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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Electric Light: Automating The Carceral State During The Quantification Of Everything, R. Joshua Scannell May 2018

Electric Light: Automating The Carceral State During The Quantification Of Everything, R. Joshua Scannell

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation traces the rise of digitally-driven policing technologies in order to make sense of how prevailing logics of governance are transformed by ubiquitous computing technology. Beginning in the early 1990s, police departments and theorists began to rely on increasingly detailed sets of metrics to evaluate performance. The adoption of digital technology to streamline quantitative evaluation coincided with a steep decline in measured crime that served as a proof-of-concept for the effectivity of digital police surveillance and analytics systems. During the turbulent first two decades of the 21st century, such digital technologies were increasingly associated with reform projects designed ...


Roadblocks To The Implementation Of Problem-Oriented Policing In Montevideo, Federico Del Castillo Dec 2017

Roadblocks To The Implementation Of Problem-Oriented Policing In Montevideo, Federico Del Castillo

Student Theses

In the broad context of Uruguay’s police reform, the Ministry of Interior is implementing a pilot Problem-Oriented Policing (POP) program in Montevideo since late 2012. This research examined the obstacles confronted by the program throughout its implementation. Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data was collected through 20 semi-structured interviews with members of the Uruguay National Police (UNP) of different ranks. Findings were analyzed based on the following categories: a) contextual factors; b) theoretical and practical inaccuracies; c) characteristics, skills and actions of project managers; d) resistance and motivational issues; e) resources; f) external support and cooperation. Consistent with ...


Imprisoned In The Hood: An Examination Of Social Ecology Influenced By Mass Incarceration And Its Effects On Low Income College Students Stress Levels, Christion V. Smith Oct 2017

Imprisoned In The Hood: An Examination Of Social Ecology Influenced By Mass Incarceration And Its Effects On Low Income College Students Stress Levels, Christion V. Smith

Undergraduate Research

Incarceration was once a promising crime control strategy, but over the last four decades it has increased exponentially and has been highly concentrated in disadvantaged communities. These high rates of imprisonment may be harming those communities greatly because at high rates incarceration loses its crime fighting ability and increases crime, which may compromise community safety and overall health. The current research explores the effects that high rates of neighborhood incarceration have on nonincarcerated individuals’ stress levels and mental health. Data for this study were collected from a convenience sample of students in the La Salle University’s Academic Discovery Program ...


Building An Ecology Of Routines: The Central Role Of The Broker, Jeannette A. Eberhard Jun 2017

Building An Ecology Of Routines: The Central Role Of The Broker, Jeannette A. Eberhard

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Making progress on stubborn social problems, such as street level prostitution, requires local actors to work together in new ways across organizational boundaries. Organizational routines – defined as repetitive, recognizable patterns of interdependent actions carried out by multiple actors – are considered one of the primary means through which organizations accomplish the work they do. In my thesis, I argue that an important way to tackle stubborn social problems is through brokering, across organizational boundaries, to build and coordinate an ecology of routines. To better understand this process, I explore the following questions: How is the role of broker established? How do ...


How Japan’S Cultural Norms Affect Policing: A Side-By-Side Comparison With The United States, Katrina Tran May 2017

How Japan’S Cultural Norms Affect Policing: A Side-By-Side Comparison With The United States, Katrina Tran

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The ways of policing have been critiqued throughout the years—some have advocated for a direct approach while others value diplomatic techniques. Consideration is emphasized by how culture affects policing in the United States and Japan. In the United States, the customs of policing involve violence, individualism, pragmatism, social mobility, and low power distance, whereas Japan encourages non-violence, face-saving, conservatism, and high power distance. The difference in these cultural norms reflects how policing is conducted in these two countries. To understand how policing in these two countries are different, this paper examines the difference of cultural norms and its impact ...


An Examination Of The Evolution Of Racially Biased Pretextual Investigatory Stops And Their Legitimacy In Policing, Brett A. Lacey Mar 2017

An Examination Of The Evolution Of Racially Biased Pretextual Investigatory Stops And Their Legitimacy In Policing, Brett A. Lacey

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the use of tactics originally purposed as a component of the Drug Enforcement Agency’s Operation Pipeline and their evolution since their creation in the 1980’s. The paper provides a history of investigatory policing stops regarding the argument of Epp et al. (2014) that primarily relied on Police Chief magazine and Remsberg’s Street Survival. Epp argues that the methods used in investigatory stops are an invasion of privacy, use racial profiling, and have proliferated from a tactic used in the war on drugs to combat drug trafficking to a routine day-to-day policing tactic. Through the ...


