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Criminology Commons

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2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 267

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Police Contacts And Attitudes Toward Police: A Study Of Race And Policing, Gary Portway Dec 2015

Police Contacts And Attitudes Toward Police: A Study Of Race And Policing, Gary Portway

Honors Program Theses and Projects

The way in which police officers engage with general society is often under meticulous watch by countless amounts of citizens. The United States – at an unprecedented point in regards to technological advancement and education – expedites such meticulous watch in a way that it often becomes noticeable criticism. Strategies of policing such as New York City’s “stop-and-frisk” policy have ignited much criticism of police, and have caused the need for many general improvements to the way in which police facilitate. Since the structure of policing often shifts based on changes within general society, it has become a common standard that ...


How The Black Lives Matter Movement Can Improve The Justice System, Paul H. Robinson Dec 2015

How The Black Lives Matter Movement Can Improve The Justice System, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

This op-ed piece argues that because the criminal justice system's loss of moral credibility contributes to increased criminality and because blacks are disproportionately the victims of crimes, especially violent crimes, the most valuable contribution that the Black Lives Matter movement can make is not to tear down the system’s reputation but rather to propose and support reforms that will build it up, thereby improving its crime-control effectiveness and reducing black victimization.


Are You Now Or Have You Ever Been A Sociologist, Barry Krisberg Dec 2015

Are You Now Or Have You Ever Been A Sociologist, Barry Krisberg

Barry A Krisberg

No abstract provided.


Not Your Father's Police Department: Making Sense Of The New Demographics Of Law Enforcement, David Sklansky Dec 2015

Not Your Father's Police Department: Making Sense Of The New Demographics Of Law Enforcement, David Sklansky

David A Sklansky

No abstract provided.


The Criminal Law And The Luck Of The Draw, Sanford Kadish Dec 2015

The Criminal Law And The Luck Of The Draw, Sanford Kadish

Sanford Kadish

No abstract provided.


Reckless Complicity, Sanford Kadish Dec 2015

Reckless Complicity, Sanford Kadish

Sanford Kadish

No abstract provided.


Decision-Making In Criminal Defense: An Empirical Study Of Insanity Pleas And The Impact Of Doubted Client Competence, Richard Bonnie, Norman Poythress, Steven Hoge, John Monahan Dec 2015

Decision-Making In Criminal Defense: An Empirical Study Of Insanity Pleas And The Impact Of Doubted Client Competence, Richard Bonnie, Norman Poythress, Steven Hoge, John Monahan

Norman Poythress

No abstract provided.


Police Killings And Capital Punishment: The Post-Furman Period, William C. Bailey, Ruth D. Peterson Dec 2015

Police Killings And Capital Punishment: The Post-Furman Period, William C. Bailey, Ruth D. Peterson

William C. Bailey

In view of (1) escalating national attention and political and judicial activity centering on capital punishment during recent years and (2) concomitant changes in police killing rates, this paper investigates the impact of the death penalty on rates of lethal assaults against the police for the post-Furman period, 1973–1984. In keeping with recent investigations of deterrence and general homicides, multiple regression is used as a means of controlling for the influence of possible confounding variables in examining the capital punishment/police killings relationship. Consistent with previous investigations, the present analysis provides no indication that our national return to capital ...


Police Killings And Capital Punishment: The Post-Furman Period, William C. Bailey, Ruth D. Peterson Dec 2015

Police Killings And Capital Punishment: The Post-Furman Period, William C. Bailey, Ruth D. Peterson

William C. Bailey

In view of (1) escalating national attention and political and judicial activity centering on capital punishment during recent years and (2) concomitant changes in police killing rates, this paper investigates the impact of the death penalty on rates of lethal assaults against the police for the post-Furman period, 1973–1984. In keeping with recent investigations of deterrence and general homicides, multiple regression is used as a means of controlling for the influence of possible confounding variables in examining the capital punishment/police killings relationship. Consistent with previous investigations, the present analysis provides no indication that our national return to capital ...


