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Articles 1 - 30 of 1170

Full-Text Articles in Gerontology

Aging, Depression, Non-Communicable Diseases And Disabilities In South Africa, Manoj K. Pandey, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Jul 2018

Aging, Depression, Non-Communicable Diseases And Disabilities In South Africa, Manoj K. Pandey, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This is the first study that offers a comprehensive analysis of depression among the old (60+ years) in South Africa. This study uses four waves of a panel survey of the South Africa National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) during 2008-2014. A state-of-art econometric methodology has been used to unravel the factors underlying depression among the old over the period 2008-2014. Depending on whether the dependent variable is binary (self-reported depression for ≥ 3 days in a week) or continuous (as in measures of overall depression and severe depression), we use random effects probit with Mundlak adjustment or simply random effects with ...


Self-Employment In Later Life: Implications For Financial, Physical, And Mental Well-Being, Cal Halvorsen May 2018

Self-Employment In Later Life: Implications For Financial, Physical, And Mental Well-Being, Cal Halvorsen

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

More than one in five working Americans aged 50 and older are self-employed, yet scholarship that examines the relationships between self-employment and personal health and financial well-being is limited. Using data from six biennial waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally-representative panel study of Americans past 50 years of age, this quasi-experimental dissertation documents the characteristics of self-employed older adults in comparison to wage-and-salary workers, as well as compares self-employed and wage-and-salary workers in later life on a set of financial well-being and personal health outcomes. This study incorporates inverse probability of treatment weighting (also referred to as ...


Aging In Beverly, Massachusetts: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Claire Wickersham, Jan Mutchler May 2018

Aging In Beverly, Massachusetts: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Claire Wickersham, Jan Mutchler

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes research undertaken by the Center for Social & Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston, on behalf of the Beverly Council on Aging and Senior Community Center (hereto referred to as the Beverly Senior Center), to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Beverly’s population of residents who are age 60 and older. The contents of this report are meant to inform the Beverly Senior Center, and organizations that work with and on behalf of older residents of Beverly, for the purposes of planning and coordination of services, but ...


Technology And The Marginalization Of Older Adults: How Politeness Theory And Stereotype Embodiment Interact In Older Adults' Technology Use, Keefe Watson Apr 2018

Technology And The Marginalization Of Older Adults: How Politeness Theory And Stereotype Embodiment Interact In Older Adults' Technology Use, Keefe Watson

Honors Projects

Marginalization of older adults is a long-time and pervasive fact of society. Technology use can make older adults feel less marginalized by connecting them socially, such as with communication technologies. However, older adults on average are less technology literate than younger adults; this can add to feelings of marginalization. In this study, I analyzed structured open-ended interviews and found unexpected instances of marginalization towards older adults related to technology; for example, older adults are most likely to withstand marginalized comments from their own adult children and family members. I applied politeness theory and the stereotype embodiment model to the coded ...


Grief Off-The-Clock: Supporting Hospice Professionals Through Personal Loss, Rachel A. Guimond Apr 2018

Grief Off-The-Clock: Supporting Hospice Professionals Through Personal Loss, Rachel A. Guimond

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Working with clients who die can have a major impact on the way professionals address their own grief. Daily exposure to the possibility of death alters the process of mourning and can leave professionals feeling disconnected from family and friends during times of grief. This presentation will look at the challenges that hospice workers, clergy members, social workers and other professionals face when they experience grief in their own lives. Evidence-based strategies for supporting professionals in their grief will also be explored.


Assessment For Mild Cognitive Impairment: Striving For Best Practice, Julie Leigh Dalmasso Apr 2018

Assessment For Mild Cognitive Impairment: Striving For Best Practice, Julie Leigh Dalmasso

Dissertations

This dissertation is a series of three studies aimed at determining the best assessment practices for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that can employed by speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The first study was non-experimental and descriptive examining whether three commonly used assessment instruments yielded similar categorical results. The data were analyzed to determine whether the Eight-Item Interview to Differentiate Aging and Dementia (AD8), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Cognitive-Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT) identified the same participants from a neurotypical sample as having cognitive deficits. Very little agreement was found amongst the three tools.

Study two was modified to include two ...