Exploring Police Officers' Perceptions Of Mobile Crisis Rapid Response Teams Within A Nodal Policing Framework, Trevor Viersen Jan 2017

Exploring Police Officers' Perceptions Of Mobile Crisis Rapid Response Teams Within A Nodal Policing Framework, Trevor Viersen

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

An increasing portion of police service resources are being dedicated to interactions involving persons with mental illness (PMI). As a result, Mobile Crisis Rapid Response Teams (MCT) comprised of mental health professionals have been recently implemented to assist police officers in more efficiently handling police calls for service involving PMI. The current ethnographic study used data collected through researcher ride-alongs with police officers at a mid-sized police service in Ontario to assess how police officers interact with and perceive MCTs. Results from thematic analysis indicated that officers value the skill sets possessed by MCT workers, had relatively positive perceptions towards ...


Realigning Community Policing In A Homeland Security Era, Alfred Stanford Titus, Jr. Jan 2017

Realigning Community Policing In A Homeland Security Era, Alfred Stanford Titus, Jr.

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The priority shift from community policing to homeland security in local police departments in the United States has threatened the relationships and successes established by community policing, though little empirical research explored the relationship between funding and implementation of homeland security versus community policing objectives among local law enforcement agencies. Using Karl Popper's conceptualization of the liberal democracy as the framework, the purpose of this descriptive study was to examine how trends in funding and implementation of both community policing and homeland security objectives changed among American law enforcement agencies between 1993 and 2013. Data were acquired from the ...


Can Noncompliant Behavior Explain Racial/Ethnic Disparities In The Use Of Force By The Nypd? An Econometric Analysis Of New York's Stop-And-Frisk, Omari-Khalid Rahman Sep 2016

Can Noncompliant Behavior Explain Racial/Ethnic Disparities In The Use Of Force By The Nypd? An Econometric Analysis Of New York's Stop-And-Frisk, Omari-Khalid Rahman

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This paper seeks to analyze spatiotemporal variations in NYPD policing patterns in an attempt to identify the causal mechanism(s) driving the observed racial/ethnic disparities; specifically, it addresses questions of how changing neighborhood demographics influence the decision-making of NYPD officers/precincts as it relates to their controversial Stop-and-Frisk policy.


The Financial Implications Of Merging Proactive Cctv Monitoring And Directed Police Patrol: A Cost-Benefit Analysis., Eric L. Piza, Andrew M. Gilchrist, Joel M. Caplan, Leslie W. Kennedy, Brian A. O'Hara Jun 2016

The Financial Implications Of Merging Proactive Cctv Monitoring And Directed Police Patrol: A Cost-Benefit Analysis., Eric L. Piza, Andrew M. Gilchrist, Joel M. Caplan, Leslie W. Kennedy, Brian A. O'Hara

Publications and Research

Objectives: This study presents a cost–benefit analysis of an intervention pairing proactive CCTV monitoring with directed police patrol in Newark, NJ. A recent randomized control trial found that the strategy generated significant crime reductions in treatment areas relative to control areas. The current study focuses on the financial implications of the experimental strategy through a cost–benefit analysis.

Methods: The study begins by measuring the costs and benefits associated with the experimental strategy, the findings of which can inform agencies with existing CCTV infrastructure. Follow-up analyses measure the costs and benefits of the intervention for agencies absent existing CCTV ...


Token Female Police Officers Or Police Exemplars: An Evaluation Of The Theory Of Tokenism, Cameron Michael Harper Mar 2016

Token Female Police Officers Or Police Exemplars: An Evaluation Of The Theory Of Tokenism, Cameron Michael Harper

Theses and Dissertations

Despite gains in the percentage of female police officers over past decades, female police officers are vastly underrepresented in modern policing. Female police officers face barriers to integration into policing and the surrounding culture that male police officers do not face, including unbalanced physical testing, double standards for success, and others. One explanation for the different experiences of female police officers compared to male police officers is the token status of women in policing. Instead of taking the token status of female police officers for granted, this study explored the utility of the theory of tokenism (Kanter, 1977) in explaining ...


