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Articles 1 - 30 of 66

Full-Text Articles in Urban Studies and Planning

Low-Income Access To Employer-Based Transit Benefits: Evidence From 10 Large Metropolitan Regions, Andrea Hamre Apr 2019

Low-Income Access To Employer-Based Transit Benefits: Evidence From 10 Large Metropolitan Regions, Andrea Hamre

Journal of Transportation Demand Management Research

While national aggregate statistics suggest employer-based transit subsidies may be inaccessible to the majority of the working poor, this is the first study to investigate the subject with disaggregate data while controlling for additional factors. This study uses household travel surveys for 10 of the largest Metropolitan Planning Organizations, grouped into seven cases. In each case, the share of workers offered an employer-based transit subsidy is lowest for workers in the lowest income quintile. Binary logistic regression results for the odds of being offered an employer-based transit subsidy are presented for two cases, Washington, DC, and Denver, CO, and the ...


Factors Explaining Changes In Household Vehicle Miles Of Travel, Richard Driscoll Oct 2018

Factors Explaining Changes In Household Vehicle Miles Of Travel, Richard Driscoll

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vehicle miles of travel (VMT) is a key indicator of travel demand in the United States. Since 1995 total VMT and VMT per capita has fluctuated, with notable declines in the late 2000s and accelerated increases in the last 7 years. Since 1995, the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) has tracked the household share of total VMT to shed light on the demographic and behavioral data behind personal vehicle travel. The household share of VMT, while still a majority, has declined every NHTS year since at least 1995. Meanwhile, household VMT has stagnated around 2.25 trillion miles since the ...


Connected Autonomous Vehicles: Capacity Analysis, Trajectory Optimization, And Speed Harmonization, Amir Ghiasi Jul 2018

Connected Autonomous Vehicles: Capacity Analysis, Trajectory Optimization, And Speed Harmonization, Amir Ghiasi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Emerging connected and autonomous vehicle technologies (CAV) provide an opportunity to improve highway capacity and reduce adverse impacts of stop-and-go traffic. To realize the potential benefits of CAV technologies, this study provides insightful methodological and managerial tools in microscopic and macroscopic traffic scales. In the macroscopic scale, this dissertation proposes an analytical method to formulate highway capacity for a mixed traffic environment where a portion of vehicles are CAVs and the remaining are human-driven vehicles (HVs). The proposed analytical mixed traffic highway capacity model is based on a Markov chain representation of spatial distribution of heterogeneous and stochastic headways. This ...


Fare Policy And Vertical Equity: The Trade-Off Between Affordability And Cost Recovery, Xavier J. Harmony Jul 2018

Fare Policy And Vertical Equity: The Trade-Off Between Affordability And Cost Recovery, Xavier J. Harmony

Journal of Public Transportation

Vertical equity and the maximization of farebox revenue are important but conflicting goals in the development of fare policy in the United States. Reducing fares for low-income riders reduces revenue for a transit agency, while increasing fares could disproportionately impact lower-income riders. This paper details this conflict, explores strategies that could account for both goals, and evaluates fare programs in the United States. Two types of low-income strategies are discussed: first generation strategies and targeted subsidy strategies. First generation strategies have several limitations that targeted subsidy strategies account for; first generation strategies focus more on supply, while targeted subsidy strategies ...


Immigration, Income, And Public Transit Perceptions: Findings From An Intercept Survey, Jesus M. Barajas, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Daniel G. Chatman Jul 2018

Immigration, Income, And Public Transit Perceptions: Findings From An Intercept Survey, Jesus M. Barajas, Asha Weinstein Agrawal, Daniel G. Chatman

Journal of Public Transportation

Although a significant fraction of public transit riders in the United States are immigrants, relatively little research explores whether immigrants have unique transit experiences. This paper analyzes intercept survey data from 1,247 transit riders in the San Francisco Bay Area to explore how mode choices and travel experiences differ for low-income immigrants compared to higher-income immigrants and US-born residents. We find that some public transit experiences are similar across all immigrant status and income groups, while in other ways low-income immigrants differ from their higher-income counterparts or from US-born respondents. In particular, low-income immigrants were less likely to have ...


Heavy Vehicle Classification Analysis Using Length-Based Vehicle Count And Speed Data, Eren Yuksel Jun 2018

Heavy Vehicle Classification Analysis Using Length-Based Vehicle Count And Speed Data, Eren Yuksel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is an increasing demand for application of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in order to make highways safer and sustainable. Collecting and analyzing traffic stream data are the most important parameters in transportation engineering in enhancing our understanding of traffic congestion and mobility. Classification of the vehicles using traffic data is one of the most essential parameters for traffic management. Of particular interest are heavy vehicles which impact traffic mobility due to their lack of maneuverability and slower speeds. The impact of heavy vehicles on the traffic stream results in congestion and reduction of road efficiency. In this paper, length-based ...


Understanding The Effects Of Demographic And Socio-Economic Factors On Public Transit Ridership Trends, Kurt Lehmann Mar 2018

Understanding The Effects Of Demographic And Socio-Economic Factors On Public Transit Ridership Trends, Kurt Lehmann

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Public transit, an important mobility service for many, has incurred ridership decline in the U.S. for the past three years. In 2014, U.S. transit ridership was 10.74 billion unlinked passenger trips. In 2015, total ridership was 1.0 percent fewer, and the 2016 decrease was 2.2 percent from 2015. The consistent abandonment of transit in the U.S. does not seem to be ending. In 2017, ridership predicted from year-to-date data is 2.4 percent less than 2016. Furthermore, per capita ridership has decreased 17 percent since 1980. Both the short-term ridership trend and long-term per ...


Understanding The Linkages Between Urban Transportation Design And Population Exposure To Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Application Of An Integrated Transportation And Air Pollution Modeling Framework To Tampa, Fl, Sashikanth Gurram Nov 2017

Understanding The Linkages Between Urban Transportation Design And Population Exposure To Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Application Of An Integrated Transportation And Air Pollution Modeling Framework To Tampa, Fl, Sashikanth Gurram

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rapid and unplanned urbanization has ushered in a variety of public health challenges, including exposure to traffic pollution and greater dependence on automobiles. Moreover, vulnerable population groups often bear the brunt of negative outcomes and are subject to disproportionate exposure and health effects. This makes it imperative for urban transportation engineers, land use planners, and public health professionals to work synergistically to understand both the relationship between urban design and population exposure to traffic pollution, and its social distribution. Researchers have started to pay close attention to this connection, mainly by conducting observational studies on the relationship between transportation, urban ...


Improving Service Level Of Free-Floating Bike Sharing Systems, Aritra Pal Nov 2017

Improving Service Level Of Free-Floating Bike Sharing Systems, Aritra Pal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bike Sharing is a sustainable mode of urban mobility, not only for regular commuters but also for casual users and tourists. Free-floating bike sharing (FFBS) is an innovative bike sharing model, which saves on start-up cost, prevents bike theft, and offers significant opportunities for smart management by tracking bikes in real-time with built-in GPS. Efficient management of a FFBS requires: 1) analyzing its mobility patterns and spatio-temporal imbalance of supply and demand of bikes, 2) developing strategies to mitigate such imbalances, and 3) understanding the causes of a bike getting damaged and developing strategies to minimize them. All of these ...


Comprehensive Exploratory Analysis Of Truck Route Choice Diversity In Florida, Trang D. Luong Nov 2017

Comprehensive Exploratory Analysis Of Truck Route Choice Diversity In Florida, Trang D. Luong

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents a comprehensive exploratory analysis of truck route choice diversity in the state of Florida, for both long-haul and short-haul truck travel segments. We employ six metrics to measure three different dimensions of diversity in truck route choice between any given origin-destination (OD) pair. These dimensions are: (1) number of distinct routes used to travel between the OD pair, (2) the extent of overlap (or lack thereof) among the routes, and (3) the evenness (or the dominance) of the usage of different unique routes. The diversity metrics were utilized to examine truck route choice diversity from over 73 ...


How Transportation Network Companies Could Replace Public Transportation In The United States, Matthew L. Kessler Nov 2017

How Transportation Network Companies Could Replace Public Transportation In The United States, Matthew L. Kessler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The quantity of cell phone applications or mobile apps have seen an upsurge at an exponential rate in under a decade. Many have been created for a variety of industries, including transportation. The advent and subsequent commercialized implementation of near-instant transport by a middleman-type of app is now known as a Transportation Network Company or TNC. Examples of the more renowned TNCs are Uber, Lyft and Sidecar.

In recent years, TNCs have cultivated a tremendous following, to the degree of taxicab desertion. Moreover, the massive success of TNCs led to expansion of its capacities into public transportation.

The TNC’s ...


Mobile-Based Sidewalk Inventory App For Smart Communities, Health, And Safety, Madhav Erraguntla, Dursun Delen, Rupesh K. Agrawal, Karthic Madanagopal, Richard Mayer Oct 2017

Mobile-Based Sidewalk Inventory App For Smart Communities, Health, And Safety, Madhav Erraguntla, Dursun Delen, Rupesh K. Agrawal, Karthic Madanagopal, Richard Mayer

Suburban Sustainability

As the United States and other nations strive to cope with the obesity epidemic (NCHS, 2015), progressive communities are developing sidewalk infrastructure to promote physical activity and health. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that community-based interventions like neighborhood walk, bike programs etc. have shown to be effective in promoting physical activity and health. Smart cities are embracing the development of community trails and promoting their use to increase physical activity among youth and adults. System implementation, data collection, and analysis were performed from January 2015 through July 2015. To promote these objectives, communities and cities need accurate information ...


Autonomous Vehicles: An Empirical Assessment Of Consumers’ Perceptions, Intended Adoption, And Impacts On Household Vehicle Ownership, Nikhil Menon Jul 2017

Autonomous Vehicles: An Empirical Assessment Of Consumers’ Perceptions, Intended Adoption, And Impacts On Household Vehicle Ownership, Nikhil Menon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Emerging automotive and transportation technologies have provided revolutionary possibilities in the way we might travel in the future. Major car manufacturers and technology giants have demonstrated significant progress in advancing and testing autonomous vehicles in real-life traffic conditions. Governmental agencies are grappling with how to plan transportation systems for a world with autonomous vehicles. Past research has shown that not all technologies are immediately welcomed by the public. Autonomous Vehicles would have to likely go through a similar phase, and would need to overcome not just technological challenges but also social barriers for successful penetration into the marketplace. Most previous ...


Reappropriating Public Space In Nanchang, China: A Study Of Informal Street Vendors, Bryan C. Winter Jul 2017

Reappropriating Public Space In Nanchang, China: A Study Of Informal Street Vendors, Bryan C. Winter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since China's shift to market socialism, many marginalized by this process work as informal street vendors where they reappropriate public space in order to survive―a practice at odds with urban authorities' modernizing agenda. In relation to these competing logics concerning public space's use value versus its exchange value, this dissertation examines the practices, experiences, and agency of informal street vendors working in Sanjingwuwei, an ordinary, yet rapidly gentrifying, neighborhood of Nanchang, capital and largest city of southeastern China's Jiangxi Province. After describing the growth of an informal economy in modern China and providing a history of ...


Space-Time Transportation System Modelling: From Traveler’S Characteristics To The Network Design Problem, Mohsen Parsafard Jun 2017

Space-Time Transportation System Modelling: From Traveler’S Characteristics To The Network Design Problem, Mohsen Parsafard

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Traditional network design problems only consider the long-term stationary travel patterns (e.g., fixed OD demand) and short-term variations of human mobility are ignored. This study aims to integrate human mobility characteristics and travel patterns into network design problems using a space-time network structure. Emerging technologies such as location-based social network platforms provide a unique opportunity for understanding human mobility patterns that can lead to advanced modeling techniques. To reach our goal, at first multimodal network design problems are investigated by considering safety and flow interactions between different modes of transport. We develop a network reconstruction method to expand a ...


The S-Curve Of Technological Adoption: Mobile Communication Devices On Commuter Trains In The Chicago Region, 2010–2015, Joseph P. Schwieterman, Lauren A. Fischer Jun 2017

The S-Curve Of Technological Adoption: Mobile Communication Devices On Commuter Trains In The Chicago Region, 2010–2015, Joseph P. Schwieterman, Lauren A. Fischer

Journal of Public Transportation

Urban transit riders’ use of mobile communication devices has grown markedly in recent years. Studies evaluating the usage of these devices have generally focused on only one or two points in time, limiting their ability to describe long-range trends. To foster insights into this issue, this study evaluated data from 15,531 passenger observations collected on 156 commuter trains on the metropolitan commuter rail system of Chicago, Illinois, from 2010 through 2015. The data show that the rate of technological usage is following an S-shaped pattern among passengers. The share of passengers using mobile communication devices at observed points grew ...


Impacts Of New Light Rail Transit Service On Riders' Residential Relocation Decisions, You-Lian Chu, Yi Deng, Rongfang (Rachel) Liu Jun 2017

Impacts Of New Light Rail Transit Service On Riders' Residential Relocation Decisions, You-Lian Chu, Yi Deng, Rongfang (Rachel) Liu

Journal of Public Transportation

Using the rider survey data collected from Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Transit System in New Jersey, this paper investigated the residential relocating decisions of the riders who have been riding the LRT for a period of time. Using the Heckman’s sample selection model, the paper extends the current mobility literature by describing not only a rider’s likelihood to move as a result of the new LRT service but also the movers’ orientation toward their residence distances to LRT stations. Information on the socio-economic characteristics of the movers and their residence distances to LRT stations would help planners and developers ...


Measuring The Accuracy Of Bus Rapid Transit Forecasts, John Perry Mar 2017

Measuring The Accuracy Of Bus Rapid Transit Forecasts, John Perry

Journal of Public Transportation

The research of Dr. Bent Flyvbjerg in the 1990s and early 2000s showed that urban rail projects often cost more than estimated and carried fewer riders than projected, a troubling trend suggesting that the forecasts for urban rail projects were too optimistic in terms of cost and ridership. Inspired by that research, this analysis seeks to extend that framework to analyze Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). A study of forecast vs. actual costs and ridership was conducted for 19 BRT projects in the United States. From this, it was found that the cost projections for these projects tended to be quite ...


A New Market Segmentation Approach: Evidence From Two Canadian Cities, Dea Van Lierop, Ahmed El-Geneidy Mar 2017

A New Market Segmentation Approach: Evidence From Two Canadian Cities, Dea Van Lierop, Ahmed El-Geneidy

Journal of Public Transportation

Traditionally, transit market research has categorized passengers into two distinct groups: captive riders and choice riders. Market analyses that depend on such broad categories are likely to overlook important details about the needs and desires of their customer base. This study attempts to better understand the complexities of the different groups who take transit by using information from five years of customer satisfaction questionnaires collected by two Canadian transit providers. Employing a series of clustering techniques, the analysis reveals that nine market segments are present across different modes in both transit agencies. Three different overarching groups of transit users are ...


Access To Taxicabs For Unbanked Households: An Exploratory Analysis In New York City, David A. King, Juan Francisco Saldarriaga Mar 2017

Access To Taxicabs For Unbanked Households: An Exploratory Analysis In New York City, David A. King, Juan Francisco Saldarriaga

Journal of Public Transportation

Taxicabs are critical complements to public transit systems. In New York City, ubiquitous yellow cabs are as iconic as the city’s subway system, and the city recently added green taxicabs to improve taxi service in areas outside of the Central Business Districts and airports. In this paper, we used multiple datasets to explore taxicab fare payments by neighborhood and examine how paid taxicab fares are associated with use of conventional banking services. There are clear spatial dimensions of the propensity of riders to pay cash, and we found that both immigrant status and being “unbanked” are strong predictors of ...


