Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Antitrust and Trade Regulation Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

5,470 Full-Text Articles 3,687 Authors 2,549,670 Downloads 128 Institutions

All Articles in Antitrust and Trade Regulation

Faceted Search

5,470 full-text articles. Page 1 of 118.

Antitrust Law’S Harm To Competition: A New Understanding Of Exclusivity, Ittai Paldor 2021 Hebrew University Faculty of Law

Antitrust Law’S Harm To Competition: A New Understanding Of Exclusivity, Ittai Paldor

Buffalo Law Review

One of the long-accepted axioms of antitrust law is that the competitive danger posed by exclusivity agreements increases as the market share foreclosed by these arrangements increases. The larger the market share foreclosed by an exclusivity agreement, the less likely the arrangement is to be upheld by courts. And exclusivity arrangements foreclosing extremely large market shares are practically never upheld. The business community has responded by forsaking such arrangements (or concealing them). This Article challenges this very intuitive axiom. It shows that due to an unobserved feature of exclusivity, when extremely large market shares are foreclosed, the competitive danger posed ...


The Disparate Treatment Of Rights In U.S. Trade, Desirée LeClercq 2021 Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations & Cornell Law School

The Disparate Treatment Of Rights In U.S. Trade, Desirée Leclercq

Fordham Law Review

Rights advocates are increasingly urging U.S. trade negotiators to include new binding and sanctionable provisions that would protect human rights, women’s rights, and gender equality. Their efforts are understandable. Trade agreements have significant advantages as a process for advancing international rights. Even though Congress and the executive incorporate international environmental standards and labor rights into U.S. trade agreements, they have refused to incorporate gender rights and broader human rights. The rationale behind the United States’s disparate treatment of rights in trade has received almost no scholarly attention. That is a mistake. Using labor rights as a ...


Competing Explanations For Parallel Conduct: Lessons From The Australian Detergent Case (Colgate-Palmolive), George Hay, E. Jane Murdoch 2021 Cornell Law School

Competing Explanations For Parallel Conduct: Lessons From The Australian Detergent Case (Colgate-Palmolive), George Hay, E. Jane Murdoch

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Parallel conduct by competing firms is an almost unavoidable phenomenon in the real world. Of course, parallel conduct can be the result of completely independent and uncontroversial behaviour, such as when all suppliers are affected by and respond unilaterally to an identical increase in costs. Few would suggest that, in such circumstances, the firms’ conduct should be subject to sanctions. At the other extreme, parallel conduct can be the result of interdependent and deliberately coordinated behaviour, such as when all suppliers meet in the proverbial smoke-filled room and agree to fix prices. Few would hesitate to condemn such conduct under ...


The Right To Repair: (Re)Building A Better Future, Jumana Labib 2021 Western University

The Right To Repair: (Re)Building A Better Future, Jumana Labib

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The goal of this research project was to take a multi-faceted, interdisciplinary approach to research and examine the Right to Repair movement’s progress, current repair practices, impediments, and imperatives, and the various large-scale implications (environmental, economic, social, etc.) stemming from diminished consumer freedom as a result of increased corporate greed and lack of governmental regulations with regards to repair and the environment. This poster exhibits the highlights of my general research project on the Right to Repair movement over the course of this four month internship, and aims to disseminate information about the movement to the wider public in ...


Taking The Long View On Shorting: Market Manipulation And Gme, Andrew Steiner 2021 Saint Louis University School of Law

Taking The Long View On Shorting: Market Manipulation And Gme, Andrew Steiner

SLU Law Journal Online

In this article, Andrew Steiner provides an overview of the events surrounding the GameStop short squeeze coordinated by retail investors on the internet forum WallStreetBets over the last year and the possible legal fallout. While some traditional institutional investors call for regulatory intervention, retail investors have pointed the finger at trading app Robinhood.


Splitting Scales: Conflicting National And Regional Attempts To Manage Commercial Aquaculture In The Exclusive Economic Zone, Brandee Ketchum 2021 Preis & Roy, PLC, Lafayette

Splitting Scales: Conflicting National And Regional Attempts To Manage Commercial Aquaculture In The Exclusive Economic Zone, Brandee Ketchum

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Like other environmental resources subject to public use, various interest groups struggle over joint management of scarce fisheries resources. Further, differing goals for resource management, such as financial goals versus conservation goals, frequently pit regional groups against one another. In some cases, regional interests may conflict with overall national interests. As goes the water and the air, so go the fish.