Constructing Victimhood: Opposition To Legislation Protecting Lgbt Students Against Bullying, Kiam Loong Daniel Lai Dec 2015

Constructing Victimhood: Opposition To Legislation Protecting Lgbt Students Against Bullying, Kiam Loong Daniel Lai

Doctoral Dissertations

The new millennium has seen various initiatives implemented to prevent and curb anti-LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) bullying in the United States. These initiatives include anti-discrimination policies and programs that raise awareness about LGBT identities and diversity in schools. Conservative reaction against these initiatives, in the form of both legislation and rhetoric, has been swift. The dissertation examines how opponents of prevention and intervention (OPI) have used discourse to resist the efforts of curbing and preventing anti-LGBT bullying in schools. Specifically, I undertake an investigation of how opponents of prevention initiatives used diagnostic and motivational frames – concepts from Snow and ...


“I Didn’T Want My Life To Be Like That”: Gangs, College, Or The Military For Latino Male High School Students, Adrian H. Huerta Nov 2015

“I Didn’T Want My Life To Be Like That”: Gangs, College, Or The Military For Latino Male High School Students, Adrian H. Huerta

Adrian H. Huerta, PhD

Nationally, only half of Latino males graduate from high school (Contreras, 2011). Scholars are beginning to critically examine the various internal and external influences which contribute to low academic achievement for Latino males. This qualitative study uses a human ecological theory to examine how Latino male high school students with high academic achievement understand and develop goals to attend postsecondary education versus engaging in gangs or the military. The findings highlight the students’ different levels of college preparation, interactions with military recruitment, and their gang connections.


Climate Change And Interpersonal Violence: A "Global" Estimate And Regional Inequities, Dennis Mares, Kenneth W. Moffett Nov 2015

Climate Change And Interpersonal Violence: A "Global" Estimate And Regional Inequities, Dennis Mares, Kenneth W. Moffett

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

This study estimates the predicted impact of climate change on levels of violence in a sample of 57 countries. We sample western and non-western countries and perform a multilevel ARFIMA regression to examine if warmer temperatures are associated with higher levels of homicide. Our results indicate that each degree Celsius increase in annual temperatures is associated with a nearly 6% average increase in homicides. Regional variation in this predicted effect is detected, for example, with no apparent effects in former Soviet countries and far stronger effects found in Africa. This variation indicates that climate change may acutely increase violence in ...


California Police Sexual Misconduct Arrest Cases, 2005-2011, Philip M. Stinson, Zachary J. Calogeras, Natalie L. Dichiro, Ryan K. Hunter Nov 2015

California Police Sexual Misconduct Arrest Cases, 2005-2011, Philip M. Stinson, Zachary J. Calogeras, Natalie L. Dichiro, Ryan K. Hunter

Philip M Stinson

This report was prepared at the request of the California Research Bureau. The data are from a larger study on police crime in the United States. Police crimes are those crimes committed by sworn law enforcement officers given the general powers of arrest at the time the offense was committed and/or at the time when the officer was arrested. These crimes can occur while the officer is on- or off-duty and include offenses committed by state, county, municipal, tribal, or special law enforcement agencies. Police crimes damage the occupational integrity of police officers, the organizational legitimacy of the employing ...


California Police Sexual Misconduct Arrest Cases, 2005-2011, Philip M. Stinson, Zachary J. Calogeras, Natalie L. Dichiro, Ryan K. Hunter Nov 2015

California Police Sexual Misconduct Arrest Cases, 2005-2011, Philip M. Stinson, Zachary J. Calogeras, Natalie L. Dichiro, Ryan K. Hunter

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

This report was prepared at the request of the California Research Bureau. The data are from a larger study on police crime in the United States. Police crimes are those crimes committed by sworn law enforcement officers given the general powers of arrest at the time the offense was committed and/or at the time when the officer was arrested. These crimes can occur while the officer is on- or off-duty and include offenses committed by state, county, municipal, tribal, or special law enforcement agencies. Police crimes damage the occupational integrity of police officers, the organizational legitimacy of the employing ...


