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The Universality Of The Human Condition: Theorizing Transportation Inequality Claims By Persons With Disabilities In Canada, Laverne A. Jacobs 2017 University of Windsor, Faculty of Law

The Universality Of The Human Condition: Theorizing Transportation Inequality Claims By Persons With Disabilities In Canada, Laverne A. Jacobs

Laverne Jacobs

Transportation is the lifeline that connects persons with disabilities with the community, facilitating greater opportunities for work, social inclusion and overall independence. Adequate accessible transportation has long been a concern of persons with disabilities. Yet, there is a dearth of sustained research on the law and society implications of transportation inequality for persons with disabilities. This paper contributes to the research on both transportation inequality and equality theory by providing an empirical and theoretical analysis of the human rights tribunal decisions on transportation equality in Canada. In doing so, it examines the issues from the perspective of the voices of ...


Punctuated Equilibrium: A Model For Administrative Evolution, 44 J. Marshall L. Rev. 353 (2011), Mark C. Niles 2017 Selected Works

Punctuated Equilibrium: A Model For Administrative Evolution, 44 J. Marshall L. Rev. 353 (2011), Mark C. Niles

Mark Niles

No abstract provided.


On The Hijacking Of Agencies (And Airplanes): The Federal Aviation Administration, "Agency Capture," And Airline Security , Mark C. Niles 2017 Selected Works

On The Hijacking Of Agencies (And Airplanes): The Federal Aviation Administration, "Agency Capture," And Airline Security , Mark C. Niles

Mark Niles

No abstract provided.


Approaches To Regulatory Reform In The United States: A Response To The Remarks Of Professors Levin And Freeman, Jeffrey S. Lubbers 2017 American University

Approaches To Regulatory Reform In The United States: A Response To The Remarks Of Professors Levin And Freeman, Jeffrey S. Lubbers

Jeffrey Lubbers

No abstract provided.


Management Of Federal Agency Adjudication, Jeffrey S. Lubbers 2017 Selected Works

Management Of Federal Agency Adjudication, Jeffrey S. Lubbers

Jeffrey Lubbers

No abstract provided.


The Fcc And Quasi-Common Carriage: A Case Study Of Agency Survival, Brent Skorup, Joseph Kane 2017 George Mason University

The Fcc And Quasi-Common Carriage: A Case Study Of Agency Survival, Brent Skorup, Joseph Kane

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Designing Administrative Justice: Draft, Lorne Sossin 2017 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

Designing Administrative Justice: Draft, Lorne Sossin

Lorne Sossin

This study explores the adaptation of design thinking to administrative justice. Design thinking – or human centred design – approaches services and products from the perspective of the user. This perspective too often is missing in the design of administrative tribunals, most of which have been developed top-down to serve the needs of a particular policy interest of the Government of the day. This paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, I review the development of design thinking in the context of legal services and legal organizations. In the second part, I explore the implications of this development for ...


Standing Voting Instructions: Empowering The Excluded Retail Investor, Jill E. Fisch 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Standing Voting Instructions: Empowering The Excluded Retail Investor, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship

Despite the increasing importance of shareholder voting, regulators have paid little attention to the rights of retail investors who own approximately 30% of publicly traded companies but who vote less than 30% of their shares. A substantial factor contributing to this low turnout is the antiquated mechanism by which retail investors vote. The federal proxy voting rules place primary responsibility for facilitating retail voting in the hands of custodial brokers who have limited incentives to develop workable procedures, and current regulatory restrictions impede market-based innovation that incorporate technological innovations.

One of the most promising such innovations is standing voting instructions ...


Yazzie V. Epa, Caitlin Buzzas 2017 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Yazzie V. Epa, Caitlin Buzzas

Public Land and Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Let’S Be Reasonable: Why Neither Nollan/Dolan Nor Penn Central Should Govern Generally-Applied Legislative Exactions After Koontz, Glen Hansen 2017 Abbott & Kindermann, Inc.

