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1578 full-text articles. Page 5 of 44.

Setting Up Living Trusts, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Setting Up Living Trusts, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

The recent enthusiasm for setting up revocable living trusts is supported by two pluses — (1) a way to assure flexibility in management for property in those later years when individuals may not be in a good position to manage their assets and (2) an opportunity for some simplification in estate settlement. However, several factors of a technical or practical nature should be taken into account before the decision is made to establish a revocable living trust.


Paying Wages In Kind: Proposed Repeal Of The Provision, Neil Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Paying Wages In Kind: Proposed Repeal Of The Provision, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

Tucked away in a remote corner of the Revenue Act of 1992 lies the long-expected Congressional challenge to the practice of payment of wages in kind to agricultural labor. Barring a major lobbying effort, the provision is likely to be aboard the next major tax bill to pass the Congress.


Paying Wages In Kind, Neil Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Paying Wages In Kind, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

In general, wages paid in kind rather than in cash to agricultural labor are not subject to FICA or FUTA taxes. In addition, agricultural labor is exempt from income tax withholding except as the payment constitutes "wages." Wages paid "in any medium other than cash for agricultural labor" are exempt from the term "wages." Recent rulings (and apparent Internal Revenue Service scrutiny of the practice) have focused attention on the issue although neither the practice of paying wages in kind nor the authority for unique tax treatment of such in kind payments is new.


Income Tax Aspects Of Property Transfers, Roger A. McEowen, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Income Tax Aspects Of Property Transfers, Roger A. Mceowen, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

Property can be transferred by sale or gift during life, or by inheritance at death. The income tax consequences of each type of transfer are different.


Repossessing Land, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Repossessing Land, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

Before enactment of I.R.C. § 1038 in 1964, repossession of real property following default under an installment sale transaction generally resulted in substantial gain or loss, usually to the extent of the difference between the fair market value of the property at the time of repossession and the income tax basis of the installment obligation. Repossession was essentially treated as a disposition of the obligation.


Revenue Act Of 1992 (Proposed) Summary Of Selected Provisions, Neil Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Revenue Act Of 1992 (Proposed) Summary Of Selected Provisions, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

The legislation would extend on a permanent basis the targeted jobs credit and would restore individuals aged 23 and 24 to the category of economically disadvantaged youth. The provision would be effective for individuals who begin work for an employer after June 30, 1992.


Making Valid Dislaimers, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Making Valid Dislaimers, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

The disclaimer is easily one of the most useful devices in the estate planner's kit. Using disclaimers artfully, the planner can sculpt a dispositive pattern after death has occurred and all variables are known including asset values, asset ownership patterns, needs of the family (at least as of the time of the decedent's death) and state of the tax system. All of these factors may be shrouded in uncertainty at the time the estate is planned before death and the instruments are drafted. Disclaimers permit a late opportunity to carry out the testator's wishes and to do ...


Handling Employee Expenses, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Handling Employee Expenses, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

Although farm and ranch employees may incur a range of different kinds of expenses for which reimbursement may be sought, the most common problem situation involves reimbursement for automobile expense. This article discusses the reporting of amounts paid as automobile reimbursement and amounts paid under an "accountable plan."


Interest Rates On Installment Sales, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Interest Rates On Installment Sales, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

Since 1964, a minimum interest rate has been imposed on installment sales. More precisely, a part of each principal payment under an installment sale is treated as interest rather than sales price (and the total sales price is correspondingly reduced) if interest of less than the prescribed rate is specified.


Disclaiming The Survivorship Interest In Joint Tenancy Property, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Disclaiming The Survivorship Interest In Joint Tenancy Property, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

No abstract provided.


Family Estate Trusts, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Family Estate Trusts, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

The recent attention to revocable living trusts has led to some confusion with a far less useful concept, the trust referred to variously as the "family estate" trust, "pure" trust, and "constitutional" trust. The latest version of these trusts, all of which are valued as substantially less than worthless, is the two-trust off-shore version or the foreign tax haven double trust. The trusts are mostly sold door-to-door through local contacts who tout the trusts as devices to solve all of one's estate-planning problems. The trusts are purportedly irrevocable, generally for a 25-year term.


