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Portland State University

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Full-Text Articles in Urban Studies and Planning

How Will Autonomous Vehicles Change Local Government Budgeting And Finance? Case Studies Of On-Street Parking, Curb Management, And Solid Waste Collection, Benjamin Y. Clark May 2019

How Will Autonomous Vehicles Change Local Government Budgeting And Finance? Case Studies Of On-Street Parking, Curb Management, And Solid Waste Collection, Benjamin Y. Clark

TREC Final Reports

This report is an examination of parking, curb zones, and government service changes in the context of AVs. Given that there are very few actual AVs on the road, the analysis in this report is an attempt to project what we might see, using the current phenomenon as starting points. The report uses a mix of econometric modeling, cost accounting, and case studies to illustrate these projections. The first section of this report looks at the effects of transportation network companies (TNCs)—Uber and Lyft in particular—on parking revenue in the city of Seattle. The results of the study ...


Preparing Cities For An Automated Future, Benjamin Y. Clark May 2019

Preparing Cities For An Automated Future, Benjamin Y. Clark

TREC Project Briefs

This report is an examination of parking, curb zones, and government service changes in the context of AVs. Given that there are very few actual AVs on the road, the analysis in this report is an attempt to project what we might see, using the current phenomenon as starting points. The report uses a mix of econometric modeling, cost accounting, and case studies to illustrate these projections. The first section of this report looks at the effects of transportation network companies (TNCs)—Uber and Lyft in particular—on parking revenue in the city of Seattle. The results of the study ...


How Can Interdisciplinary Teams Leverage Emerging Technologies To Respond To Transportation Infrastructure Needs? A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Of Civil Engineers, Urban Planners, And Social Workers’ Perspectives, Noelle Fields, Courtney Cronley, Kate Hyun, Stephen Mattingly, +Several Additional Authors Apr 2019

How Can Interdisciplinary Teams Leverage Emerging Technologies To Respond To Transportation Infrastructure Needs? A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Of Civil Engineers, Urban Planners, And Social Workers’ Perspectives, Noelle Fields, Courtney Cronley, Kate Hyun, Stephen Mattingly, +Several Additional Authors

TREC Final Reports

This study explored how engineers, planners, and social workers interact around issues of transportation and transportation equity, and identified opportunities for enhanced collaboration and training in anticipation of emerging transportation needs for environmental justice (EJ) populations. This study provided the foundation for future educational research, identify strategies for using two Android apps (Safe Activity and My Amble) developed at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA), and identified opportunities for collaborative solutions within the state of the practice. The study assessed the current level of knowledge amongst professionals (engineers, planners, and social workers) about the training needs of the other ...


Traffic Signal Consensus Control, Gerardo Lafferriere Apr 2019

Traffic Signal Consensus Control, Gerardo Lafferriere

TREC Final Reports

We introduce a model for traffic signal management based on network consensus control principles. The underlying principle in a consensus approach is that traffic signal cycles are adjusted in a distributed way so as to achieve desirable ratios of queue lengths throughout the street network. This approach tends to reduce traffic congestion due to queue saturation at any particular city block and it appears less susceptible to congestion due to unexpected traffic loads on the street grid. We developed simulation tools based on the MATLAB computing environment to analyze the use of the mathematical consensus approach to manage the signal ...


Addressing Changing Demographics In Environmental Justice Analysis, Aaron Golub Apr 2019

Addressing Changing Demographics In Environmental Justice Analysis, Aaron Golub

TREC Project Briefs

Since 1994, every Federal agency has a mandate to develop a strategy for identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects on low income populations and minority populations. In transportation planning this means including those communities’ voices in the planning process, and evaluating the social impacts early on.

A new report from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), prepared by Portland State University and ICF International, provides an in-depth analysis of national demographic trends and a synthesis of best long-range planning practices borne out of five case studies


Improving Transportation Access Through Interdisciplinary Collaboration, Noelle Fields, Courtney Cronley, Kate Hyun, Stephen Mattingly, +Several Additional Authors Apr 2019

Improving Transportation Access Through Interdisciplinary Collaboration, Noelle Fields, Courtney Cronley, Kate Hyun, Stephen Mattingly, +Several Additional Authors

TREC Project Briefs

This study explored how engineers, planners, and social workers interact around issues of transportation and transportation equity, and identified opportunities for enhanced collaboration and training in anticipation of emerging transportation needs for environmental justice (EJ) populations. This study provided the foundation for future educational research, identify strategies for using two Android apps (Safe Activity and My Amble) developed at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA), and identified opportunities for collaborative solutions within the state of the practice. The study assessed the current level of knowledge amongst professionals (engineers, planners, and social workers) about the training needs of the other ...