Law Enforcement As A Form Of Development: Community Policing In The United States, Michael Reynolds Jan 2016

Law Enforcement As A Form Of Development: Community Policing In The United States, Michael Reynolds

MA IDS Thesis Projects

The evolution of crime throughout time has required a development of alternative policing methodologies in the United States. One result of this is community policing, where problem solving became foundational to solving crime, transitioning from reactionary to prevention-based policing tactics. However, serious issues with community policing persist. This paper considers the role of police officers as development actors, introducing a foundational philosophy of development and formulating new principles and suggestions for modern police tactics.


Policing And The Dirty Underbelly: Understanding Narratives Of Police Deviance On Social Media Platforms, Amanda Lancia Jan 2016

Policing And The Dirty Underbelly: Understanding Narratives Of Police Deviance On Social Media Platforms, Amanda Lancia

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Policing organizations have been quick to adopt the use of social media as a community-policing and investigative tool. However, the user-generated content on social media platforms can pose a risk to police legitimacy, police accountability, and their role as the ‘authorized knowers’. This thesis explores how social media problematizes the social problems game and how social media challenges the police as the ‘authorized knowers’. Through the analysis of two case studies - #myNYPD campaign and the Walter Scott shooting – it was found that social media users can use social media platforms to construct claims against and challenge police in the social ...


A Comparative Study Of Satisfaction With The Police In The United States And Australia, Mengyan Dai, Xin Jiang Jan 2016

A Comparative Study Of Satisfaction With The Police In The United States And Australia, Mengyan Dai, Xin Jiang

Sociology & Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

This study comparatively examines three major models of citizens' satisfaction with the police, using two similar community surveys on policing from Cincinnati, Ohio, USA and Queensland, Australia. It tests the wider applicability of the demographic model, the neighborhood condition model, and the prior contacts with police model and analyzes whether the effects of common determinants on citizens' satisfaction remain the same across the two international samples. Results from a series of comparisons show that there is a substantial amount of similarity across statistical models for Cincinnati and Queensland, suggesting a general framework of citizens' satisfaction with the police that could ...


Police Killings And Capital Punishment: The Post-Furman Period, William C. Bailey, Ruth D. Peterson Dec 2015

Police Killings And Capital Punishment: The Post-Furman Period, William C. Bailey, Ruth D. Peterson

William C. Bailey

In view of (1) escalating national attention and political and judicial activity centering on capital punishment during recent years and (2) concomitant changes in police killing rates, this paper investigates the impact of the death penalty on rates of lethal assaults against the police for the post-Furman period, 1973–1984. In keeping with recent investigations of deterrence and general homicides, multiple regression is used as a means of controlling for the influence of possible confounding variables in examining the capital punishment/police killings relationship. Consistent with previous investigations, the present analysis provides no indication that our national return to capital ...


Police Killings And Capital Punishment: The Post-Furman Period, William C. Bailey, Ruth D. Peterson Dec 2015

Police Killings And Capital Punishment: The Post-Furman Period, William C. Bailey, Ruth D. Peterson

William C. Bailey

In view of (1) escalating national attention and political and judicial activity centering on capital punishment during recent years and (2) concomitant changes in police killing rates, this paper investigates the impact of the death penalty on rates of lethal assaults against the police for the post-Furman period, 1973–1984. In keeping with recent investigations of deterrence and general homicides, multiple regression is used as a means of controlling for the influence of possible confounding variables in examining the capital punishment/police killings relationship. Consistent with previous investigations, the present analysis provides no indication that our national return to capital ...


Drunk Driving Cops: A Study Of Police Officers Arrested 2005-2010, Philip M. Stinson, John Liederbach, Natalie E. Todak, Steven L. Brewer Sep 2015

Drunk Driving Cops: A Study Of Police Officers Arrested 2005-2010, Philip M. Stinson, John Liederbach, Natalie E. Todak, Steven L. Brewer

Philip M Stinson

Police officers are generally exempt from law enforcement (Reiss, 1971) and it is widely known that police officers who drive drunk are rarely arrested, even when they are pulled over in a traffic stop for driving drunk. Using data from a larger study on police crime arrests, this is an exploratory study of 763 cases from years 2005-2010 of on- and off-duty police officers arrested for driving under the influence (DUI). The officers arrested for DUI were employed by nonfederal law enforcement agencies located in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Preliminary findings indicate that almost half of ...


Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes Jun 2015

Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes

Alexander Hayes Mr.

