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Full-Text Articles in Work, Economy and Organizations

Evaluating Competing Perspectives Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Bulgaria, Colin C. Williams Aug 2028

Evaluating Competing Perspectives Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Bulgaria, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

When explaining and tackling the undeclared economy in Central
and Eastern Europe, participants have been conventionally viewed
as rational economic actors. They engage in undeclared work
when the benefits outweigh the costs. Participation is thus
deterred by increasing the sanctions and/or probability of being
caught. Recently, however, an alternative social actor approach
has emerged which views participants as engaging in undeclared
work when their norms, values and beliefs (i.e. citizen morale) do
not align with laws and regulations (i.e. state morale). Here, therefore,
initiatives to develop greater symmetry between civic and
state morale are pursued. To evaluate ...


Women Faculty's Perceptions Of Departmental Belonging Across Academic Disciplines, Samantha Olarsch May 2019

Women Faculty's Perceptions Of Departmental Belonging Across Academic Disciplines, Samantha Olarsch

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Women’s growing numerical representation in gender atypical careers, including the professoriate, has not necessarily meant that they are being accepted, included and integrated in these traditionally male-dominated spaces. This study explores female faculty members’ feelings of isolation within their department across academic disciplines. Drawing on the theory of tokenism, I hypothesize that women faculty members in STEM disciplines, which have been historically male-dominated, are more likely to express a lesser sense of belonging in their department, than women faculty members in the Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities. I analyzed data from a 2009 online survey administered to tenure-track and ...


State Roles In Promoting Community Life Engagement: Themes From The State Employment Leadership Network’S Working Group, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Feb 2019

State Roles In Promoting Community Life Engagement: Themes From The State Employment Leadership Network’S Working Group, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

As states focus on expanding integrated employment opportunities for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and phasing out sheltered work, they are finding a need to concurrently examine Community Life Engagement (CLE) supports as a wrap-around to ensure individuals’ engagement in the community is maintained and they continue to receive sufficient levels of support, despite fluctuations in job status and hours. In January through June of 2017, the State Employment Leadership Network (SELN) hosted a working group of member states to discuss ideas and share strategies for encouraging quality CLE supports while maintaining a focus on Employment First (see ...


The Economic Impact Of The Health Sector On The Economy Of Appanoose County, Iowa, Daniel Otto, Georgeanne Artz Feb 2019

The Economic Impact Of The Health Sector On The Economy Of Appanoose County, Iowa, Daniel Otto, Georgeanne Artz

Economics Working Papers

The importance of medical and health facilities as community service providers is well

established, yet their role in generating significant economic impacts for the community is less often acknowledged. Health care facilities, such as hospitals and nursing homes, not only employ many people with a sizeable payroll, but also draw a large number of people from rural areas into the community for medical services. In this study, we attempt to identify and measure the economic importance of the health sector for the economy of Appanoose County, Iowa. The specific objectives of this report are to:

1. summarize the direct economic ...


Perceived Barriers To Employment For Older Displaced Workers, Luther M. Maddy Iii, John C. Cannon Jan 2019

Perceived Barriers To Employment For Older Displaced Workers, Luther M. Maddy Iii, John C. Cannon

Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development

This study attempted to determine if age was perceived as a barrier to employment for unemployed individuals above 40 years of age. The social cognitive career theory formed the foundation of this study. Job search self-efficacy was measured in 116 unemployed individuals in three states. An independent samples t test was calculated to compare the mean job search self-efficacy scores of the participants above the age of 40 to the scores of the younger participants. No significant difference was found (t(114) = 1.05, p > .05). Linear regression analysis computed a regression equation that was not significant (F(1,114 ...


What Explains The Rise Of Majority-Minority Tensions And Conflict In Xinjiang?, Reza Hasmath Dec 2018

What Explains The Rise Of Majority-Minority Tensions And Conflict In Xinjiang?, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

In the past few years there has been a rise of inter-ethnic violence in China. While ethno-cultural repression and ineffective state policies are correctly attributed as key culprits behind this reality, this article suggests that socio-economic factors play a fundamental contributory role as well. Using the Xinjiang case, the article maps ethnic tensions and violence as a manifestation and expression of a growing and heighten ethno-cultural consciousness stemming from ethnic minorities’ low socio-economic status due, in part, to internal Han migration, and a labour market process – involving agency and structure – that has shaped a split and segmented labour market.


