Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1253

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health

Condom Use For The Prevention Of Stis Among College Students Who Do Not Rely On Condoms As Their Primary Form Of Contraception, Amy K. Rooker Feb 2018

Condom Use For The Prevention Of Stis Among College Students Who Do Not Rely On Condoms As Their Primary Form Of Contraception, Amy K. Rooker

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

This research analyzes the likelihood of college students who do not rely on condoms as their primary form of contraception to use a barrier method (e.g., condoms) to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and determines the best predictors of condom use among the sample. We hypothesized that pregnancy is the main concern among sexually active adolescents, and that when risk of pregnancy is removed students are less likely to use a barrier method. Surveys of 203 students at a small, liberal arts college support what literature agrees are that the best predictors of condom use at last ...


Microclimate Variation Of Urban Heat In A Small Community, Pui Yun, Paulina Wong, Poh Chin Lai, Melissa Hart Jan 2018

Microclimate Variation Of Urban Heat In A Small Community, Pui Yun, Paulina Wong, Poh Chin Lai, Melissa Hart

Prof. WONG, Pui Yun, Paulina

Urbanization is known to disrupt the surface energy balance of an urban area. The phenomenon of higher temperatures and thermal discomforts within a local urban setting is broadly known as the urban heat Island (UHI) effect. This research employed roadside temperature measurements to examine microclimate UHI variation in Mongkok, a small urban community of Hong Kong. Results of the spatio-temporal examination indicated diurnal and seasonal variations in the microclimate. A five-level index named the "UHI Threat Rating" was devised to offer easy interpretation of the microclimate UHI variations and facilitate identification of temperature hotspots within a small urban community.


There's No Place Like Home? Understanding The Relationship Between Racial Residential Segregation And Self-Reported Health, Abigail Gramaglia Jan 2018

There's No Place Like Home? Understanding The Relationship Between Racial Residential Segregation And Self-Reported Health, Abigail Gramaglia

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

How does context influence health? County racial composition and racial residential segregation shape health outcomes by creating different contexts that influence access to health-related resources. White Americans disproportionately possess these material and intangible resources. Therefore, I propose that the higher the percent of non-Hispanic white residents in U.S. counties, and the higher the racial residential segregation in U.S. counties, the lower the percent of adult residents who report poor or fair health in U.S. counties. To explore these hypotheses, I analyze 2014 demographic and survey data from 2946 U.S. counties. Findings provide mixed support for my ...


Book Review: Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation By Renate Klein, Kate Rose Jan 2018

Book Review: Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation By Renate Klein, Kate Rose

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Dynamics Of Household Role Performance And The Culture Of Child Health Production In Igbo-Ora, Southwestern Nigeria, Kabiru K. Salami, Ayodele S. Jegede, Frederick O. Oshiname Dec 2017

Dynamics Of Household Role Performance And The Culture Of Child Health Production In Igbo-Ora, Southwestern Nigeria, Kabiru K. Salami, Ayodele S. Jegede, Frederick O. Oshiname

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Studies about production of health for children have mainly concentrated on the behavior of one or two key household members compared to the dynamics in households involving three or more members. Health production refers to the process of directing available knowledge, skills, and resources towards ensuring, maintaining, and sustaining the health of the members. This cross-sectional design study explored how the dynamics of household structure and members’ roles influence the process of health production in a rural Nigerian community. An interviewer-moderated questionnaire was administered through a panel survey approach in 576 households. Twelve in-depth interviews and eight group discussion sessions ...


Postmodern Social Control: Dividuals And Surveillance, Ernest M. Oleksy Dec 2017

Postmodern Social Control: Dividuals And Surveillance, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

As a society's foundational philosophy changes, so, too, will its forms of social control. By using the works of thinkers like Deleuze and Foucault as pivot points, the dynamic nature of social interactions and the agents to mediate those actions shall be investigated. This article includes findings from archival analysis written in a journalistic prose for simplicity of consumption.


Hiv In The Heartland: Experiences Of Living With Hiv In Urban And Rural Areas Of The Midwest, Sarah B. Donley, C. Patrice Lockett Dec 2017

Hiv In The Heartland: Experiences Of Living With Hiv In Urban And Rural Areas Of The Midwest, Sarah B. Donley, C. Patrice Lockett

The Qualitative Report

Scholarly research on HIV/AIDS and stigma has largely demonstrated a different experience for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) who inhabit urban and rural areas. Largely missing from this scholarship are experiences in low prevalence areas. Low prevalence areas typically have fewer resources, social networks, and HIV infection and prevalence is less common. In this paper, we examine the challenges PLWHAs in rural and urban areas of the Midwest face and how these individuals manage, respond, and combat HIV/AIDS related stigmas in their communities. This paper utilizes interview data to understand the lived experiences of 18 persons ...


