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Criminology Commons

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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 223

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

The Importance Of Interagency Collaboration For Crossover Youth, Emily M. Wright, Ryan E. Spohn, Joselyne Chenane, Nicholas Juliano Dec 2016

The Importance Of Interagency Collaboration For Crossover Youth, Emily M. Wright, Ryan E. Spohn, Joselyne Chenane, Nicholas Juliano

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Crossover or dually-involved youth are youth enmeshed in the child welfare (CWS) and juvenile justice systems (JJS). Given their dual status and high needs, attention has recently focused on how to best respond to them in an integrated, interagency fashion. The Crossover Youth Practice Model (CYPM) is designed to facilitate interagency collaboration between the CWS and JJS in order to enhance services and diversion to these youth. This study reports on the benefits and challenges that the JJS and CWS, as well as the personnel working within them, experience by participating in a CYPM effort in a Midwestern county, and ...


Processes Of Racialization Through Media Depictions Of Transracial Violence, Megan Allen Dec 2016

Processes Of Racialization Through Media Depictions Of Transracial Violence, Megan Allen

Honors Program Theses and Projects

In this honors thesis, I explore the process of racialization in media coverage of White-on-Black violent events (both crimes and incidents not recognized by the legal system as crimes) using a critical race theory framework. Recent years have seen a series of killings of and assaults on African American people that have become newsworthy, as they have been seen, often controversially, as unjustified. The controversy has largely broken down on racial and political lines, with minority Americans and the left seeing these incidents as evidence and example of ongoing racial inequality, with whites and the right, in particular right-wing whites ...


Op-Ed: Cops Shoot And Kill Someone About 1,000 Times A Year: Few Are Prosecuted: What Can Be Done?, Philip M. Stinson Dec 2016

Op-Ed: Cops Shoot And Kill Someone About 1,000 Times A Year: Few Are Prosecuted: What Can Be Done?, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Inside The Black Box: A Qualitative Evaluation Of Participants’ Experiences Of A Drug Treatment Court, Sarah Kuehn, Rebecca Ridener Dec 2016

Inside The Black Box: A Qualitative Evaluation Of Participants’ Experiences Of A Drug Treatment Court, Sarah Kuehn, Rebecca Ridener

The Qualitative Report

This study examined the program experiences of participants in a Drug Treatment Court located in Pennsylvania. In-depth interviews were used to investigate participants’ perceptions in regards to program components that aid them in the recovery process and challenges they face while completing the program. Results from the 16 interviews indicate that participants contribute their success in the program to its strict structure, accountability, and dedicated staff who buy into the court’s underlying principles of therapeutic jurisprudence. Implications for other drug treatment courts are discussed.


The Identification And Prevention Of Insider Threats, Matthew D. Waters Dec 2016

The Identification And Prevention Of Insider Threats, Matthew D. Waters

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Insider threats, or attacks against a company from within, are a pressing issue both domestically and internationally. Frequencies of these threats increase each year adding to the overall importance of further research analysis. In fact, many case studies have been conducted which state that these employees who participate in insider attacks tend to exhibit certain personality and characteristic traits, as well as certain observable behaviors, that would indicate to other employees that an attack is imminent. It is hypothesized that companies will be able to take a more preventative stance of security as opposed to a reactive stance by identifying ...


Routine Activities And Delinquency: The Significance Of Bonds To Society And Peer Context, Lizabeth A. Crawford, Katherine B. Novak, Amia K. Foston Dec 2016

Routine Activities And Delinquency: The Significance Of Bonds To Society And Peer Context, Lizabeth A. Crawford, Katherine B. Novak, Amia K. Foston

Katherine B. Novak

This article extends prior research on routine activities and youth deviance by focusing on a broader range of routine activity patterns (RAPs) and on how their effects are conditioned by bonds to society and peer context. As hypothesized, the RAPs with the most consistent effects on delinquency were those lowest, or highest, in both structure and visibility. However, the relationship between school-related activities and delinquency was complex and varied across levels of the moderators in unexpected ways, given the structure and visibility of this RAP. Other RAPs, including unstructured peer interaction, affected delinquency independent of adolescents’ social relations, suggesting that ...


Social Identities And Meanings In Correctional Work, Caitlin C. Botelho Dec 2016

Social Identities And Meanings In Correctional Work, Caitlin C. Botelho

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on correctional officers’ values and perceptions of their workplace, the people they work with and for, and members of the general public. Although prior research has investigated correctional staff members’ feelings about their occupation, far fewer studies have implemented a comprehensive qualitative, microsociological approach. The author conducted 20 in-depth interviews with current and former correctional officers (COs) in public-supported facilities. Additional data were collected through two public Facebook pages designated for COs and citizens interested in the criminal justice system. The study offers insights about the significance of COs’ feelings about their work and how the correctional ...