Like A Jar Of Flies? A Study Of Self-Control In An Organizational Social Dilemma With Large Stakes, Matthew W. Mccarter, Jonathan R. Clark, Darcy Fudge Kamal, Abel Winn Dec 2018

Like A Jar Of Flies? A Study Of Self-Control In An Organizational Social Dilemma With Large Stakes, Matthew W. Mccarter, Jonathan R. Clark, Darcy Fudge Kamal, Abel Winn

Business Faculty Articles and Research

We study the practice of self-control in an organizational social dilemma when the stakes are large, using 47 years of vital census data from 18th century Sweden. From 1750 to 1800, eighty percent of Sweden lived in a simple-structure organization called a bytvång or village commons. The amount of resources a village family received was a function of their size. During this period, crop failures left the population facing starvation. Using autoregressive time-series modeling, we test whether the people of Sweden continued to take steps toward increasing the stress on the commons by marrying and birthing children or practiced ...


Inequality, Rubber, And Thermodynamics In Indonesia, Ernest M. Oleksy Dec 2018

Inequality, Rubber, And Thermodynamics In Indonesia, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

Intersectionality has led the charge in ensuring that workplace justice is assured to all people, irrespective of their identities. While intersectionality is a useful theory for explaining inequality, what must not be understated is the contributions that postcolonialism and the blue-collar working identity can have on harsh working conditions. Particularly, miners in Indonesia have had to work in very hostile environments where they are at-risk for sulfur poisoning as they mine for materials to vulcanize rubber. This article serves two purposes. The first is to call attention to how place can help explain the differential experiences of miners in the ...


A Discourse Analysis Of Diversity And Inclusion Terminology In The High-Tech Industry, Michelle Nader Dec 2018

A Discourse Analysis Of Diversity And Inclusion Terminology In The High-Tech Industry, Michelle Nader

Master's Theses

The field of Diversity and Inclusion is a growing interest within the High-Tech industry, particularly within the San Francisco Bay Area of California. To combat misconceptions of Diversity and Inclusion, this thesis aims to define and analyze the language used at 20 companies in the High-Tech sector. The trends, nuances, and practices of how companies use language in their programming and data dictates the direction of the company. This thesis investigates the underlying complexities of where Diversity and Inclusion is within the industry today and goals for the future. Findings from this research suggest that companies can strengthen their Diversity ...


"Integrated Science 3002a: Big Bike Giveaway: Changing London's Environment, Health, And Economy One Bike At A Time", Jermiah Joseph, Katelyn Melo, Devanshi Shukla, Tony Nguyen, Katherine Teeter Dec 2018

"Integrated Science 3002a: Big Bike Giveaway: Changing London's Environment, Health, And Economy One Bike At A Time", Jermiah Joseph, Katelyn Melo, Devanshi Shukla, Tony Nguyen, Katherine Teeter

Community Engaged Learning Final Projects

There are significant benefits that manifest when an individual chooses to ride a bicycle as their primary mode of transportation. To investigate these benefits, the environmental, health, economic, and social impacts of biking were evaluated through research and data analyses. This revealed that numerous advantages can be obtained at an individual and local scale through citizens choosing to adopt a biking lifestyle. However, it was found that many Londoners are deterred from biking due to poor biking infrastructure. This paper calls into question the current cycling framework in London and it’s limitations on achieving the numerous benefits that biking ...


The Pain In Spain: Examining Andalusia's Youth Unemployment Crisis, Bianca D. Lennon Dec 2018

The Pain In Spain: Examining Andalusia's Youth Unemployment Crisis, Bianca D. Lennon

Pell Scholars and Senior Theses

This paper examines the youth unemployment crisis in the autonomous community of Andalusia by assessing employment policies that are currently in place. Since the economic crisis nearly a decade ago, there has been very little change in the high rates of Andalusian youth unemployment, which as a whole, has left the region, the country and the European Union at risk due to a lack of inefficient policies. By utilizing anecdotal evidence paired with facts and figures released by the European Union, recommendations to adjust employment policies such as the Youth Guarantee and PRAEM are given in order to shine a ...


Glossary Of Terms: European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Nov 2018

Glossary Of Terms: European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This glossary is intended to provide a common understanding of the terminology that is used in the European Platform tackling undeclared work web pages, documents and publications. It does not provide official Platform definitions of the terms listed therein. Where possible, references are provided to the source of the understandings provided.
To facilitate understanding, the terms in the glossary are grouped together rather than presented as an A-Z list.

In the first section, the common understandings about undeclared work and its various sub-types are provided, followed by other related concepts and terms often used for activities related to undeclared work ...


The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy Nov 2018

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy

Shared Knowledge Conference

Based on a review of research and best practices in mental health awareness and skills, this inquiry project argues for state legislative policies that would require mental health awareness and skills in the K-12 curriculum. Mental health affects individual accomplishments in every stage of people’s lives beginning in early childhood and throughout the life cycle. Prevention and treatment of mental illness plays a key role in the ability of an individual to cope with loss and develop resiliency and perseverance in challenging times and to make better decisions that improve the individual’s life and the lives of those ...


Canadians Misbehaving: A Quantitative Analysis Of The Factors Contributing To Perceived Frequency Of Organizational Misbehaviour By Employees And Employers, Brendan S.J. Watts Nov 2018

Canadians Misbehaving: A Quantitative Analysis Of The Factors Contributing To Perceived Frequency Of Organizational Misbehaviour By Employees And Employers, Brendan S.J. Watts

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Individuals do not always follow the rules at work, yet it is not entirely clear what conditions generally contribute to higher rates of misbehaviour. Much of the research on organizational misbehaviour is ethnographic or based on limited sample populations (single organization, single industry, etc.), so there remains a gap in the literature for findings representative of a wider population and comparison across occupational classes. Additionally, there has been an over-emphasis on the study of misbehaviour by employees, while employer misbehaviour remains relatively unexplored within the literature. Organizational misbehaviour is also often treated as an objective act with little recognition for ...


Collective Shout's Victory Against Sexpo: A Win For Children's Rights, Caitlin Roper Nov 2018

Collective Shout's Victory Against Sexpo: A Win For Children's Rights, Caitlin Roper

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This report is an account of the legal battle between Australian grassroots campaigning movement Collective Shout and Sexpo, the annual sex industry exhibition. Sexpo brought a lawsuit against Collective Shout after their campaign against Sexpo’s promotion of live-streamed porn shows on public buses servicing school routes. In April 2018, Sexpo’s application was dismissed, with Sexpo ordered to pay Collective Shout’s legal costs.


Mobilization In Response To Workplace Harassment: Lessons From One University Setting, Amy Blackstone, Susan K. Gardner Oct 2018

Mobilization In Response To Workplace Harassment: Lessons From One University Setting, Amy Blackstone, Susan K. Gardner

Trends in Diversity

We examine experiences of and responses to harassment in one university setting. Data come from a 2011 survey of 338 faculty at a mid-sized land grant university (LGU). While rates of harassment at LGU do not vary considerably from those found elsewhere, rates of mobilization in response to harassment differ quite dramatically from those found in prior studies. Nearly all (97.8%) of those who experienced harassment reported having spoken with someone about their experience, be it human resources, a union representative, a family member, a friend, or some other source of support. Findings from the survey, based on analysis ...


Explaining And Tackling Under-Declared Employment In Fyr Macedonia: The Employers Perspective, Colin C. Williams, Slavko Bezeredi Oct 2018

Explaining And Tackling Under-Declared Employment In Fyr Macedonia: The Employers Perspective, Colin C. Williams, Slavko Bezeredi

Colin C Williams

The aim of this paper is to evaluate how employers who illegally under-report their employees’ salaries to
evade paying the full tax and social contributions owed can be explained and tackled. These employers have
been conventionally explained as rational economic actors doing so when the benefits outweigh the costs,
and thus the solution is to increase the sanctions and/or probability of detection. An alternative social actor
approach, however, explains employers as under-reporting salaries because of their lack of both vertical trust
(i.e., their beliefs are not in symmetry with the laws and regulations) and horizontal trust (i.e ...


Precarious Academic Labor In Germany: Termed Contracts And New Berufsverbot, Alexander Gallas Oct 2018

Precarious Academic Labor In Germany: Termed Contracts And New Berufsverbot, Alexander Gallas

Academic Labor: Research and Artistry

The authors examines how precarity is produced in German academia and explores how labour activists are trying to combat it. The focus is on mid-level faculty. In the first part, the mechanics of precarisation are explained; in the second part, the institutional supports of the status quo blocking change in favour of labour are identified, and in the third part, the demands and strategies of two organisations are analyzed that have made headlines in recent years by exposing the proliferation of precarity in German academia: the Education and Science Workers’ Union (GEW) and the Network for Decent Work in Academia ...