United States Food Law Update: Health Care Reform, Preemption, Labeling Claims And Unpaid Interns: The Latest Battles In Food Law, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson, Michaela N. Tarr 2021 University of Illinois, Champaign

United States Food Law Update: Health Care Reform, Preemption, Labeling Claims And Unpaid Interns: The Latest Battles In Food Law, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson, Michaela N. Tarr

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This edition of the Food Law Update explores four legal issues arising in the first half of 2010 reflective of the diverse nature of the food law specialist. As the national debate surrounding the merits of health care reform dominated the legislative agenda, this article first will discuss the food labeling rules embedded within section 4205 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The authors then analyze the preemptive reach of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Meat Inspection Act with respect to three separate California statutes regarding animal welfare standards, retail labels on ...


European Union Food Law Update, Emilie H. Leibovitch 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

European Union Food Law Update, Emilie H. Leibovitch

Journal of Food Law & Policy

This EU Food Law Update will focus on the recent developments in the areas of genetically modified organisms, novel foods, feed safety, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, salmonella and food borne diseases, food additives, organic farming, food contact materials, and labeling.


Produce Exceptionalism: Examining The Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement And Its Ability To Improve Food Safety, Varun Shekhar 2021 University of Wisconsin, Madison

Produce Exceptionalism: Examining The Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement And Its Ability To Improve Food Safety, Varun Shekhar

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Isolated food safety crises are not uncommon occurrences in the United States. Indeed, the history of public scares indicates a pattern of deficiencies in the safety of the American food supply. In the early 20th century, the public learned of the squalid conditions of meatpacking facilities through muckraking publications such as Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. In the 1980s, a 60 Minutes report documented research finding carcinogenic properties of a widespread pesticide, traces of which were commonly found in apple-based products. In the 1990s, widespread media reports of beef tainted with E. coli led to both product recalls unprecedented in ...


A Bittersweet Deal For Consumers: The Unnatural Application Of Preemption To High Fructose Corn Syrup Labeling Claims, Josh Ashley 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Bittersweet Deal For Consumers: The Unnatural Application Of Preemption To High Fructose Corn Syrup Labeling Claims, Josh Ashley

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The recent rise of consumer consciousness regarding the health qualities of foods and beverages has become something akin to common knowledge. Reflecting this rise, studies reveal that labels regarding the health qualities of a food are more likely to increase sales. And among the health labels consumers prefer, labels describing the product as natural top the list. One website reports that according to a recent study, 31.3-percent of respondents thought that "100% natural" was the best description to read on a label, compared with only 14.2-percent who thought that "100% organic" was the best description. "All natural ingredients ...


Cheaters Shouldn't Prosper And Consumers Shouldn't Suffer: The Need For Government Enforcement Against Economic Adulteration Of 100% Pomegranate Juice And Other Imported Food Products, Michael T. Roberts 2021 University of California, Los Angeles

Cheaters Shouldn't Prosper And Consumers Shouldn't Suffer: The Need For Government Enforcement Against Economic Adulteration Of 100% Pomegranate Juice And Other Imported Food Products, Michael T. Roberts

Journal of Food Law & Policy

In the modern global food system - marked by the trade flow of a variety of food products and ingredients from multiple locations in the world - economically motivated adulteration has emerged as a growing menace that threatens the health and wellbeing of consumers, the economic livelihoods of honest purveyors of food in the global marketplace, and the integrity and viability of national food regulatory systems. Economic adulteration is a form of cheating that includes the padding, diluting, and substituting of food product. Although this cheating is rooted in past food systems, the new paradigm for economic adulteration - a vast international food-trade ...


Reconsidering Federalism And The Farm: Toward Including Local, State And Regional Voices In America's Food System, Margaret Sova McCabe 2021 University of New Hampshire, Concord

Reconsidering Federalism And The Farm: Toward Including Local, State And Regional Voices In America's Food System, Margaret Sova Mccabe

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Why is the relationship between our food system and federalism important to American law and health? It is important simply because federal law controls the American food system. This essay considers how federal law came to structure our food system, and suggests that though food is an essential part of our national economy, the dominating role of the federal government alienates citizens from their food system. It does so by characterizing food as a primarily economic issue, rather than one that has ethical, health, and cultural components. However, state and local governments have much to offer in terms of broadening ...