Let’S Be Reasonable: Why Neither Nollan/Dolan Nor Penn Central Should Govern Generally-Applied Legislative Exactions After Koontz, Glen Hansen

Pace Environmental Law Review

This article explains why the Nollan/Dolan test should not apply to legislatively imposed exactions, provided that such exactions satisfy two key criteria: (1) the exaction is generally-applied; and (2) the exaction is applied based on a set legislative formula without any meaningful administrative discretion in that application. Legislative exactions that fail to meet those two criteria should be governed by the Nollan/Dolan standard of review in the same manner as the ad hoc adjudicative exaction in Koontz. Furthermore, legislative exactions that satisfy those two criteria also should not be governed by the factored analysis in Penn Central Transportation ...


Denying Disgorgement: The Supreme Court’S Refusal To Grant The Crow Tribe Relief, Alex Galliani 2017 Boston College Law School

Denying Disgorgement: The Supreme Court’S Refusal To Grant The Crow Tribe Relief, Alex Galliani

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

In Montana v. Crow Tribe of Indians, the United States Supreme Court declined to award the Crow Tribe of Indians disgorgement of coal taxes collected by Montana from a mining company with operations on the Tribe’s reservation. The Supreme Court justified its decision by distinguishing the 1939 Montana Supreme Court case Valley County v. Thomas, referencing the precedent set by Cotton Petroleum Corp. v. New Mexico, and noting that the Tribe lacked the necessary approval to tax from the Department of the Interior. This Comment argues that the Supreme Court should have granted the Tribe full disgorgement, partial disgorgement ...


Policy Preference: An Unreasonable Means To Advance Moot Claims Under The Endangered Species Act, Molly McGrath 2017 Boston College Law School

Policy Preference: An Unreasonable Means To Advance Moot Claims Under The Endangered Species Act, Molly Mcgrath

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

Citizen plaintiffs play a vital role in the enforcement of the Endangered Species Act (“ESA”). In Strahan v. Roughead, the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts opened the possibility for expansion of a citizen’s ability to impose its own policy preference upon federal agencies working to comply with their statutory requirements under the ESA. Although the District Court properly denied the defendant’s motion to dismiss on the basis of mootness, it erred in its rationale. A plaintiff’s claim under the ESA may survive a mootness challenge, even after the violating agency has reinitiated consultation ...


Call Me Ishimaru: Independent Enforcement Of International Agreements, John Arnold 2017 Boston College Law School

Call Me Ishimaru: Independent Enforcement Of International Agreements, John Arnold

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

International law does not provide an adequate enforcement mechanism against illegal whaling. The Japanese government claims that its whaling practice falls within the scientific research exception of an international moratorium on commercial whaling. Despite an International Court of Justice ruling finding that its practice does not fall within this exception, Japan has continued to kill thousands of whales each year with no effective opposition. The area in which this whaling occurs, however, falls outside the jurisdiction of any nation. Although the United Nations Security Council has the authority to act, the delicate nature of international diplomacy effectively ties its members ...


Food Deserts Are Ripe For Business, Ryelle Seymour 2017 Boston College Law School

Food Deserts Are Ripe For Business, Ryelle Seymour

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

People living in food deserts lack access to nutritious food. Although growing awareness of food deserts has prompted federal and state governments to allocate resources to combat the problem, many municipal and state governments lack the funding, personnel, and expertise necessary to develop and implement programs to address food deserts. The private sector can take advantage of federal and local governmental incentive programs to establish an enterprise to serve food desert areas. The successful food desert intiatives implemented around the country can serve as a model for future programs. Because these businesses have proved to be profitable but are created ...


Guidance Documents And Rules: Increasing Executive Accountability In The Regulatory World, Hale Melnick 2017 Boston College Law School

Guidance Documents And Rules: Increasing Executive Accountability In The Regulatory World, Hale Melnick

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

Guidance documents pose a peculiar problem in administrative law. Although guidance documents are supposed to be non-binding memoranda, they sometimes have the effect of creating binding law in practice. Courts lack an effective way to determine when guidance documents are essentially binding. This Note examines why past, current, and proposed judicial tests for determining whether guidance documents are binding are flawed, and it proposes an alternative model based on executive review.