- From in-car video recording to body-worn video recording

- Exploring available technologies: how do they work, pros and cons

- Storing direct evidence in secure storage: factors to consider

- Citizens “shooting” back with POV tech – what are their rights?

- Crowdsourced sousveillance- harnessing public data for forensic profiling

- Police force policies and practices on the application of new media


The Criminal Justice Response To Policy Interventions: Evidence From Immigration Reform, Sarah Bohn, Matthew Freedman, Emily Owens May 2015

The Criminal Justice Response To Policy Interventions: Evidence From Immigration Reform, Sarah Bohn, Matthew Freedman, Emily Owens

Matthew Freedman

Changes in the treatment of individuals by the criminal justice system following a policy intervention may bias estimates of the effects of the intervention on underlying criminal activity. We explore the importance of such changes in the context of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). Using administrative data from San Antonio, Texas, we examine variation across neighborhoods and ethnicities in police arrests and in the rate at which those arrests are prosecuted. We find that changes in police behavior around IRCA confound estimates of the effects of the policy and its restrictions on employment on criminal activity.


Reporting The Crisis: Baltimore, #Freddiegray, And The News And Social Media Reaction, Jeffrey Ross May 2015

Reporting The Crisis: Baltimore, #Freddiegray, And The News And Social Media Reaction, Jeffrey Ross

Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Policing And The Likelihood Of Terrorism: A Community Structural Approach To An Uncertain Relationship, Andy Bellamy Brooks May 2015

Policing And The Likelihood Of Terrorism: A Community Structural Approach To An Uncertain Relationship, Andy Bellamy Brooks

Theses and Dissertations

Prior research on terrorism has argued that local law enforcement play an important role in counterterrorism though the mechanisms by which the police should prevent terrorism are empirically unsettled and atheoretical in nature. Even less understood is how policing might differentially impact terrorism across specific ideological movements (e.g., far-right, environmental, Islamic extremism). Drawing from prominent sociological and criminological theories (i.e., Environmental perspectives, Social Disorganization, Conflict/Marxist) the current study addresses several key gaps in prior literature by utilizing data from the American Terrorism Study (ATS) paired with data from the FBI Uniform Crime Report and U.S. Census ...


Homeland Security And Community Policing: Shift In Federal Funding Post Sep. 11: From Community Policing To Homeland Security, Mohsen S. Alizadeh Feb 2015

Homeland Security And Community Policing: Shift In Federal Funding Post Sep. 11: From Community Policing To Homeland Security, Mohsen S. Alizadeh

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the aftermath of the 9/11, Homeland Security became the major model of the American Policing system, thus superseding community policing model. The purpose of this research is to use "before and after study design" to follow the grant trends of policing systems in order to examine whether the catastrophic events of 9/11 had a positive or negative impact on the grant funds of the mentioned policing models. Preliminary analyses revealed that there is significant difference in the mean level of funding prior and after the event for Homeland Security, community policing, and general policing programs. Segmented and ...


Methods Of Policing: Deviation From The Standard Model Of Policing And Measured Effectiveness, Elena Stamm Jan 2015

Methods Of Policing: Deviation From The Standard Model Of Policing And Measured Effectiveness, Elena Stamm

Honors Research Projects

The Standard Model of Policing is the original method of crime control put into place to increase the effectiveness of policing. However, there have been questions about whether or not the standard model has proven to be of any real effect. Since that time, researchers have sought a different model of policing that would prove more effective in crime reduction. This research seeks to analyze whether or not the methods developed are actually shown to be effective, through their study.


An Evidential Review Of Police Misconduct: Officer Versus Organization, Emma Rose Bonanno Jan 2015

An Evidential Review Of Police Misconduct: Officer Versus Organization, Emma Rose Bonanno

2015 Undergraduate Awards

This paper explores the critical societal issue of police misconduct. Though a vast amount of literature surrounds the issue of police misconduct, conclusions regarding the correlates of police misconduct remain inconclusive. Previous research that attempts to explain police misconduct has consistently shown to be divided based on either individual or organizational correlates. Thus, the crux of the debate has become whether police misconduct is the product of a "bad apple" (individual or micro-level correlates), or a "bad barrel" (organizational or macro-level correlates). The aim of this paper is to explore existing empirical evidence, and discover which factors most strongly correlate ...