The U.S. Heath Care Experience, Cristian Montes Dec 2017

The U.S. Heath Care Experience, Cristian Montes

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

This research project intends to look in depth into the U.S. health care system specifically the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The overview of the ACA will be evaluated to see if it has reached all its objectives it was pursuing prior to being signed into law in 2010. The questions we seek to answer is if the ACA is working or not. Additionally the project will also overview health care systems in other countries and understand how other private insurance functions along with how countries with universal health care and how its people are able to benefit from these ...


Moving Mountains : A Study Examining Long-Term Impacts Of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining On Mortality In The Appalachian Region Using Geographic Information Sciences Techniques., James Howard Kent Pugh Dec 2017

Moving Mountains : A Study Examining Long-Term Impacts Of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining On Mortality In The Appalachian Region Using Geographic Information Sciences Techniques., James Howard Kent Pugh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the last hundred years, the Appalachian region has been dominated by the coal industry. It has also been and currently is one of the unhealthiest regions in the United States. Recent scholarship has examined the relationship between coal mining and health and mortality rates in the Appalachian region. The first study incorporates air quality and pollution data to examine if coal mining counties have higher levels of pollution and if this pollution contributes to mortality disadvantage. In the second study, I construct a population-based coal-exposure measure to better evaluate the relationship between coal mining and health I find that ...


Strategies For Delivering Sexual Health Education To Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Integrative Review Of The Literature, Megan Harris Nov 2017

Strategies For Delivering Sexual Health Education To Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Integrative Review Of The Literature, Megan Harris

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological condition leading to cognitive and social deficits within individuals on the spectrum. Adolescence is a time of intense physical and psychosocial changes that prove difficult for youth with ASDs. As families work through this transition they try to navigate teaching sexual health to their adolescent with an ASD. Teaching should be done to promote health, healthy relationships, and to prevent victimization. Yet, parents report that they lack the knowledge and support to complete this task. The purpose of this literature review was to synthesize research on strategies for teaching sexual health education to ...


Patient Experience Of Taking Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy For Breast Cancer: A Tough Pill To Swallow, Kuang-Yi Wen, Rita Smith, Aruna Padmanabhan, Lori Goldstein Nov 2017

Patient Experience Of Taking Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy For Breast Cancer: A Tough Pill To Swallow, Kuang-Yi Wen, Rita Smith, Aruna Padmanabhan, Lori Goldstein

Patient Experience Journal

Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) has substantially improved the mortality rate among breast cancer survivors. Despite the proven efficacy, the non-adherence rate to therapy is still high. This study is aimed to examine women’s challenges related to AET adherence and management. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Caucasian and six African American breast cancer survivors who were prescribed for AET. The transcripts of audio-taped interviews were qualitatively analyzed. Key themes were: 1) positive beliefs in AET, 2) uncertainty about long-term adherence, 3) experiences with side effects, 4) forgetting and remembering, 5) other concerns and information needs, 6) potential intervention format ...


Doing And Undoing Gender In The Hospital Workplace, Nayyara Tabassum, Antonio Chiesi Oct 2017

Doing And Undoing Gender In The Hospital Workplace, Nayyara Tabassum, Antonio Chiesi

Journal of Interdisciplinary Feminist Thought

In the hospital, both male and female doctors ‘do gender’, but because men and masculinity are associated with greater authority (and by association, competence), masculinised traits are favoured over feminine traits in the hospital workplace. In order to be accepted as competent doctors, female doctors expend a great deal of ‘emotional labour’ and ‘do gender’ by acting out prized masculine traits through appearance and behaviour strategies and thereby gaining legitimacy as respected, competent doctors in their interactions with other co-workers (doctors, nurses) and patients. Our study looks at the varied experiences of both older/senior and younger/junior medical doctors ...


“First, Do No Harm”: Old And New Paradigms In Prehospital Resuscitation In The Aquatic Domain, John H. Pearn, Richard Charles Franklin Oct 2017

“First, Do No Harm”: Old And New Paradigms In Prehospital Resuscitation In The Aquatic Domain, John H. Pearn, Richard Charles Franklin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The balance between benefit and risk is central to the work of all those involved in aquatic services. The Hippocratic exhortation of Primum non nocere, “First, do no harm,” has a history of over 2000 years. Superficially, all would support this dictum, but harm can result from inaction. The balance between no or little intervention on the one hand and proactive intervention with iatrogenic risk on the other is complex and enduring. Risk implies that one does not have all the information available to know the exact likelihood of an outcome, a common situation involving rescue, first aid, and resuscitation ...


