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The Probative Synergy Of Plus Factors In Price-Fixing Litigation, Christopher R. Leslie 2021 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

The Probative Synergy Of Plus Factors In Price-Fixing Litigation, Christopher R. Leslie

Northwestern University Law Review

Private plaintiffs alleging that defendants conspired to fix prices in violation of antitrust law must usually prove their claims through circumstantial evidence, generally in the form of “plus factors”—evidence indicating that the defendants’ parallel conduct was caused by collusion, not by independent decision-making. Supreme Court precedent requires fact finders to examine antitrust plaintiffs’ evidence holistically. With increasing frequency, however, federal courts in price-fixing cases improperly isolate each piece of circumstantial evidence presented by the plaintiff and then deprive it of all probative value because that single piece of evidence is insufficient, standing alone, to prove a price-fixing conspiracy. As ...


The U.S. Dairy Industry In The 20th And 21st Century, George B. Frisvold 2021 University of Arizona, Tucson

The U.S. Dairy Industry In The 20th And 21st Century, George B. Frisvold

Journal of Food Law & Policy

At the beginning of the 20th Century, the U.S. dairy industry was comprised of millions of small-scale operations producing for their own or for very local consumption. By the end of the 20th Century, the industry was dominated by large-scale producers marketing products via large cooperatives. Improvements in transportation, advances in animal breeding and feeding technologies, and scale economies have allowed the industry to be more competitive on global markets, where there is now active international trade in dairy products. Major government programs to support dairy farm income date back to Depression-era problems facing the industry. Federal programs to ...


A Tale Of Two Regulators: Antitrust Implications Of Progressive Decentralization In Blockchain Platforms, Evan Miller 2021 Vinson & Elkins LLP

A Tale Of Two Regulators: Antitrust Implications Of Progressive Decentralization In Blockchain Platforms, Evan Miller

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

Competition regulators have identified the potential for blockchain technology to disrupt traditional sponsor-led platforms, like app stores, that have received increased antitrust scrutiny. Enforcement actions by securities regulators, however, have forced blockchain-based platforms to adopt a strategy of progressive decentralization, delaying decentralization objectives in favor of the centralized model that competition regulators hope they will disrupt. This regulatory tension, and the implications for blockchain’s procompetitive potential, have yet to be explored. This Article first identifies the origin of this tension and its consequences through a competition law lens, and then recommends that competition regulators account for this tension in ...


The New Era Of Nfl Antitrust Law, The Sunday Ticket Package: Was The Ninth Circuit Ruling A Touchdown Or A Penalty?, Maya Rustom 2021 Pepperdine University

The New Era Of Nfl Antitrust Law, The Sunday Ticket Package: Was The Ninth Circuit Ruling A Touchdown Or A Penalty?, Maya Rustom

Pepperdine Law Review

Americans love football, but every year thousands of fans are forced to pay exorbitant annual fees if they chose to have access to out-of-market games. In other words, if fans don’t live in the territory of their favorite team, they can either pay an excessive annual fee to watch their team play or miss out on the majority of games every season. This arrangement is a result of DirecTV’s Sunday Ticket Package, which is an exclusive distributorship agreement with the NFL that prevents fans from watching live out-of-market games unless they pay the annual subscription fee. This Comment ...


Vertical Control, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2021 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Vertical Control, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Antitrust litigation often requires courts to consider challenges to vertical “control.” How does a firm injure competition by limiting the behavior of vertically related firms? Competitive injury includes harm to consumers, labor, or other suppliers from reduced output and higher margins.

Historically antitrust considers this issue by attempting to identify a market that is vertically related to the defendant, and then consider what portion of it is “foreclosed” by the vertical practice. There are better mechanisms for identifying competitive harm, including a more individualized look at how the practice injures the best placed firms or bears directly on a firm ...


The Future Of Antitrust: New Challenges To The Consumer Welfare Paradigm And Legislative Proposals, John B. Nalbandian, Makan Delrahim, Gene Kimmelman, Maureen Ohlhausen, Rainer Wessely 2021 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

The Future Of Antitrust: New Challenges To The Consumer Welfare Paradigm And Legislative Proposals, John B. Nalbandian, Makan Delrahim, Gene Kimmelman, Maureen Ohlhausen, Rainer Wessely

Catholic University Law Review

On November 14, 2019, the Federalist Society's Corporations, Securities, & Antitrust Practice Group hosted a panel for the 2019 National Lawyers Convention at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, DC. The panel discussed "The Future of Antitrust: New Challenges to the Consumer Welfare Paradigm and Legislative Proposals”.