The Treatment Of Rape In Theology, Sr. Pauline Logue Nov 2015

The Treatment Of Rape In Theology, Sr. Pauline Logue

The ITB Journal

When I first began to research the treatment of rape in theology some five years ago I was frequently asked what rape had to do with theology. That is not a question I hear today. Largely due to scandals in both church and state a theological response has been demanded to the serious question of sexual abuse. That response is underway. This article presents a brief summary of central theological issues that arise from an analysis of the experience of rape victims.1 It presents an overview of the treatment of rape in traditional and mainstream theology and finally it ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 26: What We Know About Police Crime, Philip M. Stinson Nov 2015

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 26: What We Know About Police Crime, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost podcast features a presentation by Phil Stinson at the Center for Family and Demographic Research at Bowling Green State University on November 4 2015.


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 25: Violence By School Resource Officers, Philip M. Stinson Nov 2015

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 25: Violence By School Resource Officers, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost podcast features an interview of Phil Stinson on WURD AM900 Radio in Philadelphia PA on October 28 2015.


Intercoder Reliability Assessment Of Supplemental Document Coding In A Quantitative Content Analysis Study Of Police Crime In The United States, Raven Ory, Philip M. Stinson Nov 2015

Intercoder Reliability Assessment Of Supplemental Document Coding In A Quantitative Content Analysis Study Of Police Crime In The United States, Raven Ory, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

Dr. Stinson maintains an object-relational research database in OnBase, Bowling Green State University’s enterprise-level content management system. An analysis of the intercoder reliability of the supplemental articles indexed in OnBase during the years 2012-2014 was conducted to determine and promote reliability among research assistants. This project is important because reliability is the hallmark of any research database, and because the institutional memory is short with annual turnover of student research assistants working in Stinson’s research group. Training recommendations are made from the findings of this study for the purpose of improving the reliability of document coding in the ...


Borders Up In Smoke: Marijuana Enforcement In Nebraska After Colorado’S Legalization Of Medicinal Marijuana, Jared M. Ellison, Ryan E. Spohn Nov 2015

Borders Up In Smoke: Marijuana Enforcement In Nebraska After Colorado’S Legalization Of Medicinal Marijuana, Jared M. Ellison, Ryan E. Spohn

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

With the passage of Amendments 20 (2000) and 64 (2012), Colorado legalized the medicinal and recreational use of marijuana. Nebraskan law enforcement in border counties subsequently reported increases in arrests and reductions in jail space. In response, the Nebraska state legislature passed LR-520 to study the potential increased costs incurred by criminal justice agencies in border counties. To investigate this situation, we compare trends in drug arrests and jail occupancy across three areas: border counties, those that contain Interstate 80 (I-80) as a major transportation route, and the remaining counties in the state of Nebraska from 2000 through 2013. We ...


How To Incite Crime With Words: Clarifying Brandenburg’S Incitement Test With Speech Act Theory, Bradley J. Pew Oct 2015

How To Incite Crime With Words: Clarifying Brandenburg’S Incitement Test With Speech Act Theory, Bradley J. Pew

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Sense And Sentencing: Our Imprisonment Epidemic, Michael A. Simons Oct 2015

Sense And Sentencing: Our Imprisonment Epidemic, Michael A. Simons

Journal of Civil Rights and Economic Development

No abstract provided.


Challenges For Investigating Sex Trafficking: The Role Of Decriminalized Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes Dr., Melanie Shapiro Esq Oct 2015

Challenges For Investigating Sex Trafficking: The Role Of Decriminalized Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes Dr., Melanie Shapiro Esq

Donna M. Hughes

This presentation is a case study of challenges to investigating sex trafficking created by decriminalized prostitution. For 29 years (from 1980 to 2009) in Rhode Island, engaging in prostitution was not prohibited or regulated. Commercial sex acts were private and beyond the interest of the state. Lack of laws or regulations of prostitution created a permissive legal, economic, and cultural environment for the growth of prostitution businesses. Local police were impeded from investigating alleged sex trafficking because police had no legal cause to investigate private activities. In interviews, law enforcement officials repeatedly stated that they did not have the laws ...


The Association Between Mental Health And Violence Among A Nationally Representative Sample Of College Students From The United States, Joesph A. Schwartz, Kevin M. Beaver, J. C. Barnes Oct 2015

The Association Between Mental Health And Violence Among A Nationally Representative Sample Of College Students From The United States, Joesph A. Schwartz, Kevin M. Beaver, J. C. Barnes

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Objectives

Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students.