Residential Settings And Healthcare Use Of The Rural "Oldest-Old" Medicare Population, Nathan Paluso Mph, Zachariah Croll, Deborah Thayer Mba, Jean A. Talbot Phd, Mph, Andrew F. Coburn Phd Mar 2018

Residential Settings And Healthcare Use Of The Rural "Oldest-Old" Medicare Population, Nathan Paluso Mph, Zachariah Croll, Deborah Thayer Mba, Jean A. Talbot Phd, Mph, Andrew F. Coburn Phd

Long-term Care

The aging of the baby boom generation is projected to dramatically increase the population aged 65 and older in the coming decades. In particular, those aged 85 and older (the ‘oldest old’) are expanding at a faster rate than any other age group and by 2050 are expected to make up 4.5 percent of the population, compared to 1.9 percent in 2012. Faster growth in the percentage of older people (65+) in rural than in urban areas is likely to challenge the healthcare and long term services and supports (LTSS) capacity in many rural communities.

This study used ...


Perceptions Of Chronic Disease Among Older African Americans: A Qualitative Analysis, Karon Phillips, Charles Rogers, Adrienne Morgan Feb 2018

Perceptions Of Chronic Disease Among Older African Americans: A Qualitative Analysis, Karon Phillips, Charles Rogers, Adrienne Morgan

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Research has documented that African Americans suffer disproportionately from chronic diseases when compared to the general population. Yet, limited research examines older African Americans’ perceptions about having chronic diseases. Accordingly, the first aim of the study provided insight into this disparity with the intent of revealing how older African Americans feel about their overall health, and how much they understand about their individual chronic disease(s). The second aim was to gather information about strategies and coping mechanisms older African Americans use to manage their chronic diseases. The purpose of this aim was to determine if any of the strategies ...


Adult Day Service Providers: Untapped Potential For Care Coordination, Nicole Ruggiano, Ellen L. Brown, Karen L. Fortuna Feb 2018

Adult Day Service Providers: Untapped Potential For Care Coordination, Nicole Ruggiano, Ellen L. Brown, Karen L. Fortuna

Nursing & Health Sciences Research Journal

Adult Day Services (ADS) have become increasingly available for community-dwelling older adults who are often experiencing multiple chronic conditions and/or dementia. ADS providers spend a significant amount of time with their clients and offer the opportunity for a wealth of clinical information that can be used by primary care providers and specialists for decision-making about patient care. There are also opportunities for hospitals to coordinate care transitions with ADS providers by involving them with discharge planning with appropriate patients who require post-hospital care. However, ADS providers are often viewed as social service providers, and there is little known about ...


Correlates Of Functional Capacity Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Maurice Macdonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard Poon Jan 2018

Correlates Of Functional Capacity Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Maurice Macdonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard Poon

Peter Martin

This study investigated correlates of functional capacity among participants of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Six domains (demographics and health, positive and negative affect, personality, social and economic support, life events and coping, distal influences) were related to functional capacity for 234 centenarians and near centenarians (i.e., 98 years and older). Data were provided by proxy informants. Domain-specific multiple regression analyses suggested that younger centenarians, those living in the community and rated to be in better health were more likely to have higher functional capacity scores. Higher scores in positive affect, conscientiousness, social provisions, religious coping, and engaged lifestyle were ...


Defining Successful Aging: A Tangible Or Elusive Concept?, Peter Martin, Norene Kelly, Boaz Kahana, Eva Kahana, Bradley Wilcox, D. Craig Wilcox, Leonard Poon Jan 2018

Defining Successful Aging: A Tangible Or Elusive Concept?, Peter Martin, Norene Kelly, Boaz Kahana, Eva Kahana, Bradley Wilcox, D. Craig Wilcox, Leonard Poon

Peter Martin

Purpose of the Study: Everyone wants to age successfully; however, the definition and criteria of successful aging remain vague for laypersons, researchers, and policymakers in spite of decades of research on the topic. This paper highlights work of scholars who made significant theoretical contributions to the topic. Design and Methods: A thorough review and evaluation of the literature on successful aging was undertaken. Results: Our review includes early gerontological definitions of successful aging and related concepts. Historical perspectives reach back to philosophical and religious texts, and more recent approaches have focused on both process- and outcome-oriented models of successful aging ...


Apoe Ε4, Rated Life Experiences, And Affect Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, S. Michal Jazwinski, Adam Davey, Robert Green, Maurice Mcdonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Jonathan Arnold, John Woodard, Mary Ann Johnson, Sangkyu Kim, Jianliang Dai, Li Li, Mark A. Batzer, Leonard W. Poon Jan 2018

Apoe Ε4, Rated Life Experiences, And Affect Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, S. Michal Jazwinski, Adam Davey, Robert Green, Maurice Mcdonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Jonathan Arnold, John Woodard, Mary Ann Johnson, Sangkyu Kim, Jianliang Dai, Li Li, Mark A. Batzer, Leonard W. Poon

Peter Martin

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between apolipoprotein E (APOE), life events and engagement, and subjective well-being (as measured by positive and negative affect) among centenarians. Based on the life stress paradigm, we predicted that higher levels of stress would allow APOE to influence positive and negative affect. Method: 196 centenarians and near-centenarians (98 years and older) of the Georgia Centenarian Study participated in this research. The APOE, positive and negative affect, the number of recent (last 2 years) and lifelong (more than 20 years prior to testing) events, as well as a number of ...