Herbert Hovenkamp As Antitrust Oracle: Appreciating The Overlooked Contributions Of The New Harvard School, Christopher S. Yoo 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Herbert Hovenkamp As Antitrust Oracle: Appreciating The Overlooked Contributions Of The New Harvard School, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

My colleague, Herbert Hovenkamp, is almost universally recognized as the most cited and the most authoritative US antitrust scholar. Among his many honors, his status as the senior author of the authoritative Areeda and Hovenkamp treatise makes him the unquestioned leader of the New Harvard School, which has long served as the bellwether for how courts are likely to resolve emerging issues in modern antitrust doctrine. Unfortunately, its defining tenets and its positions on emerging issues remain surprisingly obscure. My contribution to this festschrift explores the core commitments that distinguish the New Harvard School from other approaches to antitrust. It ...


United States Food Law Update: Moving Toward A More Balanced Food Regulatory Regime, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson 2021 University of Illinois, Champaign

United States Food Law Update: Moving Toward A More Balanced Food Regulatory Regime, A. Bryan Endres, Nicholas R. Johnson

Journal of Food Law & Policy

For decades, the federal government has played a significant role in promoting healthy eating. In the early 1900s, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) promoted a foundational diet of milk, proteins, fruits and vegetables, and grains. Most Americans are at least somewhat familiar, although perhaps confused, with the more nuanced healthy eating recommendations contained in the food pyramid - first employed in 1992. And virtually every American has experienced the federally supported school lunch program. In the first half of 2011, these two iconic programs underwent significant change as part of a stepped-up effort to improve the health of the ...


The Tragedy Of The Horse, American Icon, Tim Opitz 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Tragedy Of The Horse, American Icon, Tim Opitz

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Whether a prohibition on slaughter improves the welfare of the American horse population is the focus of this article. At the time it was written, winter of 2010-2011, a confluence of Federal and State legislative action had ended domestic slaughter. These actions are detailed in the body of this article. Since 2007, the legal status of horse slaughter remained static. Just as Sir Isaac Newton's first law of motion explained, an object at rest tends to stay at rest. Legislative inertia is the perspective from which this article was originally written. However, Newton's first law also stated that ...


President Biden's Executive Order On Promoting Competition: An Antitrust Analysis, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

President Biden's Executive Order On Promoting Competition: An Antitrust Analysis, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In July, 2021, President Biden signed a far ranging Executive Order directed to promoting competition in the American economy. This paper analyzes issues covered by the Order that are most likely to affect the scope and enforcement of antitrust law. The only passage that the Executive Order quoted from a Supreme Court antitrust decision captures its antitrust ideology well – that the Sherman Act:

rests on the premise that the unrestrained interaction of competitive forces will yield the best allocation of our economic resources, the lowest prices, the highest quality and the greatest material progress, while at the same time providing ...


European Union Food Law Update, Emilie Majster 2021 European Sugar Association, Brussels

European Union Food Law Update, Emilie Majster

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Nutrition is increasingly important in both the European Union (EU) and in global food-related policy making. Governments, which up until recently have focused on regulating food products based on a food safety perspective, are now turning to regulate from a nutritional aspect.


Canadian Food Law Update, Patricia L. Farnese 2021 University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon

Canadian Food Law Update, Patricia L. Farnese

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Provided below is an overview of the developments in Canadian food law and policy in 2011. This update considers the regulatory and policy developments and litigation activities by the federal government. This focus reflects the significance of federal activities in the food policy realm.


Put A Cork In It: The Use Of H.R. 161 To End Direct Wine Shipping Throughout The States Once And For All, Victoria H. Jones 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Put A Cork In It: The Use Of H.R. 161 To End Direct Wine Shipping Throughout The States Once And For All, Victoria H. Jones

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Due to Congress' recent agenda, oenophiles throughout the country are up in arms about the possible threat to their beloved wine. Wine lovers and other alcohol enthusiasts face the very real fear that access to their favorite products may soon be heavily restricted. This is in large part attributed to the fact that House Resolution 1161 would effectively change the ways in which states regulate alcohol shipment. The possible implications of this bill range from the forced shutdown of many wineries and distilleries due to lack of funding, to the smaller effects of regulation such as the inability of customers ...


Cornography: Perverse Incentives And The United States Corn Subsidy, Anthony Kammer 2021 Demos, New York City

Cornography: Perverse Incentives And The United States Corn Subsidy, Anthony Kammer

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Among the most important functions we have afforded to the U.S. Congress is the power to reshape social and economic incentive structures through legislation. Proceeding from the enumerated powers under the Constitution and using a complex toolbox of legislative and regulatory innovations, the federal legislature has enormous power to transform the types of behavior that people will perceive as self-interested throughout our economy and thus how those same people are likely to act. Congress can, among other things, create new forms of criminal and civil liability, establish entitlement systems, subsidize industries, encourage behavior through the tax code, regulate interactions ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress