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Full-Text Articles in Work, Economy and Organizations

Evaluating Competing Perspectives Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Bulgaria, Colin C. Williams Aug 2028

Evaluating Competing Perspectives Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Bulgaria, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

When explaining and tackling the undeclared economy in Central
and Eastern Europe, participants have been conventionally viewed
as rational economic actors. They engage in undeclared work
when the benefits outweigh the costs. Participation is thus
deterred by increasing the sanctions and/or probability of being
caught. Recently, however, an alternative social actor approach
has emerged which views participants as engaging in undeclared
work when their norms, values and beliefs (i.e. citizen morale) do
not align with laws and regulations (i.e. state morale). Here, therefore,
initiatives to develop greater symmetry between civic and
state morale are pursued. To evaluate ...


What Explains The Rise Of Majority-Minority Tensions And Conflict In Xinjiang?, Reza Hasmath Dec 2018

What Explains The Rise Of Majority-Minority Tensions And Conflict In Xinjiang?, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

In the past few years there has been a rise of inter-ethnic violence in China. While ethno-cultural repression and ineffective state policies are correctly attributed as key culprits behind this reality, this article suggests that socio-economic factors play a fundamental contributory role as well. Using the Xinjiang case, the article maps ethnic tensions and violence as a manifestation and expression of a growing and heighten ethno-cultural consciousness stemming from ethnic minorities’ low socio-economic status due, in part, to internal Han migration, and a labour market process – involving agency and structure – that has shaped a split and segmented labour market.


Glossary Of Terms: European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Nov 2018

Glossary Of Terms: European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This glossary is intended to provide a common understanding of the terminology that is used in the European Platform tackling undeclared work web pages, documents and publications. It does not provide official Platform definitions of the terms listed therein. Where possible, references are provided to the source of the understandings provided.
To facilitate understanding, the terms in the glossary are grouped together rather than presented as an A-Z list.

In the first section, the common understandings about undeclared work and its various sub-types are provided, followed by other related concepts and terms often used for activities related to undeclared work ...


The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy Nov 2018

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy

Shared Knowledge Conference

Based on a review of research and best practices in mental health awareness and skills, this inquiry project argues for state legislative policies that would require mental health awareness and skills in the K-12 curriculum. Mental health affects individual accomplishments in every stage of people’s lives beginning in early childhood and throughout the life cycle. Prevention and treatment of mental illness plays a key role in the ability of an individual to cope with loss and develop resiliency and perseverance in challenging times and to make better decisions that improve the individual’s life and the lives of those ...


Mobilization In Response To Workplace Harassment: Lessons From One University Setting, Amy Blackstone, Susan K. Gardner Oct 2018

Mobilization In Response To Workplace Harassment: Lessons From One University Setting, Amy Blackstone, Susan K. Gardner

Trends in Diversity

We examine experiences of and responses to harassment in one university setting. Data come from a 2011 survey of 338 faculty at a mid-sized land grant university (LGU). While rates of harassment at LGU do not vary considerably from those found elsewhere, rates of mobilization in response to harassment differ quite dramatically from those found in prior studies. Nearly all (97.8%) of those who experienced harassment reported having spoken with someone about their experience, be it human resources, a union representative, a family member, a friend, or some other source of support. Findings from the survey, based on analysis ...


Explaining And Tackling Under-Declared Employment In Fyr Macedonia: The Employers Perspective, Colin C. Williams, Slavko Bezeredi Oct 2018

Explaining And Tackling Under-Declared Employment In Fyr Macedonia: The Employers Perspective, Colin C. Williams, Slavko Bezeredi

Colin C Williams

The aim of this paper is to evaluate how employers who illegally under-report their employees’ salaries to
evade paying the full tax and social contributions owed can be explained and tackled. These employers have
been conventionally explained as rational economic actors doing so when the benefits outweigh the costs,
and thus the solution is to increase the sanctions and/or probability of detection. An alternative social actor
approach, however, explains employers as under-reporting salaries because of their lack of both vertical trust
(i.e., their beliefs are not in symmetry with the laws and regulations) and horizontal trust (i.e ...


Precarious Academic Labor In Germany: Termed Contracts And New Berufsverbot, Alexander Gallas Oct 2018

Precarious Academic Labor In Germany: Termed Contracts And New Berufsverbot, Alexander Gallas

Academic Labor: Research and Artistry

The authors examines how precarity is produced in German academia and explores how labour activists are trying to combat it. The focus is on mid-level faculty. In the first part, the mechanics of precarisation are explained; in the second part, the institutional supports of the status quo blocking change in favour of labour are identified, and in the third part, the demands and strategies of two organisations are analyzed that have made headlines in recent years by exposing the proliferation of precarity in German academia: the Education and Science Workers’ Union (GEW) and the Network for Decent Work in Academia ...


Tackling Under-Declared Employment In The European Union: Input Paper To Thematic Discussion Of European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Oct 2018

Tackling Under-Declared Employment In The European Union: Input Paper To Thematic Discussion Of European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

The under-declaration of work ranges from employers using unregistered employees, through the under-declaration of income by the formal self-employed and formal businesses, to the misuse of collaborative platforms and the digital economy to conceal the full amount of incomes and social security due.
The objective of this thematic discussion on under-declared employment in the European Union is: (i) to exchange information on what works and what does not, (ii) to generate knowledge about under-declared employment, and (iii) to explore how the Platform activities can contribute to tackling under-declared employment.
The intention is to focus upon two types of under-declaring work ...


Evaluating Policy Approaches Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Fyr Of Macedonia, Colin C. Williams Oct 2018

Evaluating Policy Approaches Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Fyr Of Macedonia, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

To tackle undeclared work, the conventional rational economic actor approach
uses deterrents to ensure that the costs of engaging in undeclared work outweigh
the benefits. Recent years have seen the emergence of a social actor approach
which focuses upon improving tax morale. To analyse the association between
participation in undeclared work and these policy approaches, 2,014 face-toface
interviews, conducted in FYROM in 2015, are reported. Logistic regression
analysis reveals no association between participation in undeclared work and the
perceived level of penalties and risk of detection, but there is an association with
the level of tax morale. The paper ...


Donerail, Kentucky Grange No. 44 (Sc 3267), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Oct 2018

Donerail, Kentucky Grange No. 44 (Sc 3267), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3267. Minute book of Donerail Grange No. 44, Fayette County, Kentucky. Includes rolls of members as of 1 January 1875.


Skills And Student Affairs: A Discourse Analysis, Shannon Mckechnie Oct 2018

Skills And Student Affairs: A Discourse Analysis, Shannon Mckechnie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Media, industry, and other public actors have claimed that a ‘skills gap’ exists in students exiting post-secondary education and entering the workforce. The Ontario provincial government has developed policy, the Highly Skilled Workforce Strategy, to provide directives to universities in the province to provide skills development to students to aid in closing the gap and providing a workplace relevant education. In this study, I explore the experiences of student affairs and services (SAS) staff responsible for enacting provincial policy related to skills development at the university level by investigating the discourses that shape policy and practices of these staff in ...


Low Power Individuals In Social Power Research: A Quantitative Review, Theoretical Framework, And Empirical Test, Michael Schaerer, Christilene Du Plessis, Andy J. Yap, Stefan Thau Oct 2018

Low Power Individuals In Social Power Research: A Quantitative Review, Theoretical Framework, And Empirical Test, Michael Schaerer, Christilene Du Plessis, Andy J. Yap, Stefan Thau

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We examine the role of low-power individuals in social power research. A multi-method literature review reveals that low-power individuals may be insufficiently understood because many studies lack necessary control conditions that allow drawing inferences about low power, effects are predominantly attributed to high power, and qualitative reviews primarily focus on how high-power individuals feel, think, and behave. Challenging the assumption that low power tends to produce opposite consequences of high power, we highlight several similarities between the two states. Based on social exchange theories, we propose that unequal-power (vs. equal-power) relationships make instrumental goals, competitive attitudes, and exchange rules salient ...


Ethnographic Research In The U.S. Intelligence Community: Opportunities And Challenges, Bridget Nolan Sep 2018

Ethnographic Research In The U.S. Intelligence Community: Opportunities And Challenges, Bridget Nolan

Secrecy and Society

This article considers lessons learned from conducting research inside the intelligence community. Drawing on a year of ethnographic field work and interviews at the National Counterterrorism Center, I show that “boundary personnel”- people who navigate between the worlds of academia and national security - provide value added in the form of tacit knowledge that outside researchers would not be able to deliver. At the same time, these people face delays, challenges to freedom of information, and ethical considerations that are unique to their positions. Despite setbacks, social scientists must continue their engagement with national security organizations to further our understanding of ...


Enhancing Visitors Experiences At Artisan Businesses: A Case Study Of The Économusée® Business Model In British Columbia, John Predyk, Nicole L. Vaugeois Sep 2018

Enhancing Visitors Experiences At Artisan Businesses: A Case Study Of The Économusée® Business Model In British Columbia, John Predyk, Nicole L. Vaugeois

TTRA Canada 2018 Conference

ÉCONOMUSÉE© is a non-profit organization founded in 1992 in Quebec, Canada which now includes over 70 Artisans from across Canada and Europe. The model promotes the preservation of traditional knowledge and local entrepreneurship by utilizing cultural tourism to showcase artisans and encourage the consumption of locally produced artisanal products. This study was completed in order to provide data on the growth and effectiveness of the ÉCONOMUSÉE program in British Columbia since it was first introduced in 2012. This paper highlights the results of the impact of the model on overall visitor experience. At this point in time, it appears that ...


Highly Skilled Immigration In The United States In An Age Of Globalization: An Institutional And Agency Approach, Marcela F. González Sep 2018

Highly Skilled Immigration In The United States In An Age Of Globalization: An Institutional And Agency Approach, Marcela F. González

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

My dissertation proposes an institutional and agency approach in order to answer a new question to a new set of conditions, processes, and architecture of the new immigration trend for highly skilled immigration in the United States that emerged in the 1990s. The complexification of visa policies for highly skilled immigrants since the 1990s forces many immigrants to follow a multi-step legal pathway to acquire legal permanent residency: first, immigrants have a variety of temporary legal statuses or no legal status, and in a subsequent stage they achieve legal permanent residency. The central question that organizes the dissertation has two ...


Making It Pay To Be A Fan: The Political Economy Of Digital Sports Fandom And The Sports Media Industry, Andrew Mckinney Sep 2018

Making It Pay To Be A Fan: The Political Economy Of Digital Sports Fandom And The Sports Media Industry, Andrew Mckinney

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a series of case studies and sociological examinations of the role that the sports media industry and mediated sport fandom plays in the political economy of the Internet. The Internet has structurally changed the way that sport fans access sport and accelerated the processes through which the capitalist actors in the sports media industry have been able to subsume them. The three case studies examined in this dissertation are examples of how digital media technologies have both helped fans become more active producers and consumers of sports and made the sports media industry an integral and vanguard ...


Older Workers In Boston: An Age-Friendly Perspective, Jan Mutchler, Brittany Gaines, Ping Xu, Caitlin Coyle Sep 2018

Older Workers In Boston: An Age-Friendly Perspective, Jan Mutchler, Brittany Gaines, Ping Xu, Caitlin Coyle

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

As this report makes clear, work challenges experienced by older people are not uncommon in Boston. Retraining and upgrading skills are required for some people to retain or secure employment. For those who have not participated in job search for some time, support with job seeking strategies may be necessary. Programs that also offer socioemotional support are helpful to some older job-seekers. Yet while training and job search support is an important part of the solution, these are not the only targets of intervention required. Employers need to be educated about successful strategies that will help them to retain their ...


Continuing To Build A More Diverse Workforce In The Highway Trades: 2018 Evaluation Of The Odot/Boli Highway Construction Workforce Development Program, Lindsey Wilkinson, Maura Kelly Sep 2018

Continuing To Build A More Diverse Workforce In The Highway Trades: 2018 Evaluation Of The Odot/Boli Highway Construction Workforce Development Program, Lindsey Wilkinson, Maura Kelly

Sociology Faculty Publications and Presentations

While white men have historically dominated the highway construction trades in Oregon, this trend continues to change: of those enrolled in apprenticeships in the highway construction trades in 2005, 81% were white men; in 2017, this number was 69%. Of apprentices who completed an apprenticeship in 2010, 84% where white men; in 2017, this number was 76%. These changes are likely due, in part, to efforts by the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) and the Bureau of Labor Industries (BOLI) to diversify the skilled highway construction workforce through pre apprenticeships as well as financial and nonfinancial services to apprentices in ...


The Politics Of Service: Affectivity, Social Relations, And The Power Of Tipping In The Restaurant Industry, Jacqueline A. Ross Sep 2018

The Politics Of Service: Affectivity, Social Relations, And The Power Of Tipping In The Restaurant Industry, Jacqueline A. Ross

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The #MeToo movement and the growing spotlight on sexual harassment and misconduct has increasingly brought industries and individuals into the public eye. The restaurant industry is one such industry to receive this spotlight. While most of the coverage has stemmed from celebrities, the misconduct of celebrity chefs has been paralleled by the stories of servers and their customers. The NY Times published several articles on harassment in the restaurant industry and some specifically focusing on the abuses that tipped workers face. Often these workers were women. When asked about experiences of harassment, responses were often that servers felt that they ...


Newcomer Women And The Workforce: A Critical Policy Analysis Of Employment And Labour Legislation In Ontario, Anuja Jeeva Sep 2018

Newcomer Women And The Workforce: A Critical Policy Analysis Of Employment And Labour Legislation In Ontario, Anuja Jeeva

Social Justice and Community Engagement

This research aims to explore the potential impact of changes in Ontario labour legislation on newcomer women in the workforce, particularly with the changes to both the Employment Standards Act, 2000 and the Labour Relations Act, 1995, under the 2017 legislation of the Fair Workplaces, Better Jobs Act (Bill 148). The research stems from the concern that newcomer women are overrepresented in low wage, temporary, precarious employment, and is informed by studies about the issues newcomer women face in finding stable, secure employment, and the societal forces involved in shaping policy intended to address those issues. The purpose of the ...


Constructing The Global Education Hub: The Unlikely Case Of Manila, Yasmin Y. Ortiga Sep 2018

Constructing The Global Education Hub: The Unlikely Case Of Manila, Yasmin Y. Ortiga

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This paper investigates the creation of an unlikely education hub in Manila, Philippines, where local institutions have seen a growing number of international students from Korea, India, and the Middle East. These students seek qualifications in professions where Filipino migrants are highly represented, either to gain an advantage within their home countries or as a steppingstone towards jobs elsewhere. Drawing from current debates on ‘global cities’, this paper discusses how different actors promote Manila as an ideal destination for students by using the country’s unique position within the global market for migrant labor and its American colonial history. Here ...


Boosting The Life-Changing Power Of Universities, Arnoud Cyriel Leo De Meyer Sep 2018

Boosting The Life-Changing Power Of Universities, Arnoud Cyriel Leo De Meyer

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

For decades, if not centuries, societies all over the world have assumed that universities have a positive socio-economic impact on them.


Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski Aug 2018

Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The concept of mattering is an underdeveloped, yet important component of an employee’s success in the workplace, and personal well-being. Deficit-based leadership strategies employed by many organizations can break-down the ability for an employee to feel that they and their work matter, however, the focus by leaders on mattering can lead employees to feel: my leader is invested in my success, I am noticed, I am cared about, I am depended upon, I would be missed if I were not here, my leader is interested in what I say and do, I am appreciated, and I am noticed for ...


Family Experiences In Engaging In Employment: How Do We Improve Outcomes?, John Kramer, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Aug 2018

Family Experiences In Engaging In Employment: How Do We Improve Outcomes?, John Kramer, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Session 018: Abolishing Exploitive Labour Practices Room: Freedom H

Sponsors: Disability Youth, Aging, and the Life Course

Organizer, Presider &

Discussant: Katherine Caldwell, University of Illinois at Chicago

Papers:

“Differences in Earnings among Persons with and without Disabilities,” Alexandra Krause, Florida State University

“Family Experiences in Engaging in Employment: How Do We Improve Outcomes?” John Kramer, University of Massachusetts Boston

“Shifting the Paradigm through Entrepreneurship,” Katherine Caldwell, University of Illinois at Chicago


Effects Of Senate Bill 4 On Wage-Theft: Why All Workers Are At Risk In Low-Income Occupations, Daniella Salas-Chacon Aug 2018

Effects Of Senate Bill 4 On Wage-Theft: Why All Workers Are At Risk In Low-Income Occupations, Daniella Salas-Chacon

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


How State-Level Dynamics Shape Individual-Level Welfare Payments, Jamy Rentschler Aug 2018

How State-Level Dynamics Shape Individual-Level Welfare Payments, Jamy Rentschler

Sociology Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

This thesis examines how welfare program implementation varies across states, and what those differences in implementation mean for welfare (TANF) recipients across the country. Specifically, I examine the extent to which state-level context related demographics and economics as well as political ideology, religious culture and race may contribute to contemporary disparate economic outcomes for low-income racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. This study relies on a sample of welfare recipients from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) during 1998-2013 to examine individual recipients’ average monthly TANF payments. Analyses combine SIPP data with state-level information drawn from ...


Locating Art Worlds, James W. Harrington Jr. Jul 2018

Locating Art Worlds, James W. Harrington Jr.

Conflux

This paper uses a varied literature to define “art” as literary, musical, or visual creations, and theatrical, dance, or musical performances that: are not motivated by utility; play some role in interpreting a culture or place; and are recognized as art by some number of audiences, vendors, producers, and critics. Thus, art benefits cultures and places through its interpretive value.

The production and dissemination of artistic creations requires a constellation of materials, standards, techniques, producers, and vendors that is called an “art world” relevant to that type of art. Though the impulse to create art is universal, art worlds are ...


Social Class, Control, And Action: Socioeconomic Status Differences In Antecedents Of Support For Pro-Environmental Action, Kimin Eom, Heejung S. Kim, David K. Sherman Jul 2018

Social Class, Control, And Action: Socioeconomic Status Differences In Antecedents Of Support For Pro-Environmental Action, Kimin Eom, Heejung S. Kim, David K. Sherman

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Addressing social issues such as climate change requires significant support and engagement of citizens with diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. The present research examines whether individuals who vary in their socioeconomic status significantly differ in their psychological antecedents of support for pro-environmental action. Study 1, using U.S. nationally representative data, showed that personal beliefs about climate change predicted support for pro-environmental policies more strongly among individuals with a higher, relative to lower, SES background. Studies 2 and 3, by employing correlational and experimental approaches respectively, found that general sense of control over life outcomes underlies the extent to which support for ...


Exploring Factors That Enhance Career Advancement For African-Americans Across Various Criminal Justice Occupations: A Qualitative Examination, Antonio Jon Bryer Jul 2018

Exploring Factors That Enhance Career Advancement For African-Americans Across Various Criminal Justice Occupations: A Qualitative Examination, Antonio Jon Bryer

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

This study examined the factors that are important for African-Americans to reach executive-level positions within the field of corrections. Using nine semi-structured interviews with current and former executive-level corrections professionals, it was found that investments in social capital and human capital are the main career advancement enhancers. However, when it came to factors that were specific to African-American corrections professionals, a majority of the respondents mentioned proficiency as an enhancer.


Experiences Explored Through The Prism: Out Gay And Lesbian Pathways To University Presidency, Patrick Englert Jun 2018

Experiences Explored Through The Prism: Out Gay And Lesbian Pathways To University Presidency, Patrick Englert

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Capstones

The profile of university presidents has changed very little in the past twenty-five years, with the majority being white males (Kim & Cook, 2013). The presence of the ‘lavender ceiling’ (Friskopp & Silverstein, 1995) in higher education is evidenced in there being less than one percent of university presidents who openly identify as lesbian and gay (L&G) (Rivard, 2014). Colleges and universities continue to be largely heteronormative and struggle to create safe, supportive, and just campuses; mirroring instead the bias and microaggressions that occur outside the insulated walls of academia (Bazarsky, Morrow, & Javier, 2015; Vaccaro, 2012).

This multi-case qualitative study explored the lived experiences of nine out L&G presidents in higher education via two research questions: 1) What are the experiences of out L&G University Presidents within Higher Education? 2) How does being an out practitioner impact pathways to presidency? Using queer theory as a lens, the study builds upon queer research with one central theme; committing to being out in higher education. Committing to being out in Higher Education acted as a catalyst and resulted in four themes related to research question one: 1) supporting frameworks for being out, 2) experiencing heteronormativity as an entrenched concept, 3) navigating expectations of what it means to ...