Mitigating Automobile Congestion Through Urban Traffic Signal Control, Gerardo Lafferriere Apr 2019

Mitigating Automobile Congestion Through Urban Traffic Signal Control, Gerardo Lafferriere

TREC Project Briefs

We introduce a model for traffic signal management based on network consensus control principles. The underlying principle in a consensus approach is that traffic signal cycles are adjusted in a distributed way so as to achieve desirable ratios of queue lengths throughout the street network. This approach tends to reduce traffic congestion due to queue saturation at any particular city block and it appears less susceptible to congestion due to unexpected traffic loads on the street grid. We developed simulation tools based on the MATLAB computing environment to analyze the use of the mathematical consensus approach to manage the signal ...


V2x: Bringing Bikes Into The Mix, Stephen Fickas Mar 2019

V2x: Bringing Bikes Into The Mix, Stephen Fickas

TREC Final Reports

This project demonstrates how an inexpensive system (hardware and software) can add new functionality to existing signal controllers, giving bicyclists an efficient way to cross a controlled intersection. The system integrates three components: (1) a Bike Connect box that resides near the signal-controller and is connected to it, (2) an application that runs on a Bike Connect device (currently an iPhone) and requests a green light at the correct approach-distance, and (3) a cloud-based publish/subscribe (pub/sub) component that handles cellular-communication between phone app and box. One stumbling block for the project was a means to obtain reliable GPS ...


Transferability & Forecasting Of The Pedestrian Index Of The Environment (Pie) For Modeling Applications, Kelly Clifton, Jamie Orrego-Onate, Patrick Allen Singleton, Robert J. Schneider Mar 2019

Transferability & Forecasting Of The Pedestrian Index Of The Environment (Pie) For Modeling Applications, Kelly Clifton, Jamie Orrego-Onate, Patrick Allen Singleton, Robert J. Schneider

TREC Final Reports

This project focuses on making our measures, models, and methods more transferable to other locations. Specifically, we re-evaluate, compare and test our pedestrian index of the environment (PIE) measure using data resources more commonly available to planning agencies across the country. Next, we test the results of PIE and its input data in models of pedestrian mode choice for stability of estimation results within a region (intraregional) and between regions (interregional). This research is the next logical step in the MoPeD’s enhancement and is critical to enabling its utility beyond the Portland region. The results of this project show ...


New Pedestrian Modeling Tools: Growing Beyond The Portland Region, Kelly Clifton, Jamie Orrego-Onate, Patrick Allen Singleton, Robert J. Schneider Mar 2019

New Pedestrian Modeling Tools: Growing Beyond The Portland Region, Kelly Clifton, Jamie Orrego-Onate, Patrick Allen Singleton, Robert J. Schneider

TREC Project Briefs

This project focuses on making our measures, models, and methods more transferable to other locations. Specifically, we re-evaluate, compare and test our pedestrian index of the environment (PIE) measure using data resources more commonly available to planning agencies across the country. Next, we test the results of PIE and its input data in models of pedestrian mode choice for stability of estimation results within a region (intraregional) and between regions (interregional). This research is the next logical step in the MoPeD’s enhancement and is critical to enabling its utility beyond the Portland region. The results of this project show ...


Addressing Changing Demographics In Environmental Justice Analysis, State Of Practice, Aaron Golub, Les Brown, Michael Grant, Nathan Mcneil, Charles Ryerson, Matt Gray, Stephanie Lonsdale, Madison Levy Feb 2019

Addressing Changing Demographics In Environmental Justice Analysis, State Of Practice, Aaron Golub, Les Brown, Michael Grant, Nathan Mcneil, Charles Ryerson, Matt Gray, Stephanie Lonsdale, Madison Levy

TREC Final Reports

This report documents how metropolitan planning organizations (MPO), State departments of transportation (DOT), and other transportation agencies are adapting Environmental Justice (EJ) analysis techniques to understand transportation impacts in communities undergoing rapid demographic change. The report also highlights national demographic trends, showing significant change in the size and location of low-income and minority households. These changes are documented in a series of State- and county-level maps demonstrating absolute and percent change in minority populations, low-income populations and limited English proficiency populations between the 1990 – 2010 decennial census periods. Based on the state of practice review, the report also highlights strategies ...