Cash Reporting, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Cash Reporting, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

The enactment of tighter reporting rules in 1990, the issuance of amended regulations, and the issuance of temporary regulations have modified the cash reporting requirements sufficiently to affect far more firms than was the case previously. The most significant expansion in scope of the requirement — the change in definition of "cash" — applies to amounts received on or after February 3, 1992.


Handling Commodity Futures Transactions, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Handling Commodity Futures Transactions, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

In the same manner as other merchants and manufacturers, farm and ranch taxpayers buy and sell commodity futures to hedge against fluctuating prices. Likewise, farm and ranch taxpayers buy and sell commodity futures as speculators. The principal matter of concern from an income tax perspective in the farm and ranch area is the line between hedging and speculation.


Generation Skipping—Planning Principles, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Generation Skipping—Planning Principles, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

For may farm and ranch families, generation skipping is not part of their estate plans. However, for those wishing to limit the right of one or more succeeding generations to manage the property or the right to dispose of the property, generation skipping may figure into the estate planning effort. For the latter group, several additional guidelines or planning principles should be considered.


Eligibility For Medicaid Benefits, The "Assets" Test, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Eligibility For Medicaid Benefits, The "Assets" Test, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

Few topics merit the attention now being focused on health care. While there is major concern about the cost of health insurance and health care costs, many older individuals are deeply concerned about nursing home costs and have seen the estates of friends or relatives reduced sharply by such expenses.

Some are tempted to attempt to plan their estates deliberately to qualify for Title XIX Medicaid benefits for health care. This article discusses briefly the rules governing Title XIX eligibility.


Generation Skipping—Transfers Subject To Tax, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Generation Skipping—Transfers Subject To Tax, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

For centuries, generation skipping has been utilized by wealthy property owners and those lacking confidence in succeeding generations to manage and conserve family wealth, at least to the extent allowed by the rule against perpetuities. Until 1976, the U.S. federal estate and gift tax system did not take particular note of generation skipping as property owners were free to establish generation skipping arrangements with the usual federal estate or gift tax consequences as to the transferor, but with no further transfer tax consequence until gift by or death of the holders of the remainder interest. The Tax Reform Act ...


Generation Skipping—The $1 Million Exemption, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Generation Skipping—The $1 Million Exemption, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

For most farm and ranch families, the most significant feature of the generation skipping transfer tax (GSTT) is the $1 million exemption per transferor. An exemption of $2 million was available through 1989 for transfers to grandchildren.


Capitalizing Preproductive Period Expenditures, Neil Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Capitalizing Preproductive Period Expenditures, Neil Harl

Neil E. Harl

Few have forgotten the provision in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 requiring the capitalization of preproductive period expenditures for animals or crops having a preproductive period of more than two years. The provision was repealed as to animals in the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988. However, problems may now be encountered by those who elected out of the provision before 1989.


Divisive Corporate Reorganizations, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Divisive Corporate Reorganizations, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

Repeal of the more favorable corporate liquidation options in 1986 and the expiration of the phase-out for small corporations at the end of 1988 have narrowed the range of workable choices for dealing with corporations that have outlived their usefulness. One possibility, for those motivated by a desire to separate shareholders who prefer not to be associated together any longer in the same corporation, is a divisive, type D, corporate reorganization.


Cash Accounting For Farm And Ranch Corporations, Neil E. Harl 2017 Iowa State University

Cash Accounting For Farm And Ranch Corporations, Neil E. Harl

Neil E. Harl

As a new taxpayer, a farm or ranch corporation may elect the cash or accrual methods of accounting if the corporate books are so kept and the method clearly reflects income. Indeed, IRS has ruled that a corporation may report on the cash method of accounting even though books are kept on the accrual method if the corporation maintains work papers reconciling accrual method book income to cash method taxable income. The method of accounting should be elected clearly on the initial corporate income tax return.


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