The Music Industry: Drowning In The Stream, Jonathan Croskrey 2021 Pepperdine University

The Music Industry: Drowning In The Stream, Jonathan Croskrey

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

The Department of Justice is reviewing two of it's oldest consent decrees, which were entered into with ASCAP and BMI. ASCAP and BMI are the two original performing rights organizations and existed well before streaming. This article analyzes copyright and antirust law through the lens of modern technology and the current landscape of the music industry. It examines whether the consent decrees should be removed or modified and what the consequences of each would be.


Brief Of Amici Curiae 65 Professors Of Law, Business, Economics, And Sports Management In Support Of Respondents, Chris Sagers, Michael A. Carrier, Lisa M. Geary 2021 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University

Brief Of Amici Curiae 65 Professors Of Law, Business, Economics, And Sports Management In Support Of Respondents, Chris Sagers, Michael A. Carrier, Lisa M. Geary

Law Faculty Briefs and Court Documents

The Alston plaintiffs are college athletes who successfully challenged the NCAA's "amateurism" rules, convincing the lower courts that the rules should be modestly relaxed to limit their effect on competition for athletic talent. Nearly 60 professors of law, business, and economics from around the country joined the brief.


Antitrust Policy Toward Patent Licensing: Why Negotiation Matters, Daniel F. Spulber 2021 University of Minnesota Law School

Antitrust Policy Toward Patent Licensing: Why Negotiation Matters, Daniel F. Spulber

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Achieving Privacy: Costs Of Compliance And Enforcement Of Data Protection Regulation, Anupam Chander, Meaza Abraham, Sandeep Chandy, Yuan Fang, Dayoung Park, Isabel Yu 2021 Georgetown University Law Center

Achieving Privacy: Costs Of Compliance And Enforcement Of Data Protection Regulation, Anupam Chander, Meaza Abraham, Sandeep Chandy, Yuan Fang, Dayoung Park, Isabel Yu

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Is privacy a luxury for the rich world? Remarkably, there is a dearth of literature evaluating whether data privacy is too costly for companies to implement, or too expensive for governments to enforce. This paper is the first to offer a review of surveys of costs of compliance, and to summarize national budgets for enforcement. The study shows that while privacy may indeed prove costly for companies to implement, it is not too costly for governments to enforce. This study will help inform governments as they fashion and implement privacy laws to address the “privacy enforcement gap”—the disparity between ...


Comments To The Draft Working Group Iii Workplan, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, International Institute for Environment and Development, International Institute for Sustainable Development 2021 Columbia Law School

Comments To The Draft Working Group Iii Workplan, Columbia Center On Sustainable Investment, International Institute For Environment And Development, International Institute For Sustainable Development

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is currently working on how to reform international investment treaties, focusing in particular on those treaties’ provisions enabling investors to sue governments in international arbitration. As an observer organization in this process, CCSI has emphasized that in the context of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) reform, it is important to first consider what it is that investment treaties aim to achieve, and only then to consider what form(s) of dispute settlement will best advance those objectives. This means not only looking at reform of the existing ISDS mechanism, but also alternatives ...


Labor Market Monopsony And Wage Inequality: Evidence From Online Labor Market Vacancies, Samuel I. Thorpe 2021 Williams College

Labor Market Monopsony And Wage Inequality: Evidence From Online Labor Market Vacancies, Samuel I. Thorpe

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper estimates the effects of employer labor market power on wage inequality in the United States. I find that inequality as measured by interdecile range is 23.7% higher in perfectly monopsonistic labor markets than in perfectly competitive markets, even when controlling for commuting zone and occupation fixed effects. I also decompose these results into 50/10 and 90/50 ratios, finding much larger impacts on inequality among low earners. These results suggest that monopsony power has significant and policy-relevant impacts on wage inequality, and particularly harms the lowest earning subsets of the labor force.


United States Supreme Court Ip Cases, 1810–2019: Measuring & Mapping The Citation Networks, Joseph Scott Miller 2021 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

United States Supreme Court Ip Cases, 1810–2019: Measuring & Mapping The Citation Networks, Joseph Scott Miller

Catholic University Law Review

Intellectual property law in the United States, though shaped by key statutes, has long been a common-law field to a great degree. Many decades of decisional law flesh out the meaning of broad-textured, sparely worded statutes. Given the key roles of patent law and copyright law, both federal, the Supreme Court of the United States is i.p. law’s leading apex court. What are the major topical currents in the Supreme Court’s i.p. cases, both now and over the course of the Court’s work? This study uses network-analysis tools to measure and map the entirety of ...