Vehicle To Infrastructure: Letting Cyclists Talk To Signals, Stephen Fickas Feb 2019

Vehicle To Infrastructure: Letting Cyclists Talk To Signals, Stephen Fickas

TREC Project Briefs

This project demonstrates how an inexpensive system (hardware and software) can add new functionality to existing signal controllers, giving bicyclists an efficient way to cross a controlled intersection. The system integrates three components: (1) a Bike Connect box that resides near the signal-controller and is connected to it, (2) an application that runs on a Bike Connect device (currently an iPhone) and requests a green light at the correct approach-distance, and (3) a cloud-based publish/subscribe (pub/sub) component that handles cellular-communication between phone app and box. One stumbling block for the project was a means to obtain reliable GPS ...


Equity In Emergency Management, Sabina Roan, Jaye Cromwell Jan 2019

Equity In Emergency Management, Sabina Roan, Jaye Cromwell

Metroscape

In the decade following Hurricane Katrina, advocates fighting for the rights of people with disabilities changed the field of emergency management. Their pressure on FEMA led to the establishment of legal and planning precedents to include the needs of the whole community in emergency management.(4) There is now a national, legal requirement to plan for people with disabilities and access and functional needs. Despite this important victory for people with disabilities, there have been no direct legal or policy actions that address the disproportionate response along racial and socio-economic lines.

The theory of social equity has its roots in ...


Riverside Parks, Institute Of Portland Metropolitan Studies Jan 2019

Riverside Parks, Institute Of Portland Metropolitan Studies

Metroscape

A brief overview of the development of riverfront parks in the Portland Metropolitan Area, including the new Waterfront Park in Vancouver, WA that opened in September 2018.


Making The Connection: Municipal Broadband Meets A Need In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Eavan Moore Jan 2019

Making The Connection: Municipal Broadband Meets A Need In The Portland Metropolitan Area, Eavan Moore

Metroscape

Internet access has become critical to participating in modern American society, yet the private market is no closer to serving low-income and rural Americans.

In May 2018, the City of Hillsboro announced it would go ahead with a publicly owned and operated, affordable, gigabit-speed Internet service for the entire city. Multnomah County Commissioners voted for a feasibility study of their own in June. The Port of Ridgefield, Washington, has big hopes for its own fiber optic project. Meanwhile, the city of Sandy, Oregon, has been running its own municipal broadband service for the last six years.

What’s driving this ...


Preserving Small Farms In Gales Creek, Oregon: An Interview With Gales Creek Residents, Nathan Williams Jan 2019

Preserving Small Farms In Gales Creek, Oregon: An Interview With Gales Creek Residents, Nathan Williams

Metroscape

Nathan Williams conducts interviews with several residents of rural Gales Creek, Oregon, discussing the problems faced by small farmers and challenges for farmland preservation.


Life Expectancy, Institute Of Portland Metropolitan Studies Jan 2019

Life Expectancy, Institute Of Portland Metropolitan Studies

Metroscape

Using Center for Disease Control data, we can visualize the spatial distribution of life expectancy estimates. For reference, the life expectancy of an average adult within the United States born in 2016 is 78.6 years. In the Portland Metropolitan region, 34 percent of the population lives in tracts with an average life expectancy below the United States average. These tracts are clustered largely in east Portland and Gresham. Future research should consider exploring other factors related to life expectancy such as race, income, and education.

Forms part of the continuing series Indicators of the Metroscape.



Geography In Laser-Light: Using Lidar To Map The Metroscape, Justin Sherrill Jan 2019

Geography In Laser-Light: Using Lidar To Map The Metroscape, Justin Sherrill

Metroscape

Forms part of the recurring series Periodic Atlas of the Metroscape.

This issue of the Periodic Atlas will look at the rising prominence and capabilities of lidar, and how local researchers are using the technology to change the way we see, measure, and manage our region.


Lake Oswego School District Population And Enrollment Forecasts 2019-20 To 2028-29, Charles Rynerson, Joshua Ollinger Jan 2019

Lake Oswego School District Population And Enrollment Forecasts 2019-20 To 2028-29, Charles Rynerson, Joshua Ollinger

School District Enrollment Forecast Reports

This report presents the results of a demographic study conducted by the Portland State University Population Research Center (PRC) for the Lake Oswego School District (LOSD). The study includes analyses of population, housing and enrollment trends affecting the District in recent years, and forecasts of district‐wide school enrollments for the 2019‐20 to 2028‐29 school years. Following are some of the highlights found in this report:

  • Population and Housing Trends
  • Housing and Enrollment
  • Enrollment Trends
  • Enrollment Forecasts


Tigard-Tualatin School District Enrollment Forecasts 2019-20 To 2028-29, Charles Rynerson, Joshua Ollinger Jan 2019

Tigard-Tualatin School District Enrollment Forecasts 2019-20 To 2028-29, Charles Rynerson, Joshua Ollinger

School District Enrollment Forecast Reports

This report presents the results of a demographic study conducted by the Portland State University Population Research Center (PRC) for the Tigard‐Tualatin School District (TTSD). The study includes analyses of population, housing and enrollment trends affecting the District in recent years, estimates of the impacts of housing development on TTSD enrollment, and forecasts of district‐wide and individual school enrollments for the 2019‐20 to 2028‐29 school years.