Peter Callero Interview 2018, Antonia Scholerman, Clifton Eddie, Erica Scoggins Oct 2018

Peter Callero Interview 2018, Antonia Scholerman, Clifton Eddie, Erica Scoggins

Oral Histories of Western Oregon University

In an interview with Dr. Peter Callero, he describes his experiences as a Professor of Sociology here at Western Oregon University. Dr. Callero touches on his role in the beginnings of the Sociology department at WOU in 1985, the first Higher Education faculty strike in Oregon, and a program teaching inmates at the State Penitentiary, the women's correctional facility, and the Oregon State Correctional Institution. With the offer of cookies, Mark Henkles, Professor of Public Policy and Administration and Political Science, unionization emerges as a theme. Additionally Dr. Callero discusses the coming changes to the Sociology Department at Western ...


Tackling Under-Declared Employment In The European Union: Input Paper To Thematic Discussion Of European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Oct 2018

Tackling Under-Declared Employment In The European Union: Input Paper To Thematic Discussion Of European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

The under-declaration of work ranges from employers using unregistered employees, through the under-declaration of income by the formal self-employed and formal businesses, to the misuse of collaborative platforms and the digital economy to conceal the full amount of incomes and social security due.
The objective of this thematic discussion on under-declared employment in the European Union is: (i) to exchange information on what works and what does not, (ii) to generate knowledge about under-declared employment, and (iii) to explore how the Platform activities can contribute to tackling under-declared employment.
The intention is to focus upon two types of under-declaring work ...


Evaluating Policy Approaches Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Fyr Of Macedonia, Colin C. Williams Oct 2018

Evaluating Policy Approaches Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Fyr Of Macedonia, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

To tackle undeclared work, the conventional rational economic actor approach
uses deterrents to ensure that the costs of engaging in undeclared work outweigh
the benefits. Recent years have seen the emergence of a social actor approach
which focuses upon improving tax morale. To analyse the association between
participation in undeclared work and these policy approaches, 2,014 face-toface
interviews, conducted in FYROM in 2015, are reported. Logistic regression
analysis reveals no association between participation in undeclared work and the
perceived level of penalties and risk of detection, but there is an association with
the level of tax morale. The paper ...


Donerail, Kentucky Grange No. 44 (Sc 3267), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Oct 2018

Donerail, Kentucky Grange No. 44 (Sc 3267), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3267. Minute book of Donerail Grange No. 44, Fayette County, Kentucky. Includes rolls of members as of 1 January 1875.


Skills And Student Affairs: A Discourse Analysis, Shannon Mckechnie Oct 2018

Skills And Student Affairs: A Discourse Analysis, Shannon Mckechnie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Media, industry, and other public actors have claimed that a ‘skills gap’ exists in students exiting post-secondary education and entering the workforce. The Ontario provincial government has developed policy, the Highly Skilled Workforce Strategy, to provide directives to universities in the province to provide skills development to students to aid in closing the gap and providing a workplace relevant education. In this study, I explore the experiences of student affairs and services (SAS) staff responsible for enacting provincial policy related to skills development at the university level by investigating the discourses that shape policy and practices of these staff in ...


Low Power Individuals In Social Power Research: A Quantitative Review, Theoretical Framework, And Empirical Test, Michael Schaerer, Christilene Du Plessis, Andy J. Yap, Stefan Thau Oct 2018

Low Power Individuals In Social Power Research: A Quantitative Review, Theoretical Framework, And Empirical Test, Michael Schaerer, Christilene Du Plessis, Andy J. Yap, Stefan Thau

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We examine the role of low-power individuals in social power research. A multi-method literature review reveals that low-power individuals may be insufficiently understood because many studies lack necessary control conditions that allow drawing inferences about low power, effects are predominantly attributed to high power, and qualitative reviews primarily focus on how high-power individuals feel, think, and behave. Challenging the assumption that low power tends to produce opposite consequences of high power, we highlight several similarities between the two states. Based on social exchange theories, we propose that unequal-power (vs. equal-power) relationships make instrumental goals, competitive attitudes, and exchange rules salient ...


Ethnographic Research In The U.S. Intelligence Community: Opportunities And Challenges, Bridget Nolan Sep 2018

Ethnographic Research In The U.S. Intelligence Community: Opportunities And Challenges, Bridget Nolan

Secrecy and Society

This article considers lessons learned from conducting research inside the intelligence community. Drawing on a year of ethnographic field work and interviews at the National Counterterrorism Center, I show that “boundary personnel”- people who navigate between the worlds of academia and national security - provide value added in the form of tacit knowledge that outside researchers would not be able to deliver. At the same time, these people face delays, challenges to freedom of information, and ethical considerations that are unique to their positions. Despite setbacks, social scientists must continue their engagement with national security organizations to further our understanding of ...