A Study Of The Relationship Between Transportation Infrastructure And Criminal Behavior, Sherri Bennett Chippo Dec 2016

A Study Of The Relationship Between Transportation Infrastructure And Criminal Behavior, Sherri Bennett Chippo

Theses and Dissertations (All)

Transportation is a cornerstone among public sector services and enjoys a long history of influence on the nation’s culture. These influences emerge from divergent sources and affect each stratum in our social structure: drivers and pedestrians; transients and residents; wealthy and poor. Emergency services depend upon a reliable transportation network. Community activities come to a standstill when faced with weather-related road closures. Local economies suffer when the movement of goods and services is interrupted.

Transportation infrastructure also has influences that are much less obvious. This study explores the influence of transportation infrastructure on criminal behavior. Given the fact that ...


Assessing Stress And Coping Among Federal Probation Officers, Erika L. Farester Dec 2016

Assessing Stress And Coping Among Federal Probation Officers, Erika L. Farester

Theses and Dissertations (All)

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of organizational environmental stressors on burnout, commitment, job satisfaction, and self-perceived health among federal probation officers, while controlling for the mediating effects of coping factors and support. In addition, I explored the effects of leadership training and leadership behaviors of top level administrators on the same outcomes. Of the criminal justice professions, probation, especially federal probation, has received the least attention in the area of stress research. Much of the probation stress literature is dated and the nature of the offender and caseload numbers have changed, thereby making interpretations difficult ...


The Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes Dec 2016

The Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Do Gender Stereotypes Keep Girls Away From Crime? A Structural Equation Modeling Approach To Power-Control Theory, Emmaleigh E. Kirchner Dec 2016

Do Gender Stereotypes Keep Girls Away From Crime? A Structural Equation Modeling Approach To Power-Control Theory, Emmaleigh E. Kirchner

Theses and Dissertations (All)

This study utilizes multiple waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth

(1979) to examine Hagan’s original Power-Control Theory (1985) employing structural equation modeling. The research sought to examine gender differences in offending, as well as other concepts contained within Power-Control Theory, such as parenting.

Results of the study showed mixed support for the theory. Power-Control Theory does produce convincing evidence of the importance of maternal control, particularly for daughters. Key findings also included gender differences in patriarchal attitudes as well as risk preferences. These findings suggest the role of females in changing, although it may not be becoming ...


Fitting Eyewitness Identification And Confidence To A Diffusion Model Of Processing, Brittany Nicole Race Dec 2016

Fitting Eyewitness Identification And Confidence To A Diffusion Model Of Processing, Brittany Nicole Race

Theses and Dissertations

It is necessary to better serve justice to understand the mechanisms behind eyewitness identification and reports of confidence. The material contained within attempt to fit eyewitness identification to a diffusion model of processing, RTCON (Ratcliff & Starns, 2009). Participants saw eight mock crime videos and were then tasked with using eight showups or eight lineups to identify the suspects within the video. Half of the presentations were target present and half were target absent. Additionally, participants were either presented with biased or unbiased instructions. Strangely, unbiased lineups led to higher hit rates which is contrary to most findings in the field. The key elements were comparing the ROC curves of the collected data with the ROC curves of simulated data from the RTCON model. The variables manipulated in the model included mu, a variable of memory strength; confidence criteria, a variable of response bias; and decision criteria, a second variable of response bias. The ROC curves derived from the simulated data were poor matches to the collected data. This finding leads to questions on the applicability of this model of diffusion processing to eyewitness research.


A Prospective Investigation Of Behavioral Risk Factors And Sexual Victimization Outcome In College Females, Tara E. Casady Dec 2016

A Prospective Investigation Of Behavioral Risk Factors And Sexual Victimization Outcome In College Females, Tara E. Casady

Dissertations

The current study was a prospective examination of the potential predictors of sexual victimization in women with and without sexual victimization histories. Utilizing a longitudinal design, we investigated sexually risky behavior, sexual sensation seeking, and substance use disordered behavior with regard to the later experience of sexual victimization during 2-­‐‑, 6-­‐‑, and 12-­‐‑month follow-­‐‑up periods. As reported previously, Time 1 data suggested that women with victimization histories were more likely to engage in sexually risky behaviors, engage in substance use disordered behavior, and were more likely to endorse higher scores of sexual sensation seeking. A statistically significant relationship ...