Aging On Nantucket: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler Jan 2018

Aging On Nantucket: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes efforts undertaken by the Nantucket Center for Elder Affairs, Inc. (NCEA), in partnership with the Center for Social & Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston. The purpose of these efforts was to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Nantucket’s older residents. The focus of this report is on the cohort of Nantucket’s residents age 60 and older. The contents of this report are intended to inform NCEA, the Saltmarsh Senior Center, the Council on Aging, the Town of Nantucket, and organizations that provide services to older ...


Association Between Vitamin D And Metabolic Syndrome In Older Adults, Allison Ann Hedges Jan 2018

Association Between Vitamin D And Metabolic Syndrome In Older Adults, Allison Ann Hedges

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recently, low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have been linked to disturbances in glucose metabolism, development of type 2 diabetes, and increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Moreover, deficiency of vitamin D is now recognized to be highly prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, impacting between 30% and 50% of the general population. Therefore, the objective of this research study is to examine the associations between serum 25-hyroxyvitamin D and MetS. Data were collected from the Nutritional Interventions for Age-Related Muscular Function and Strength Losses Study. From this cohort, 186 independently living males and females over ...


Aging Perceptions: Investigation Of Differences At Three Decades, Naomi Rose Meinertz Jan 2018

Aging Perceptions: Investigation Of Differences At Three Decades, Naomi Rose Meinertz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ageism, the discrimination or prejudice towards an individual based on age, is understood as an individual and societal issue. Ageism and related negative age perceptions can have an impact on personal health and are influenced by societal shifts in ideologies, as well as individual experiences. Using the perspectives of bioecological and life course theories, we examined group differences in perspectives of the age of “old” for three distinct times of measurement (1974, 1981, & 1999/2000). The total sample included 6,765 respondents with 1,554 respondents from the 70s data set, 2,425 respondents from the 80s data set, and ...


Narratives Of Baby Boomers: Envisioning Late Life Spiritual Resources, Jane A. Kuepfer Jan 2018

Narratives Of Baby Boomers: Envisioning Late Life Spiritual Resources, Jane A. Kuepfer

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

ABSTRACT:

In this narrative inquiry, first-wave baby boomers (six males and six females born between 1946 and 1955) reflected on their lives and envisioned living into old age. While literature has focused on trends in baby boomer spirituality, issues of aging, and spiritual needs and tasks among elders, this study listened for “spiritual resources.” Initially defined broadly as that which has sustained a person throughout their life and will sustain them in the future, spiritual resources came to be understood as those things, both internal and external, that address deep human need for such spiritual values as love, hope, peace ...


"I'M Not Much One To Be Invisible": End-Of-Life Spiritual Care For Lgbtq Elders, Tyler Fair Jan 2018

"I'M Not Much One To Be Invisible": End-Of-Life Spiritual Care For Lgbtq Elders, Tyler Fair

Undergraduate Honors Theses

People that experience the “intersectionality” of multiple forms of oppression feel the collective results of these discriminations in distinct ways. One perfect example of this is Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) elders: LGBTQ elders experience ageism differently than other elders and trans/homophobia in ways distinct from younger LGBTQ people.

The literature by and for end-of-life chaplains have not explored the experiences of LGBTQ elders. This gap in knowledge is particularly precarious given the large population of LGBTQ Baby Boomers entering and soon to enter into elder-oriented care like end-of-life (EOL) care. In order to better understand the ...


Making A University Community More Dementia Friendly Through Participation In An Intergenerational Choir, Phyllis Braudy Harris, Cynthia A. Caporella Jan 2018

Making A University Community More Dementia Friendly Through Participation In An Intergenerational Choir, Phyllis Braudy Harris, Cynthia A. Caporella

2018 Faculty Bibliography

A dementia friendly community is one that is informed about dementia, respectful and inclusive of people with dementia and their families, provides support, promotes empowerment, and fosters quality of life. This study presents data from four cohorts of undergraduate college students and people with dementia and their family members, using an intergenerational choir as the process through which to begin to create a dementia friendly community. This was accomplished by breaking down the stereotypes and misunderstandings that young adults have about people with dementia, thus allowing their commonalities and the strengths of the people living with dementia to become more ...