The Causal Effect Of Bus Rapid Transit On Changes In Transit Ridership, Orion T. Stewart, Anne Vernez Moudon, Brian E. Saelens Mar 2017

The Causal Effect Of Bus Rapid Transit On Changes In Transit Ridership, Orion T. Stewart, Anne Vernez Moudon, Brian E. Saelens

Journal of Public Transportation

Numerous studies have reported ridership increases along routes when Bus rapid transit (BRT) replaces conventional bus service, but these increases could be due simply to broader temporal trends in transit ridership. To address this limitation, we compared changes in ridership among routes where BRT was implemented to routes where BRT was planned or already existed in King County, Washington. Ridership was measured at 2010, 2013, and 2014. Ridership increased by 35% along routes where BRT was implemented from 2010 to 2013 compared to routes that maintained conventional bus service. Ridership increased by 29% along routes where BRT was implemented from ...


How Intermediate Capacity Modes Provide Accessibility And Resilience In Metropolitan Transit Networks: Insights From A Global Study Of 19 Cities, Jan Scheurer Dec 2016

How Intermediate Capacity Modes Provide Accessibility And Resilience In Metropolitan Transit Networks: Insights From A Global Study Of 19 Cities, Jan Scheurer

Journal of Public Transportation

Drawing on the Spatial Network Analysis of Multimodal Urban Transport Systems (SNAMUTS) accessibility tool, this paper introduces comparative results of public transport network performance measures in 19 metropolitan regions in developed countries. These results are assessed typologically and functionally to highlight the contribution of each common public transport mode to maximize (or not) the integration of transport networks with the urban structure to optimize accessibility outcomes. It is shown that the capacity and performance spectrum embodied by each mode represents a gradual scale that allocates a specific niche to intermediate modes, particularly trams that are present in half the cities ...


Public Transit Equity Analysis At Metropolitan And Local Scales: A Focus On Nine Large Cities In The Us, Greg P. Griffin, Ipek N. Sener Dec 2016

Public Transit Equity Analysis At Metropolitan And Local Scales: A Focus On Nine Large Cities In The Us, Greg P. Griffin, Ipek N. Sener

Journal of Public Transportation

Recent studies on transit service through an equity lens have captured broad trends from the literature and national-level data or analyzed disaggregate data at the local level. This study integrates these methods by employing a geostatistical analysis of new transit access and income data compilations from the Environmental Protection Agency. By using a national data set, this study demonstrates a method for income-based transit equity analysis and provides results spanning nine large auto-oriented cities in the US. Results demonstrate variability among cities’ transit services to low-income populations, with differing results when viewed at the regional and local levels. Regional-level analysis ...


Regularity Of Public Transport Usage: A Case Study Of Bus Rides In Lisbon, Portugal, Stefan Foell, Santi Phithakkitnukoon, Marco Veloso, Gerd Kortuem, Carlos Bento Dec 2016

Regularity Of Public Transport Usage: A Case Study Of Bus Rides In Lisbon, Portugal, Stefan Foell, Santi Phithakkitnukoon, Marco Veloso, Gerd Kortuem, Carlos Bento

Journal of Public Transportation

This paper presents an analysis of regularity in public transport usage based on a large-scale bus transportation data of Lisbon, Portugal. By exploring the combined information from the bus boarding history of riders and bus arrivals at each bus stop, an analysis of individual bus usage was performed. Daily and weekly patterns were extracted, from which it was observed that a rider takes, on average, 2 trips, visits 1.93 distinct stops, and uses 1.55 distinct bus lines daily. Inter-trip time analysis revealed a daily cycle, and a study of the interaction between riders and bus infrastructure explored how ...


Passenger Satisfaction And Mental Adaptation Under Adverse Conditions: Case Study In Manila, Andra Charis Mijares, Mio Suzuki, Tetsuo Yai Dec 2016

Passenger Satisfaction And Mental Adaptation Under Adverse Conditions: Case Study In Manila, Andra Charis Mijares, Mio Suzuki, Tetsuo Yai

Journal of Public Transportation

Public transportation systems in several developing cities face congestion, air pollution, and safety problems, yet many passengers use them regularly. This study examines the structure of passenger satisfaction and the role of mental adaptation under such conditions. Metro Manila MRT-3 was analyzed as a case study.

The actual and perceived conditions at the MRT-3 were assessed using surveys. Results of the waiting time and PM2.5 monitoring surveys revealed that passengers queue for 30 minutes, on average, while being exposed to unsafe levels of PM2.5. The questionnaire survey results show some discrepancies between actual and perceived values ...