North Bend School District Enrollment Forecast 2019-20 To 2028-29, Charles Rynerson Jan 2019

North Bend School District Enrollment Forecast 2019-20 To 2028-29, Charles Rynerson

School District Enrollment Forecast Reports

This report presents charts comparing historic and forecast enrollment in the North Bend School District for the 2009-09 to 2028-09 period. The enrollment history and forecast is broken down by grade and year, and includes the actual number of registered students in the district. It also presents data for birth cohorts and kindergarten enrollment forecasts. Finally, the report offers statistics for population, housing, social and economic profile for the district based on 2000 and 2010 census profiles.


How Will Autonomous Vehicles Change Local Government Budgeting And Finance? Case Studies Of On-Street Parking, Curb Management, And Solid Waste Collection, Benjamin Y. Clark Jan 2019

How Will Autonomous Vehicles Change Local Government Budgeting And Finance? Case Studies Of On-Street Parking, Curb Management, And Solid Waste Collection, Benjamin Y. Clark

TREC Datasets and Databases

Datafiles

Parking Occupancy Datasets: These CSV (comma separated values) datafiles include parking occupancy data from the Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT). Each of the 11 datafiles indicates the time period that it includes, with dates ranging from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2017. Each file contains 6 months of data on block-by-block occupancy of paid parking. The number of available spaces were calculated from this dataset in addition to the median and mean occupancy rates for each Tract. City data documentation indicates the following about the dataset: “The City of Seattle has created an on-street paid parking occupancy data ...


Integrating Satellite And Ground Measurements For Predicting Locations Of Extreme Urban Heat, Vivek Shandas, Jackson Lee Voelkel, Joseph Williams, Jeremy Hoffman Jan 2019

Integrating Satellite And Ground Measurements For Predicting Locations Of Extreme Urban Heat, Vivek Shandas, Jackson Lee Voelkel, Joseph Williams, Jeremy Hoffman

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

The emergence of urban heat as a climate-induced health stressor is receiving increasing attention among researchers, practitioners, and climate educators. However, the measurement of urban heat poses several challenges with current methods leveraging either ground based, in situ observations, or satellite-derived surface temperatures estimated from land use emissivity. While both techniques contain inherent advantages and biases to predicting temperatures, their integration may offer an opportunity to improve the spatial resolution and global application of urban heat measurements. Using a combination of ground-based measurements, machine learning techniques, and spatial analysis, we addressed three research questions: (1) How much do ambient temperatures ...


Changes In Farmland Ownership In Oregon, Usa, Megan Horst Jan 2019

Changes In Farmland Ownership In Oregon, Usa, Megan Horst

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

The ownership of agricultural land has important implications for food systems, the environment, farmer livelihoods, and rural economies, communities, and landscapes. This article examines the changing ownership of agricultural lands in the United States, specifically focusing on Oregon, a state with a history of family farm ownership. I first review historical and recent trends in farmland ownership, including private enclosure, consolidation, investor purchase, development, and rising farmland prices. Next, I examine the county records for all Oregon farm properties that sold between 2010 and 2015. I provide summary statistics about the volume and pace of transactions, price per acre, and ...


Rescaling Air Quality Management: An Assessment Of Local Air Quality Authorities In The United States, Kelsea A. Schumacher, Vivek Shandas Jan 2019

Rescaling Air Quality Management: An Assessment Of Local Air Quality Authorities In The United States, Kelsea A. Schumacher, Vivek Shandas

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Institutional design for local air quality management is an underdeveloped area for research and practice. Although the United States has more than a century of organizational experience managing air quality at the Federal level, the recent years have seen a surge of interest in addressing municipal-scale solutions. Without information about the institutional designs, governance structures, and implications of localizing air quality management, practitioners may face challenges reducing population exposure to air pollutants. We offer a US national perspective on managing local air quality by assessing and surveying 117 local air quality authorities identified by the National Association of Clean Air ...