Intercultural Coworker Relationships (Icors) In The Global Workplace: A Grounded Theory Study, Jennifer L. Morton Sep 2018

Intercultural Coworker Relationships (Icors) In The Global Workplace: A Grounded Theory Study, Jennifer L. Morton

Dissertations

Previous research supports what employees intuitively sense: peers make the place (Chiaburu & Harrison, 2008; Schneider, 1987). Extant research suggests coworker relationships have critical influence on outcomes ranging from turnover (Felps, Mitchell, Hekman, Lee, Holtom, & Harman, 2009) to creativity (Homan, Buengeler, Eckhoff, van Ginkel, & Voelpel, 2015) to organizational commitment (Viswesvaran & Ones, 2002) to employee health and well-being (Heaphy & Dutton, 2008). Despite the increase of Intercultural COworker Relationships (ICORs), particularly in multinational firms in the technology industry, research has yet to examine what defines coworker relationship quality in the presence of national cultural differences. In other words, how do employees define and experience relationship ...


Enhancing Visitors Experiences At Artisan Businesses: A Case Study Of The Économusée® Business Model In British Columbia, John Predyk, Nicole L. Vaugeois Sep 2018

Enhancing Visitors Experiences At Artisan Businesses: A Case Study Of The Économusée® Business Model In British Columbia, John Predyk, Nicole L. Vaugeois

TTRA Canada 2018 Conference

ÉCONOMUSÉE© is a non-profit organization founded in 1992 in Quebec, Canada which now includes over 70 Artisans from across Canada and Europe. The model promotes the preservation of traditional knowledge and local entrepreneurship by utilizing cultural tourism to showcase artisans and encourage the consumption of locally produced artisanal products. This study was completed in order to provide data on the growth and effectiveness of the ÉCONOMUSÉE program in British Columbia since it was first introduced in 2012. This paper highlights the results of the impact of the model on overall visitor experience. At this point in time, it appears that ...


Older Workers In Boston: An Age-Friendly Perspective, Jan Mutchler, Brittany Gaines, Ping Xu, Caitlin Coyle Sep 2018

Older Workers In Boston: An Age-Friendly Perspective, Jan Mutchler, Brittany Gaines, Ping Xu, Caitlin Coyle

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

As this report makes clear, work challenges experienced by older people are not uncommon in Boston. Retraining and upgrading skills are required for some people to retain or secure employment. For those who have not participated in job search for some time, support with job seeking strategies may be necessary. Programs that also offer socioemotional support are helpful to some older job-seekers. Yet while training and job search support is an important part of the solution, these are not the only targets of intervention required. Employers need to be educated about successful strategies that will help them to retain their ...


Continuing To Build A More Diverse Workforce In The Highway Trades: 2018 Evaluation Of The Odot/Boli Highway Construction Workforce Development Program, Lindsey Wilkinson, Maura Kelly Sep 2018

Continuing To Build A More Diverse Workforce In The Highway Trades: 2018 Evaluation Of The Odot/Boli Highway Construction Workforce Development Program, Lindsey Wilkinson, Maura Kelly

Sociology Faculty Publications and Presentations

While white men have historically dominated the highway construction trades in Oregon, this trend continues to change: of those enrolled in apprenticeships in the highway construction trades in 2005, 81% were white men; in 2017, this number was 69%. Of apprentices who completed an apprenticeship in 2010, 84% where white men; in 2017, this number was 76%. These changes are likely due, in part, to efforts by the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) and the Bureau of Labor Industries (BOLI) to diversify the skilled highway construction workforce through pre apprenticeships as well as financial and nonfinancial services to apprentices in ...


Constructing The Global Education Hub: The Unlikely Case Of Manila, Yasmin Y. Ortiga Sep 2018

Constructing The Global Education Hub: The Unlikely Case Of Manila, Yasmin Y. Ortiga

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This paper investigates the creation of an unlikely education hub in Manila, Philippines, where local institutions have seen a growing number of international students from Korea, India, and the Middle East. These students seek qualifications in professions where Filipino migrants are highly represented, either to gain an advantage within their home countries or as a steppingstone towards jobs elsewhere. Drawing from current debates on ‘global cities’, this paper discusses how different actors promote Manila as an ideal destination for students by using the country’s unique position within the global market for migrant labor and its American colonial history. Here ...