Locally Optimized Mapping Of Slum Conditions In A Sub-Saharan Context: A Case Study Of Bamenda, Cameroon, Julius Anchang Nov 2016

Locally Optimized Mapping Of Slum Conditions In A Sub-Saharan Context: A Case Study Of Bamenda, Cameroon, Julius Anchang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite being an indicator of modernization and macro-economic growth, urbanization in regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa is tightly interwoven with poverty and deprivation. This has manifested physically as slums, which represent the worst residential urban areas, marked by lack of access to good quality housing and basic services. To effectively combat the slum phenomenon, local slum conditions must be captured in quantitative and spatial terms. However, there are significant hurdles to this. Slum detection and mapping requires readily available and reliable data, as well as a proper conceptualization of measurement and scale. Using Bamenda, Cameroon, as a test case, this ...


Cross-Elasticities In Frequencies And Ridership For Urban Local Routes, Joseph Totten, David Levinson Sep 2016

Cross-Elasticities In Frequencies And Ridership For Urban Local Routes, Joseph Totten, David Levinson

Journal of Public Transportation

Observational data from the Minneapolis-Saint Paul region’s Metro Transit were analyzed to determine the effects of service levels on ridership levels at different intervals. The research compares changes in service levels and ridership in several service intervals and includes elasticities and cross elasticities, or the influence that these service levels have on different service intervals’ ridership. These cross-elasticities were found to have little effect during the week; however, weekend ridership was found to be influenced by rush-hour and overnight frequencies.


The Effects Of Age And Gender On Pedestrian Traffic Injuries: A Random Parameters And Latent Class Analysis, Tatok Raharjo Raharjo Jun 2016

The Effects Of Age And Gender On Pedestrian Traffic Injuries: A Random Parameters And Latent Class Analysis, Tatok Raharjo Raharjo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pedestrians are vulnerable road users because they do not have any protection while they walk. They are unlike cyclists and motorcyclists who often have at least helmet protection and sometimes additional body protection (in the case of motorcyclists with body-armored jackets and pants). In the US, pedestrian fatalities are increasing and becoming an ever larger proportion of overall roadway fatalities (NHTSA, 2016), thus underscoring the need to study factors that influence pedestrian-injury severity and potentially develop appropriate countermeasures. One of the critical elements in the study of pedestrian-injury severities is to understand how injuries vary across age and gender ‒ two ...


Planning For Bike Share Connectivity To Rail Transit, Greg P. Griffin, Ipek N. Sener Jun 2016

Planning For Bike Share Connectivity To Rail Transit, Greg P. Griffin, Ipek N. Sener

Journal of Public Transportation

Bike sharing can play a role in providing access to transit stations and then to final destinations, but early implementation of these systems in North America has been opportunistic rather than strategic. This study evaluates local intermodal plan goals using trip data and associated infrastructure such as transit stops and bike share station locations in Austin, Texas, and Chicago, Illinois. Bike sharing use data from both cities suggest a weak relationship with existing rail stations that could be strengthened through collaborative, intermodal planning. The study suggests a planning framework and example language that could be tailored to help address the ...


Influence Of Socio-Demography And Operating Streetscape On Last-Mile Mode Choice, M. Meng, P. P. Koh, Y. D. Wong Jun 2016

Influence Of Socio-Demography And Operating Streetscape On Last-Mile Mode Choice, M. Meng, P. P. Koh, Y. D. Wong

Journal of Public Transportation

This study investigated how personal and operational factors (travel distance and streetscape) influence traveler mode choice decisions for the last-mile home-bound trip stage from rail transit stations. Personal factors include the socio-demography of travelers, and attributes of the streetscape include the built environment (degree of areal development), prevalence of cycling, availability of short-range transport modes, and walking/cycling infrastructure. Interviewers randomly intercepted pedestrians to administer a mode choice survey at five rail transit station exits and engaged all available cyclists at bicycle parking areas in the vicinity of stations in Singapore. A multimodal logit regression model revealed a significant relationship ...