Dignity, Vol 1, Issue 1, 2016, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Nov 2016

Dignity, Vol 1, Issue 1, 2016, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

Table of Contents, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2016, Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence.


Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Nov 2016

Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

No abstract provided.


“Follow Me So I Can Dm You Back”: An Exploratory Analysis Of A Female Pro- Isis Twitter Network, Joseph A. Varanese Nov 2016

“Follow Me So I Can Dm You Back”: An Exploratory Analysis Of A Female Pro- Isis Twitter Network, Joseph A. Varanese

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study is to explore a network of female pro-Islamic State of Syria and Iraq (ISIS) supporters on Twitter. To do so, I identified twenty Twitter accounts (n=20) through snowball sampling, and analyzed their network comprising 5,861 vertices and 12,034 edges. I studied the network using three social network analysis metrics—Freeman’s normalized betweenness centrality, average geodesic distance, and tie strength. Females in the sample were more influential than males, and as a result, had a greater ability to radicalize other females within their network. Further, I observed that it took females longer ...


Exploring Young Males' Vulnerability To The Sex Trafficking Industry In A Rural State, Kevin Shankle, Matt Belcher, Emily Macfarland Nov 2016

Exploring Young Males' Vulnerability To The Sex Trafficking Industry In A Rural State, Kevin Shankle, Matt Belcher, Emily Macfarland

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Exploring Young Adult Males’ Vulnerability to the Sex Trafficking Industry in a Rural State

Matt Belcher, Emily MacFarland, Kevin Shankle

Dr. Elizabeth B. Perkins, Ph.D.

Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology

Morehead State University

Currently there are between 27 and 30 million slaves in the world, 22% of those are trapped in the sex trafficking industry, 2 million of the sex trafficking victims are children. That being said, it is incredibly important to recognize that trafficking occurs here in Kentucky as well (Sex Trafficking. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ijm.org/casework/sex-trafficking).

Our research project focuses ...


The Ostrich Instruction: Deliberate Ignorance As A Criminal Mens Rea, Ira P. Robbins Nov 2016

The Ostrich Instruction: Deliberate Ignorance As A Criminal Mens Rea, Ira P. Robbins

Ira P. Robbins

No abstract provided.


The Cry Of Wolfish In The Federal Courts: The Future Of Federal Judicial Intervention In Prison Administration, Ira P. Robbins Nov 2016

The Cry Of Wolfish In The Federal Courts: The Future Of Federal Judicial Intervention In Prison Administration, Ira P. Robbins

Ira P. Robbins

No abstract provided.


Increasing The Elicitation Of Truthful Information From Young Suspects: An Empirical Investigation Of The Effects Of Temporal Discounting, Andrea Arndorfer Nov 2016

Increasing The Elicitation Of Truthful Information From Young Suspects: An Empirical Investigation Of The Effects Of Temporal Discounting, Andrea Arndorfer

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The criminal justice system relies heavily on eliciting truthful information from suspects to solve crimes. A paramount problem with this approach involves the questioning of young suspects. Numerous studies support the conclusion that youth is a risk factor for providing false information during police questioning. The present study examined the influence of temporal discounting (the tendency for individual’s behavior to be influenced more strongly by proximal than distal factors; Berns, Laibson, & Loewenstein, 2007; Critchfield & Kollins, 2001) and other developmental factors (i.e., impulse control, future orientation, and sensation seeking) thought to underlie youths’ increased interrogative vulnerability. In line with previous research ...


Childhood Traumatic Experiences And Mental Health Problems In Sexually Offending And Non-Sexually Offending Juveniles, Cyril Boonmann, Thomas Grisso, Laura S. Guy, Olivier F. Colins, Eva A. Mulder, P. Vahl, Lucres M. C. Jansen, Theo A. Doreleijers H, Robert R. J. M. Vermeiren Nov 2016

Childhood Traumatic Experiences And Mental Health Problems In Sexually Offending And Non-Sexually Offending Juveniles, Cyril Boonmann, Thomas Grisso, Laura S. Guy, Olivier F. Colins, Eva A. Mulder, P. Vahl, Lucres M. C. Jansen, Theo A. Doreleijers H, Robert R. J. M. Vermeiren

Psychiatry Publications and Presentations

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a history of childhood abuse and mental health problems in juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) over and above general offending behavior.