Effects Of Long-Term Participation In Tennis On Cognitive Function In Elderly Individuals, Scott Culpin Jan 2018

Effects Of Long-Term Participation In Tennis On Cognitive Function In Elderly Individuals, Scott Culpin

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Many studies have reported the relationship between exercise and cognition with conflicting results. This may be due to differences in intervention durations, session lengths, intensities, and type of exercise. It has been suggested that exercises requiring greater cognitive demand such as football, basketball and racquet sports, are protective against cognitive decline, compared to less cognitively demanding exercises such as swimming, cycling and running, however, research concerning exercise types are currently limited. The present study tested the hypothesis that elderly individuals who had been regularly playing tennis more than 10 years, would have greater cognitive function than those who had been ...


Making A University Community More Dementia Friendly Through Participation In An Intergenerational Choir., Phyllis Braudy Harris, Cynthia A. Caporella Jan 2018

Making A University Community More Dementia Friendly Through Participation In An Intergenerational Choir., Phyllis Braudy Harris, Cynthia A. Caporella

2018 Faculty Bibliography

A dementia friendly community is one that is informed about dementia, respectful and inclusive of people with dementia and their families, provides support, promotes empowerment, and fosters quality of life. This study presents data from four cohorts of undergraduate college students and people with dementia and their family members, using an intergenerational choir as the process through which to begin to create a dementia friendly community. This was accomplished by breaking down the stereotypes and misunderstandings that young adults have about people with dementia, thus allowing their commonalities and the strengths of the people living with dementia to become more ...


The Effects Of A Cognitive Training Program For Cognitively Intact Older Adults, Caroline Kinskey Jan 2018

The Effects Of A Cognitive Training Program For Cognitively Intact Older Adults, Caroline Kinskey

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Cognitive training is a term used to describe programs that provide guided practice on tasks requiring different cognitive abilities such as memory or language. It is assumed that regular practice will improve or maintain functioning in a particular cognitive domain (e.g., memory) and those results will generalize beyond the context of training. Results have been mixed in the existing literature that has evaluated the potential benefits of cognitive training on cognitive and emotional functioning in cognitively intact older adults. This study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive training program for older adults with no to very minimal cognitive decline ...


Differences In The Perceptions Of Gerotranscendence Between Certified Nursing Assistants And Older Adults, Amanda Perera Jan 2018

Differences In The Perceptions Of Gerotranscendence Between Certified Nursing Assistants And Older Adults, Amanda Perera

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Many theories of aging have been proposed within the field of gerontology to explain both psychological and social changes that occur during the aging process. One of the theories is the theory of gerotranscendence, which explains that as individuals age they develop a new perspective on life that allows the aging individual to shift their conceptualization of the world, from a materialistic and rational view to a more transcendent and universal view. Previous research suggests that some behaviors associated with gerotranscendence have been misinterpreted as pathological. The purpose of this current study was to examine whether there are significant differences ...


Intergenerational Financial Exchange And Cognitive Well-Being Among Older Adults In China, Ping Xu Dec 2017

Intergenerational Financial Exchange And Cognitive Well-Being Among Older Adults In China, Ping Xu

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Although cognitive loss is part of normal aging, it has unfavorable consequences for older individuals, their family, as well as society. The prevalence of mild cognition impairment is expected to go up in China. How to maintain normal cognition for a longer period of time and to delay impair process is an emerging concern for older Chinese adults. Unlike Western countries, China lacks of formal support system. Intergenerational support between older parents and adult children is a predominant resource when they are in need. This study examines how intergenerational financial exchanges between older parents and their adult children is related ...


Facing Obstacles As A Senior, Catherine Mccarthy Dec 2017

Facing Obstacles As A Senior, Catherine Mccarthy

All Student Theses

Seniors are individuals who need the most assistance because they are a growing population in our society. It is estimated that by the year 2020, those 65 years and over will reach 55 million and those 85 years and over will number 7.3 million. Seniors need the most attention because daily items such as personal care, preparing a meal, going to the grocery store or housework become very challenging. This is when you need to acquire services that can help daily for these tasks. The Department of Aging plays a vital role when becoming a senior over the age ...


A Checklist For Mortals: Preparing For Death’S Arrival, Becky Daniel Dec 2017

A Checklist For Mortals: Preparing For Death’S Arrival, Becky Daniel

Professional Projects from the College of Journalism and Mass Communications

We learn everything from our parents—how to walk, talk and treat potential life partners. Yet our culture in the United States makes it difficult to talk to our parents about death and those consequences have a real impact. Closing a loved one’s estate can stretch from months to years without proper planning. While death is constant, the death industry is not. It is ever changing. And while all lives have equal value, there are many preparations that one person may need (veteran, parent, lotto winner) while another does not. The best way to prepare for death is to ...


