, Conditional Pricing Practices, And The Flawed Incremental Price-Cost Test, Steven C. Salop

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

There are two overarching legal paradigms for analyzing exclusionary conduct in antitrust – predatory pricing and the raising rivals’ costs characterization of foreclosure. Sometimes the choice of paradigm is obvious. Other times, it may depend on the structure of the plaintiff’s allegations. Some types of conduct, notably conditional pricing practices (CPPs), might appear by analogy to fit into both paradigms. CPPs involve pricing that is conditioned on exclusivity or some other type of favoritism in a customer’s purchases or input supplier’s sales. The predatory pricing paradigm would attack the low prices of CPPs. By contrast, the RRC foreclosure ...


Market Definition, Steven C. Salop, Serge Moresi, John R. Woodbury 2017 Georgetown University Law Center

Market Definition, Steven C. Salop, Serge Moresi, John R. Woodbury

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

We explain the “hypothetical monopolist test” that has become the standard methodology for identifying relevant antitrust markets in merger cases, and discuss two approaches to implementing the test. We then focus on the implementation of the test when firms offer multiple products or services, either inside or outside the candidate market, and discuss the “hypothetical cartel test” introduced in the 2010 U.S. Merger Guidelines.


The Antitrusting Of Patentability, Saurabh Vishnubhakat 2017 Texas A&M University School of Law

The Antitrusting Of Patentability, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Faculty Scholarship

Deciding a patent’s validity is costly, and so is deciding it incorrectly. Judges and juries must expend significant resources in order to reach a patent validity determination that is properly informed by the relevant facts. At the same time, patent validity determinations reached quickly and cheaply may conserve resources today while creating future costs. Wrongly preserving an invalid patent can distort the competitive market and enable abuses, such as nuisance litigation. Meanwhile, wrongly striking down a valid patent can undermine incentives for continued investment and commercialization in knowledge assets. Courts facing patent validity issues have begun to strike this ...


Restoring American Antitrust's Moral Arc, Thomas J. Horton 2016 University of South Dakota School of Law

Restoring American Antitrust's Moral Arc, Thomas J. Horton

Thomas J. Horton

No abstract provided.


Trademarks: German Manufacturer’S Deliberate Infringement Of Domestic Trademark Sufficient To Support Injunctive Relief, But Not Supportive Of Award For Damages, Kimley R. Johnson 2016 University of Georgia School of Law

Trademarks: German Manufacturer’S Deliberate Infringement Of Domestic Trademark Sufficient To Support Injunctive Relief, But Not Supportive Of Award For Damages, Kimley R. Johnson

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


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