Contested Places, Utility Pole Spaces: A Competition And Safety Framework For Analyzing Utility Pole Association Rules, Roles, And Risks, Catherine J.K. Sandoval 2021 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

Contested Places, Utility Pole Spaces: A Competition And Safety Framework For Analyzing Utility Pole Association Rules, Roles, And Risks, Catherine J.K. Sandoval

Catholic University Law Review

As climate change augurs longer wildfire seasons, safe, reliable, and competitive energy and communications markets depend on sound infrastructure and well-calibrated regulation. The humble wooden utility pole, first deployed in America in 1844 to extend telegraph service, forms the twenty-first century’s technological scaffold. Utility poles are increasingly contested places where competition, safety, and reliability meet. Yet, regulators and academics have largely overlooked the risks posed by century-old private utility pole associations in California, composed of private and public utility pole owners and some entities who attach facilities to utility poles. No academic articles have examined the rules, roles, and ...


Is Biopharma Ready For The Standard Wars?, Jorge L. Contreras 2021 S.J. Quinney College of Law, University of Utah

Is Biopharma Ready For The Standard Wars?, Jorge L. Contreras

Texas A&M Journal of Property Law

This symposium contribution sheds new light on Momenta v. Amphastar, a case in which issues relating to standardization and patent disclosure that have previously been observed in the semiconductor, computing, and telecommunications sectors found their way into a dispute between two biosimilar manufacturers. One such manufacturer, Momenta, participated in the development of a standard for testing the purity of generic enoxaparin under the auspices of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention but failed to disclose that it had applied for a patent on the testing method. When Momenta later sued Amphastar for patent infringement by using the method in accordance with ...


Shut Up And Pitch: Major League Baseball's Power Struggle With Minor League Players In Senne V. Kansas City Royals Baseball Corp., Bernadette Berger 2021 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

Shut Up And Pitch: Major League Baseball's Power Struggle With Minor League Players In Senne V. Kansas City Royals Baseball Corp., Bernadette Berger

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Monopoly And Monopsony: Antitrust Standing, Injury, And Damages, Roger D. Blair, Tirza J. Angerhofer 2021 University of Florida

Monopoly And Monopsony: Antitrust Standing, Injury, And Damages, Roger D. Blair, Tirza J. Angerhofer

University of Cincinnati Law Review

This article examines the economic consequences of collusion in both the output market and one of the input markets. It examines the results of sequential collusion, which leads to complications and inconsistencies in measuring antitrust damages. It also examines simultaneous collusion in both the input and output markets. Ultimately, the profit maximizing equilibrium is identical but there are complications along the way to the final collusive equilibrium. The article explores the private plaintiff problems involving antitrust standing, proving antitrust injury, and estimating antitrust damages.


Navigating The Transition To A More Innovation-Centric Antitrust (Review Of Richard J. Gilbert, Innovation Matters), Jonathan Baker 2021 American University Washington College of Law

Navigating The Transition To A More Innovation-Centric Antitrust (Review Of Richard J. Gilbert, Innovation Matters), Jonathan Baker

Book Reviews

Review of Richard J. Gilbert Innovation Matters: Competition Policy for the High-Technology Economy MIT Press 2020


Antitrust Antitextualism, Daniel A. Crane 2021 Frederick Paul Furth, Sr. Professor of Law, University of Michigan

Antitrust Antitextualism, Daniel A. Crane

Notre Dame Law Review

Judges and scholars frequently describe antitrust as a common-law system predicated on open-textured statutes, but that description fails to capture a historically persistent phenomenon: judicial disregard of the plain meaning of the statutory texts and manifest purposes of Congress. This pattern of judicial nullification is not evenly distributed: when the courts have deviated from the plain meaning or congressional purpose, they have uniformly done so to limit the reach of antitrust liability or curtail the labor exemption to the benefit of industrial interests. This phenomenon cannot be explained solely or even primarily as a tug-of-war between a progressive Congress and ...


Beyond Algorithms: Toward A Normative Theory Of Automated Regulation, Felix Mormann 2021 Texas A&M University

Beyond Algorithms: Toward A Normative Theory Of Automated Regulation, Felix Mormann

Boston College Law Review

The proliferation of artificial intelligence in our daily lives has spawned a burgeoning literature on the dawn of dehumanized, algorithmic governance. Remarkably, the scholarly discourse overwhelmingly fails to acknowledge that automated, non-human governance has long been a reality. For more than a century, policy-makers have relied on regulations that automatically adjust to changing circumstances, without the need for human intervention. This Article surveys the track record of self-adjusting governance mechanisms to propose a normative theory of automated regulation. Effective policy-making frequently requires anticipation of future developments, from technology innovation to geopolitical change. Self-adjusting regulation offers an insurance policy against the ...


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