Disadvantaged Status And Health Matters Networks Among Low-Income African American Women, Erin Pullen, Carrie B. Oser Sep 2017

Disadvantaged Status And Health Matters Networks Among Low-Income African American Women, Erin Pullen, Carrie B. Oser

Sociology Faculty Publications

A significant gap in current network research relates to understanding the factors that shape the health matters (HM) networks of marginalized, socially disadvantaged populations. This is noteworthy, given that these networks represent a critical resource for mitigating the adverse health effects of both acute and chronic strains associated with marginalized status. Further, research has suggested that the networks of such populations—especially low-income African American women—are unique, and may operate in substantively different ways than those of other groups. Using two waves of data from a sample of low-income African American women, this research identifies the demographic, health status ...


Male And Female Emirati Medical Clerks’ Perceptions Of The Impact Of Gender And Mobility On Their Professional Careers, Michelle Mclean, Susan B. Higgins Sep 2017

Male And Female Emirati Medical Clerks’ Perceptions Of The Impact Of Gender And Mobility On Their Professional Careers, Michelle Mclean, Susan B. Higgins

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

Background: Medicine has undergone profound changes in terms of the number of women entering the profession with postulated implications of this ‘feminization’ for the profession. The present phenomenological study sought to gain insight into the experiences of final year male and female Emirati medical students (clerks) in terms of the impact of gender on their careers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 of the 27 clerks. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed thematically. Findings: There was consensus that the gender profile of medicine in the United Arab Emirates was changing as opportunities emerged for Emirati women to branch into different ...


Patient Or Physician Centered Care?: Structural Implications For Clinical Interactions And The Overlooked Patient, Aaron B. Franzen Aug 2017

Patient Or Physician Centered Care?: Structural Implications For Clinical Interactions And The Overlooked Patient, Aaron B. Franzen

Faculty Publications

Patient-centered care is widely supported by physicians, but this wide-spread support potentially obscures the social patterning of clinical interactions. We know that patients often want religious/spiritual conversations in the context of medical care but the provision is infrequent. As there is regional variance in religiosity, a gap in the literature exists regarding whether patient populations’ religiosity is connected to physicians’ self-reported religious/spiritual interactions. Using a national sample of U.S. physicians linked to county-level measures, the author test whether both physicians’ background and patient population characteristics are related to religious/spiritual interactions. Specifically, do physicians in more religious ...


Addressing The Racial Disparity In Birth Outcomes: Implications For Maternal Racial Identity On Birthweight, Wanda M. Burton, Maria Hernandez-Reif, Brad Lian Jul 2017

Addressing The Racial Disparity In Birth Outcomes: Implications For Maternal Racial Identity On Birthweight, Wanda M. Burton, Maria Hernandez-Reif, Brad Lian

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background: As a widely used marker of health, birthweight has been a persistent racialized disparity with the low birthweight rate of Blacks in Alabama nearly doubling the national average. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of racial identity and acculturation on birthweight in a sample of Black women living in Alabama.

Methods: Black women (n=72) in West Alabama were surveyed about the birthweight of their first born child. Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted.

Results: Racial identity was the only significant predictor of birthweight. Mothers with a strong racial identity reported having low ...


Risk For Cardiovascular Disease In Blacks With Hiv/Aids In America: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Calvin Odhiambo, Jessica Davis, Bernard Omolo Jul 2017

Risk For Cardiovascular Disease In Blacks With Hiv/Aids In America: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Calvin Odhiambo, Jessica Davis, Bernard Omolo

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) related to HIV infection is becoming a major public health concern in the United Stated. Epidemiologic studies show that prolonged use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, HIV/AIDS itself, and a combination of traditional vascular risk factors increase the risk for CVD among people with HIV/AIDS. However, little is known about any racial disparities in the risk for CVD in the HIV/AIDS population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature on HIV/AIDS and CVD (June 1, 2010-July 31, 2014) through MEDLINE to examine whether and how HIV-positive African Americans are disproportionately affected ...


Social Determinants Of Health Associated With Hbv Testing And Access To Care Among Foreign-Born Persons Residing In The United States: 2009 - 2012, Kevin M. Greene, Wayne A. Duffus, Jian Xing, Hope King Jul 2017

Social Determinants Of Health Associated With Hbv Testing And Access To Care Among Foreign-Born Persons Residing In The United States: 2009 - 2012, Kevin M. Greene, Wayne A. Duffus, Jian Xing, Hope King

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Objectives: To describe how select Social Determinants of Health (SDH) are associated with the burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among foreign-born persons residing in the United States.