Aligning Policing And Public Health Promotion: Insights From The World Of Foot Patrol, Jennifer Wood, Caitlin J. Taylor, Elizabeth Groff, Jerry Ratcliffe Jan 2015

Aligning Policing And Public Health Promotion: Insights From The World Of Foot Patrol, Jennifer Wood, Caitlin J. Taylor, Elizabeth Groff, Jerry Ratcliffe

Faculty work

Foot patrol work is rarely described in relation to public health, even though police routinely encounter health risk behaviors and environments. Through a qualitative study of foot patrol policing in violent ‘hotspots’ of Philadelphia, we explore some prospects and challenges associated with bridging security and public health considerations in law enforcement. Noting existing efforts to help advance police officer knowledge of, and attitudes toward health vulnerabilities, we incorporate perspectives from environmental criminology to help advance this bridging agenda. Extending the notion of capable guardianship to understand foot patrol work, we suggest that the way forward for theory, policy, and practice ...


Comparing The Recruitment Of Ethnic And Racial Minorities In Police Departments In England And Wales With The Usa, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D., Mike Rowe Ph.D. Dec 2014

Comparing The Recruitment Of Ethnic And Racial Minorities In Police Departments In England And Wales With The Usa, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D., Mike Rowe Ph.D.

Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Policing Cyber Bullying: How Parents, Educators, And Law Enforcement Respond To Digital Harassment, Ryan Broll Jun 2014

Policing Cyber Bullying: How Parents, Educators, And Law Enforcement Respond To Digital Harassment, Ryan Broll

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Some prior research has emphasised how adults ought to address cyber bullying, yet little is known about how they actually prevent and respond to digital harassment. This study addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the formal and informal “policing” of cyber bullying by a network of security actors: parents, teachers and school administrators, and the public police. Data were collected through a mixed methods research design consisting of semi-structured qualitative interviews with eight parents, 14 teachers, and 12 members of law enforcement (n = 34) and quantitative surveys completed by 52 parents.

Drawing upon nodal governance theory as a ...


“I’Ve Got Better Things To Worry About”: Police Perceptions Of Graffiti And Street Art In A Large Mid-Atlantic City, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D. May 2014

“I’Ve Got Better Things To Worry About”: Police Perceptions Of Graffiti And Street Art In A Large Mid-Atlantic City, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

The majority of scholarly research on graffiti and street art has examined this phe- nomenon in terms of its distribution and the nature of the perpetrators. Rarely has the law enforcement response been investigated. To better understand this neglected aspect, the investigators constructed a survey that they administered to a sample of officers in a large Mid-Atlantic police department to determine their attitudes, in particular their perceptions, regarding graffiti, street art, and perpetrators of this behavior. The survey takes into consideration important police-related variables and situational factors to provide a portrait of officer perceptions. The major finding indicates that the ...


Policing Diversity With Diversity: Exploring Organizational Rhetoric, Myth, And Minority Police Officers' Perceptions And Experiences, Justin K. Szeto Jan 2014

Policing Diversity With Diversity: Exploring Organizational Rhetoric, Myth, And Minority Police Officers' Perceptions And Experiences, Justin K. Szeto

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Police services are responding to the current realities of diversity. Specifically, police services attempt to adopt diversity policies, initiatives, and practices as a way to reflect community representation. The present study examines how minority police officers’ perceive and experience organizational diversity. While diversity is a broad term encompassing such variables as race, sex and sexual orientation, the present study focuses primarily on racial diversity. Through in-depth interviews with 12 Canadian police officers and 1 diversity trainer, as well as descriptive statistical data pertaining to the last 15 years of recruitment trends, the perceptions held by participants suggest that police services ...


When Speech Isn't Free: Legal Barriers And Consequences Of Reporting Sexual Violence, Kevin M. Fleming Jan 2014

When Speech Isn't Free: Legal Barriers And Consequences Of Reporting Sexual Violence, Kevin M. Fleming

Departmental Honors Projects

Incidents of sexual violence continue to be a serious problem for society. Likewise, acts of sexual violence impose severe consequences for survivors. The consequences initially begin at the onset of the survivor’s journey to psychological recovery following the traumatic sexual assault. The consequences take on a unique set of characteristics when the survivor attempts to use the justice system to confront the perpetrator who committed the offense. These characteristics can transform an adversarial process into an isolated battle for the survivor. In the worst cases, the justice system empowers individuals who wish to silence survivors with free speech restrictions ...