Nature-Based Designs To Mitigate Urban Heat: The Efficacy Of Green Infrastructure Treatments In Portland, Oregon, Yasuyo Makido, Dana E. Hellman, Vivek Shandas Jan 2019

Nature-Based Designs To Mitigate Urban Heat: The Efficacy Of Green Infrastructure Treatments In Portland, Oregon, Yasuyo Makido, Dana E. Hellman, Vivek Shandas

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Urban heat is a growing environmental concern in cities around the world. The urban heat island effect, combined with warming effects of climate change, is likely to cause an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events. Alterations to the physical, built environment are a viable option for mitigating urban heat, yet few studies provide systematic guidance to practitioners for adapting diverse land uses. In this study, we examine the use of green infrastructure treatments to evaluate changes in ambient temperatures across diverse land uses in the city of Portland, Oregon. We apply ENVI-met® microclimate modeling at the ...


Capturing The Built Environment-Travel Interaction For Strategic Planning: Development Of A Multimodal Travel Module For The Regional Strategic Planning Model (Rspm), Liming Wang, Brian Gregor, Huajie Yang, Tara Weidner, Anthony Knudson Dec 2018

Capturing The Built Environment-Travel Interaction For Strategic Planning: Development Of A Multimodal Travel Module For The Regional Strategic Planning Model (Rspm), Liming Wang, Brian Gregor, Huajie Yang, Tara Weidner, Anthony Knudson

Urban Studies and Planning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Integrated land use and transportation models have evolved along a spectrum from simple sketch planning models to complex microsimulation models. While each has its niche, they are largely unable to balance the flexibility and realism of microsimulation and the speed and interactivity of simple models. The Regional Strategic Planning Model (RSPM) aims to fill this gap by taking a microsimulation approach while making other simplifications in order to model first-order effects quickly. It enables planners to consider the robustness of prospective policies in the face of future uncertainties by accepting a broad range of inputs and allowing rapid simulations of ...


Engaging Youth To Increase Their Transportation System Support, Understanding, And Use, Autumn Shafer, Jared Macary Dec 2018

Engaging Youth To Increase Their Transportation System Support, Understanding, And Use, Autumn Shafer, Jared Macary

TREC Final Reports

Little is known from research about how to motivate youth to choose non-car mobility, especially specific Portland-area youth. Understanding the current attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of youth in relation to non-car mobility contributes to the sustainability of a long-term transportation system. Transportation system-related beliefs and behaviors of youth are likely to influence their willingness to access and support transportation services as adults. Today’s youth are tomorrow’s riders, bikers, walkers, voters, and transportation planners. Thus, it is important to develop age-appropriate messaging strategies and tactics that promote youth non-car mobility.

This project seeks to build on the sparse national ...


Vehicle Sensor Data (Vsd) Based Traffic Control In Connected Automated Vehicle (Cav) Environment, Xianfeng Terry Yang, Zhao Zhang, Zhehao Zhang Dec 2018

Vehicle Sensor Data (Vsd) Based Traffic Control In Connected Automated Vehicle (Cav) Environment, Xianfeng Terry Yang, Zhao Zhang, Zhehao Zhang

TREC Final Reports

Connected automated vehicles (CAVs) are typically equipped with communication devices (e.g., dedicated short range communications (DSRC)) and on-board sensors (e.g., Radar, Lidar, Camera, etc.). Communication devices would enable the exchange of real-time information between vehicles and infrastructures via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) channels. Sensors equipped in vehicles are providing various vehicle sensor data (VSD) such as the CAV’s GPS location, speed and moving direction (trajectory). Existing studies have shown the effectiveness of using CAV trajectories as input in many traffic control models.

However, it can be expected that CAVs and human-driven vehicles (HVs) will co-exist on ...


Modeling Mixed Freeway Traffic: Human-Driven And Self-Driven Cars, Xianfeng Terry Yang, Zhao Zhang, Zhehao Zhang Dec 2018

Modeling Mixed Freeway Traffic: Human-Driven And Self-Driven Cars, Xianfeng Terry Yang, Zhao Zhang, Zhehao Zhang

TREC Project Briefs

Connected automated vehicles (CAVs) are typically equipped with communication devices (e.g., dedicated short range communications (DSRC)) and on-board sensors (e.g., Radar, Lidar, Camera, etc.). Communication devices would enable the exchange of real-time information between vehicles and infrastructures via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) channels. Sensors equipped in vehicles are providing various vehicle sensor data (VSD) such as the CAV’s GPS location, speed and moving direction (trajectory). Existing studies have shown the effectiveness of using CAV trajectories as input in many traffic control models.

However, it can be expected that CAVs and human-driven vehicles (HVs) will co-exist on ...