Bigger Than Blackfish: Lessons From Captive Orcas Demonstrate A Larger Problem With Animal Welfare Laws, Kaitlin Vigars 2017 Boston College Law School

Bigger Than Blackfish: Lessons From Captive Orcas Demonstrate A Larger Problem With Animal Welfare Laws, Kaitlin Vigars

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

Recently, increased attention to the care that captive orcas receive at marine life parks has sparked a call for reform of the public display industry. In the face of this public outcry the nation’s leading marine life park, SeaWorld, recently announced a shift in company policy that will eventually end the practice of holding orcas in captivity. This, though, does not signal the end of problem. Many other animals face problems that are analogous to the exact issues that sparked change for captive orcas. This note will argue that broad reform of captivity standards are necessary and should include ...


Battling The (Algae) Bloom: Watershed Policies And Plans In Wisconsin, Jamie Konopacky 2017 Harvard Law School

Battling The (Algae) Bloom: Watershed Policies And Plans In Wisconsin, Jamie Konopacky

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

Algae blooms and unsafe nitrate levels caused primarily by nutrients in runoff from agricultural and urban areas plague waterbodies across the United States. The nutrient pollution problem can be effectively addressed through the development and implementation of appropriately scaled watershed plans. To encourage needed planning and implementation, the Environmental Protection Agency and states must utilize an improved watershed policy approach. For decades, such an approach has been stymied by a nebulous watershed concept and legal, political, and financial obstacles. This article provides an in-depth look at policies that provide the foundation and framework for watershed planning and implementation in Wisconsin ...


Making Treaty Implementation More Like Statutory Implementation, Jean Galbraith 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Making Treaty Implementation More Like Statutory Implementation, Jean Galbraith

Michigan Law Review

Both statutes and treaties are the “supreme law of the land,” and yet quite different practices have developed with respect to their implementation. For statutes, all three branches have embraced the development of administrative law, which allows the executive branch to translate broad statutory directives into enforceable obligations. But for treaties, there is a far more cumbersome process. Unless a treaty provision contains language that courts interpret to be directly enforceable, they will deem it to require implementing legislation from Congress. This Article explores and challenges the perplexing disparity between the administration of statutes and treaties. It shows that the ...


Internal Administrative Law, Gillian E. Metzger, Kevin M. Stack 2017 Columbia Law School

Internal Administrative Law, Gillian E. Metzger, Kevin M. Stack

Michigan Law Review

For years, administrative law has been identified as the external review of agency action, primarily by courts. Following in the footsteps of pioneering administrative law scholars, a growing body of recent scholarship has begun to attend to the role of internal norms and structures in controlling agency action. This Article offers a conceptual and historical account of these internal forces as internal administrative law. Internal administrative law consists of the internal directives, guidance, and organizational forms through which agencies structure the discretion of their employees and presidents control the workings of the executive branch. It is the critical means for ...


Regulating Robo Advice Across The Financial Services Industry, Tom Baker, Benedict G. C. Dellaert 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Regulating Robo Advice Across The Financial Services Industry, Tom Baker, Benedict G. C. Dellaert

Faculty Scholarship

Automated financial product advisors – “robo advisors” – are emerging across the financial services industry, helping consumers choose investments, banking products, and insurance policies. Robo advisors have the potential to lower the cost and increase the quality and transparency of financial advice for consumers. But they also pose significant new challenges for regulators who are accustomed to assessing human intermediaries. A well-designed robo advisor will be honest and competent, and it will recommend only suitable products. Because humans design and implement robo advisors, however, honesty, competence, and suitability cannot simply be assumed. Moreover, robo advisors pose new scale risks that are different ...


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