Predictors Of Cognitive Function Among Cognitively Impaired Older African Americans Living In Congregate Residential Settings, Zyra Daffodil Apugan Nov 2017

Predictors Of Cognitive Function Among Cognitively Impaired Older African Americans Living In Congregate Residential Settings, Zyra Daffodil Apugan

Dissertations

The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to identify potential psychosocial predictors of cognition, including social support, depression, and functional activity, among older African Americans, ≥ 65 years, with a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and living in congregate residential settings. Guided by the main effect model of social support, this study used existing data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set, an NIH-funded multicenter study. Results showed that on average, the participants (n=56) were 81.7 years of age with 13.8 years of education. All, but six, were married. Bivariate Pearson correlations indicate a ...


The Social, Economic, And Public Health Consequences Of Global Population Aging: Implications For Social Work Practice And Public Policy, Mitchell A. Kaplan, Marian M. Inguanzo Oct 2017

The Social, Economic, And Public Health Consequences Of Global Population Aging: Implications For Social Work Practice And Public Policy, Mitchell A. Kaplan, Marian M. Inguanzo

Journal of Social Work in the Global Community

Human populations around the world are growing older at the most astounding rate in the history of humanity. Advances in technology are enabling health care providers to deliver the latest innovations in treatment and prevention services to a broader spectrum of adult populations across the lifespan making longevity increasingly more commonplace rather than the exception to the rule in most of the industrialized world. This article provides an overview of the key social, economic, and public health costs and consequences that aging populations will exact upon international communities in the years ahead. It also examines the most significant social challenges ...


“I Feel Like I’M Drawing Strength From It”: Lived Experiences Of Filipino Elderly Participating In Craft-Making, Sharon B. Cajayon, Romeo Luis A. Macabasag, Norilyn Limchanco, Vanessa O. Umali, Ellayza N. Blas, Michelle S. Angulo, Cristine Joy A. Breguera, Nikka Angela A. De Guzman, Sheila N. Malapi, Emmalyn E. Quibote Oct 2017

“I Feel Like I’M Drawing Strength From It”: Lived Experiences Of Filipino Elderly Participating In Craft-Making, Sharon B. Cajayon, Romeo Luis A. Macabasag, Norilyn Limchanco, Vanessa O. Umali, Ellayza N. Blas, Michelle S. Angulo, Cristine Joy A. Breguera, Nikka Angela A. De Guzman, Sheila N. Malapi, Emmalyn E. Quibote

The Qualitative Report

In this phenomenological study, we offer an insightful understanding of the lived experiences of seven (7) Filipino elderly participating in craft-making. We purposively selected the key informants from a municipality in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. The transcribed data gathered through a semi-structured in-depth interview was analyzed using Colaizzi’s approach. Six themes describing the lived experiences emerged: “Fostering friendship,” “Flourishing health,” “Furthering service,” “Facing aging with acceptance,” “Finding felicity and self-fulfillment,” “Feelings of belongingness and security.” Just like the sun, the elderly’s participation in craft-making serves as a nourishment for them. This exploration speaks to understanding the potential ...


Age Drives Distortion Of Brain Metabolic, Vascular And Cognitive Functions, And The Gut Microbiome, Jared D. Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J. Green, George Chlipala, Robert P. Mohney, Mignon Keaton, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin Sep 2017

Age Drives Distortion Of Brain Metabolic, Vascular And Cognitive Functions, And The Gut Microbiome, Jared D. Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Stefan J. Green, George Chlipala, Robert P. Mohney, Mignon Keaton, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Ai-Ling Lin

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Advancing age is the top risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the contribution of aging processes to AD etiology remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that reduced brain metabolic and vascular functions occur decades before the onset of cognitive impairments, and these reductions are highly associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation developed in the brain over time. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a critical role in modulating immune responses in the brain via the brain-gut axis. In this study, our goal was to identify associations between deleterious changes ...


Proceedings: Cornell Symposium: Hospitality, Health & Design Hhds2016 In Search Of A Healthy Future, Rohit Verma, Mardelle Shepley, Brooke Hollis Sep 2017

Proceedings: Cornell Symposium: Hospitality, Health & Design Hhds2016 In Search Of A Healthy Future, Rohit Verma, Mardelle Shepley, Brooke Hollis

Rohit Verma

[Excerpt] The purpose of this conference therefore is to bring together academic scholars and industry leaders who have interest in exploring the rapidly evolving dynamics of hospitality and healthcare industries. Furthermore, we believe that design thinking provides an effective approach for exploring this exciting topic from both academic and practitioners’ perspectives.