Methods: Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 Risk Factor Survey data to investigate the independent relationship between SDH and HBV testing and access to care.

Results: HBV infected persons with insurance were more likely to see a physician than those without. Respondents worried about money to pay rent or mortgage were more likely to report HBV infection than individuals who ...


Racial Disparities In Infant Mortality, 1990 To 2004: Low Birth Weight, Maternal Complications And Other Causes, Ginny Garcia-Alexander, Hyeyoung Woo Jul 2017

Racial Disparities In Infant Mortality, 1990 To 2004: Low Birth Weight, Maternal Complications And Other Causes, Ginny Garcia-Alexander, Hyeyoung Woo

Hyeyoung Woo

Demographers have long studied the unacceptably high rates of infant mortality in the U.S., relative to other advanced countries. These higher rates are largely attributable to persistent racial gaps in infant health outcomes and are likely a reflection of social inequalities, which manifest as poorer infant health outcomes in certain groups. We extend on previous research in this area by utilizing the restricted 1990 and 2000 cohort linked birth-death files to examine the risk of infant death due to several main causes including: maternal complications, low birth weight, and other causes, and how it has changed over time. We ...


Socioeconomic Determinants Of Health Disparities By Race And Ethnicity: The Mediating Role Of Social, Psychological And Behavioral Factors, Amanuel Zimam Melekin Jul 2017

Socioeconomic Determinants Of Health Disparities By Race And Ethnicity: The Mediating Role Of Social, Psychological And Behavioral Factors, Amanuel Zimam Melekin

Dissertations and Theses

Socioeconomic status (SES) is inversely related to health status. Disparities in health status among races and ethnic groups are partly attributable to differences in SES, but the indirect pathways by which SES may influence health status are not widely studied.

Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data, this dissertation examined the pathways by which SES, via social, psychological, and behavioral factors predicted physical impairment and overnight hospitalization, and asked whether these indirect relationships differed by race/ethnicity. The HRS is a nationally representative multistage area probability sample administered biennially to respondents over the age of 51 and their spouses ...


Constructing The 'Addict': A Discourse Analysis Of National Newspapers Concerning North America's First Supervised Injection Site, Katie Sills Jul 2017

Constructing The 'Addict': A Discourse Analysis Of National Newspapers Concerning North America's First Supervised Injection Site, Katie Sills

Social Justice and Community Engagement

Safe injection sites provide injection drug users with a safe space to inject drugs with clean supplies under the supervision of medical professionals. This study centres on a discursive analysis of newspaper representations of Insite, North America’s first supervised injection site, located in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Insite opened in 2003 under an exemption from the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and has provided benefits to its clients through a reduction in public injections, decreased spread of infectious disease, and by providing clients with referrals to other community and social services. Despite these accomplishments the ...


The Role Of Random Allocation In Randomized Controlled Trials: Distinguishing Selection Bias From Baseline Imbalance, Allyn Fives, Daniel W. Rusell, Noreen Kearns, Rena Lyons, Patricia Eaton, John Canavan, Carmel Devaney, Aoife O'Brien Jun 2017

The Role Of Random Allocation In Randomized Controlled Trials: Distinguishing Selection Bias From Baseline Imbalance, Allyn Fives, Daniel W. Rusell, Noreen Kearns, Rena Lyons, Patricia Eaton, John Canavan, Carmel Devaney, Aoife O'Brien

Daniel W. Russell

Background: This paper addresses one threat to the internal validity of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), selection bias. Many authors argue that random allocation is used to ensure baseline equality between study conditions in a given study and that statistically significant differences at pretest mean that randomisation has failed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of random allocation in an RCT study. Is the role of random allocation to protect against selection bias? And does it have a further role, namely to ensure baseline equality and the absence of statistically significant differences between study conditions ...


Ethical Theories And Perspectives On End-Of-Life Decisions, Lauren Skelton Jun 2017

Ethical Theories And Perspectives On End-Of-Life Decisions, Lauren Skelton

Dialogue & Nexus

This paper approaches several different ethical theories to see how they interact with the issue of withdrawing and withholding life-sustaining care. After the theories of Utilitarianism, Kantian and Prima Facie Deontology, Virtue Ethics, and Evolutionary Ethics are explored at length, Deontological theories are proven to be the best decision-making guide from the perspective of both patients and those in policy-making positions. When used together, Kantian and Prima Facie Deontology offer the overall best combination of ethical instruction and personal freedom.