METHODS: A sample of 44 JSOs incarcerated in two juvenile detention centers in the Netherlands between May 2008 and March 2014 were examined for childhood abuse history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form) and mental health problems (Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2). Furthermore, the connection between childhood abuse and mental health problems in JSOs was compared to a sample of 44 propensity score matched juveniles who offended non-sexually (non-JSOs).

RESULTS: In JSOs, sexual abuse was ...


Fish, Christine Stark Nov 2016

Fish, Christine Stark

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Welcome To Dignity, Donna M. Hughes Nov 2016

Welcome To Dignity, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Revolution And Education, Lilia D. Monzó, Peter Mclaren Nov 2016

Revolution And Education, Lilia D. Monzó, Peter Mclaren

Education Faculty Articles and Research

Denied the right to recognize patterns of violence and their relationship to class and specifically to the capitalist mode of production through an institutionalized historical amnesia, we live our lives as mere passengers on a train that stops at death’s door. In the self-proclaimed greatest super power, the United States, the mythical alliance to democracy serves to obfuscate its systematic plundering of life and earth in service to the transnational capitalist class. We have been brainwashed through state and corporate-sponsored lies, myth, and a national zealotry to forget and continue to repeat the atrocities of our past. We have ...


Welcome To Dignity, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Oct 2016

Welcome To Dignity, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

No abstract provided.


University Of Rhode Island Presentations At Interdisciplinary Conference On Human Trafficking, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Oct 2016

University Of Rhode Island Presentations At Interdisciplinary Conference On Human Trafficking, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

No abstract provided.


The Proteus Effect And Gaming: The Impact Of Digital Actors And Race In A Virtual Environment, Christopher M. Via Oct 2016

The Proteus Effect And Gaming: The Impact Of Digital Actors And Race In A Virtual Environment, Christopher M. Via

Dissertations and Theses

Race and racial identity is a frequently discussed topic in the media today. This topic is driven by what oftentimes amounts to culture clashes, and a system that claims impartiality yet is rampant with implicit bias demonstrating favorable treatment of one race over another. An example of this favoritism resides within video game design, where over 50% of player-controlled game characters are White, and less than 40% are Black (Leonard, 2007). Leonard also wrote that Black game characters are more likely to conform to Black stereotypes (e.g. play sports, or involved in gangs) than Whites (e.g. middle class ...


Juvenile Prostitution: An Exploration In Gendered Theory, Kelli Reynolds Oct 2016

Juvenile Prostitution: An Exploration In Gendered Theory, Kelli Reynolds

Master’s Theses and Projects

The purpose of this study is to investigate the ways in which juvenile females enter into prostitution. This theoretical analysis will assess support for existing explanations of delinquency and prostitution of female juveniles using secondary data sources. This secondary data source is pulled from a survey of 114 adjudicated delinquent girls in South Carolina, which was collected in 2014. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding juvenile prostitution will include perspectives on polyvictimization and cumulative trauma as well as the history of prostitution. These concepts will be supported further by discussing current research and survey data. The specific focus of ...


Care, Control, Or Criminalization? Discourses On Homelessness And Social Responses, Lindsey L. Upton Oct 2016

Care, Control, Or Criminalization? Discourses On Homelessness And Social Responses, Lindsey L. Upton

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

There has been a resurgence of political and media interest in homelessness, particularly in major urban areas throughout the United States. This interest is credited to a number of cities that declared a State of Emergency (SOE) due to their homelessness crisis in 2015. The motivation to declare homelessness as an urgent priority of local politics assists cities in temporarily overcoming longstanding budget and bureaucratic barriers. Undoubtedly, the criminal justice system is part of social response following a declared SOE, and homelessness is not an exception. Little attention has explored the historical, social, and political processes of problematizing homelessness from ...


Criminal Backgrounds Of Sex Traffickers - Abstract, Alexis Piccirillo, Amelia Davis, Emily Markey, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Sep 2016

Criminal Backgrounds Of Sex Traffickers - Abstract, Alexis Piccirillo, Amelia Davis, Emily Markey, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

Less is known about perpetrators of sex trafficking compared to the victims. The aim of
this study is to learn more about sex traffickers by analyzing the criminal backgrounds of
offenders arrested for sex trafficking crimes. Between 2009 and 2015, there were 22
cases of sex trafficking involving 38 traffickers in Rhode Island. Criminal background
records are publicly available in Rhode Island, so the records for each sex trafficker were
retrieved from the Rhode Island Judiciary Criminal Information online database. In
addition, information on previous convictions was extracted from sentencing memoranda
and other court documents available from Rhode Island Superior ...