The Ethical Considerations Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Madeline Jordan Jun 2017

The Ethical Considerations Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Madeline Jordan

Dialogue & Nexus

With respect to physician-assisted suicide, several approaches to adjudicate an ethical position can be processed from the theories of utilitarianism, Kantian deontology, and virtue ethics. This paper will explore these three positions with respect to physician-assisted suicide and the pros and cons of each. In conclusion, based on my research and Christian beliefs, I will define why I reside with virtue ethics and why it leads me to a position that is against physician-assisted suicide at this particular point in my life.


Christian And Islamic Perspectives On The Ethical Dilemma Of In Vitro Fertilization (Ivf), Stephanie Sariles Jun 2017

Christian And Islamic Perspectives On The Ethical Dilemma Of In Vitro Fertilization (Ivf), Stephanie Sariles

Dialogue & Nexus

After defining IVF procedures and the associated biomedical ethics with each, I will compare and contrast Christian and Islamic perspectives on IVF. Christianity in general does not accept IVF, because it is an unnatural method of reproduction that can affect Christian traditions such as parenthood and marriage. Despite this view, Protestants, in particular, have opened up to IVF as a method for treating infertility. Islam fully accepts IVF provided the married couple follows Islamic law. Sunni Muslims do not accept gamete donation, but Shi’ite Muslims are more flexible with gamete donation and surrogacy.


Gadgets And Grieving: A Chronological Analysis On The Ways In Which Advancements In Medical Technologies Have Altered The Grieving Process, Grace Mcnair Jun 2017

Gadgets And Grieving: A Chronological Analysis On The Ways In Which Advancements In Medical Technologies Have Altered The Grieving Process, Grace Mcnair

Dialogue & Nexus

Since the 1940s, both end-of-life care and advancements in medical technologies have expanded exponentially. This article explores the advancements in medical technologies and how these have altered the way that Western society grieves death. With the capabilities to prolong life, the family, the patient, and the medical team, all grieve the end of life in different ways. This article provides a chronological analysis of palliative care, hospice care, and various medical advancements. These changes in medicine are then paralleled with alterations in the bereavement process. This article explores historical narratives of Western society’s transformation of grief through the lens ...


An Ethical Evaluation Of The Modern Pharmaceutical Industry, Kaitlyn Drennan Jun 2017

An Ethical Evaluation Of The Modern Pharmaceutical Industry, Kaitlyn Drennan

Dialogue & Nexus

Lack of transparency, wrongdoings, and unlawful promotion characterize the healthcare industry; these are especially prevalent within the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, an investigation into the evidence of the corruption and the ethical infringement is needed. In this paper, I will evaluate the pharmaceutical industry’s adherence to the three major branches of ethics. The ever-increasing prices of pharmaceutical products, especially medications used for the combating of anaphylaxis and cancer, coupled with the compensatory-based medication promotion and research points to a major crisis in the realm of social justice. These examples, among many other current issues, lead to difficulties in individuals receiving ...


Up, Down And Reciprocal: The Dynamics Of Intergenerational Transfers, Family Structure And Health In A Low-Income Context, Collin F. Payne, Luca Maria Pesando, Hans-Peter Kohler Jun 2017

Up, Down And Reciprocal: The Dynamics Of Intergenerational Transfers, Family Structure And Health In A Low-Income Context, Collin F. Payne, Luca Maria Pesando, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

In the absence of well-functioning public transfer systems and safety nets, the family acts as the key provider of income and support through the intergenerational redistribution of resources. In this paper we use micro-level longitudinal data and a mix of methodologies to document the lifecycle patterns of financial transfers in a rural, sub-Saharan African population. Underneath a well-established age-pattern of intergenerational transfers in which transfer patterns change according to broad stages of the economic life cycle, our analyses document significant heterogeneity and fluidity: Intergenerational transfers are variable and reverse their direction, with individuals moving between the provider and recipient states ...


Threat Of Deportation As Proximal Social Determinant Of Mental Health Amongst Migrant Workers, Nicholas Harrigan, Yee Koh Chiu, Amirah Amirrudin Jun 2017

Threat Of Deportation As Proximal Social Determinant Of Mental Health Amongst Migrant Workers, Nicholas Harrigan, Yee Koh Chiu, Amirah Amirrudin

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

While migration health studies traditionally focused on socioeconomic determinants of health, an emerging body of literature is exploring migration status as a proximate cause of health outcomes. Study 1 is a path analysis of the predictors of mental health amongst 582 documented migrant workers in Singapore, and shows that threat of deportation is one of the most important proximate social determinants of predicted mental illness, and a mediator of the impact of workplace conflict on mental health. Study 2 is a qualitative study of the narratives of 149 migrant workers who were in workplace conflict with their employers, and demonstrates ...