Methods

The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors ...


Honor, Courage, Commitment: Understanding Sexual Assault In The United States Navy, Caitlin Veronica Muldoon Oct 2015

Honor, Courage, Commitment: Understanding Sexual Assault In The United States Navy, Caitlin Veronica Muldoon

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

Recently, sexual assault within the military community has been drawing the attention of the media, military leaders, politicians and every day citizens. Criminologists however have traditionally not addressed this crime, and have specifically not addressed sexual assault within the US Navy. This dissertation seeks to address the current gap in literature by examining the sociocultural workplace climate of the US military and its possible contribution to the occurrence of sexual assaults. Utilizing original data obtained by NCIS, regression models were ran to evaluate sexual assault victim and offender demographics. The surprising findings were then discussed within the context of possible ...


The Power Of Place: A Comparative Analysis Of Prison And Street Gangs, Jennifer M. Ortiz Sep 2015

The Power Of Place: A Comparative Analysis Of Prison And Street Gangs, Jennifer M. Ortiz

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

One misconception in gang research is the assumption that the terms prison gang and street gang are organizationally and ideologically synonymous. Although in the minority, some researchers suggest that prison gangs are qualitatively and quantitatively different from other gangs (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). Utilizing 30 in-depth semi-structured interviews, this study assesses the effect of environment on the emergence, organization, and ideologies of prison and street gangs. The findings identify key differences between the 'free' society where gangs emerge and the captive societies where prison gangs emerge. The primary difference was the level of formal and informal control exerted over individuals within ...


Law Enforcement Innovation And Diffusion: A Network Analysis Of Police Accreditation, Jeremiah Paul Johnson Sep 2015

Law Enforcement Innovation And Diffusion: A Network Analysis Of Police Accreditation, Jeremiah Paul Johnson

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study seeks to identify network structures capable of predicting innovation uptake among law enforcement organizations. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, diffusion is studied through the lens of a single innovation, state law enforcement accreditation. Quantitative data culled from a variety of social artifacts in two New England states are used as a basis for the study. Relational data extracted from meetings held by a private police chief's association over an 11 year period were used to construct an affiliation matrix. Social network analysis demonstrates that actors with high levels of centrality are more likely to self-select state accreditation enrollment ...


Pimps Of Harlem: Talk Of Labor And The Sociology Of Risk, Amber Horning Ruf Sep 2015

Pimps Of Harlem: Talk Of Labor And The Sociology Of Risk, Amber Horning Ruf

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines how third-party labor is socially constructed by pimps or third parties. Pimps and their labor are investigated using sociological paradigms of risk. Risk is defined as exposure to danger (Beck, 1992; Giddens, 1991) and can produce negative or positive feelings and outcomes (Lupton, 1999). I explore how third-party labor is connected to risk with the following research questions: 1) How does the U.S. media portray third parties as risky, and how does this influence proposed remedies to this social problem? 2) How do third parties' at-risk status impact their role in illicit and licit economies? 3 ...


Traumatic Brain Injuries Among Adolescent Inmates In Rikers Island, Nyc Jail: A Mixed Methods Study, Cassandra Ramdath Sep 2015

Traumatic Brain Injuries Among Adolescent Inmates In Rikers Island, Nyc Jail: A Mixed Methods Study, Cassandra Ramdath

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

There is a higher prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among incarcerated population than in the general population. It is possible that head injuries can lead to behavioral difficulties, increasing the risk of criminal justice involvement and custodial difficulties. Principles of bio-social criminology put forth that the interaction between people's environment and their biological makeup that can lead to maladaptive behaviors. One of the main domains within the bio-social criminology approach is neurocriminology; neurocriminology uses principles of neuroscience to better understand delinquent and antisocial behaviours and suggests that brain injury can interact with environmental factors to produce seemingly aggressive ...


Women Are Like Silk And Men Are Like Gold: A Cross-Country Comparison Of Institutional Responses To Honor Violence, Alana Michele Henninger Sep 2015

Women Are Like Silk And Men Are Like Gold: A Cross-Country Comparison Of Institutional Responses To Honor Violence, Alana Michele Henninger

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Over the past decade, a specific form of interpersonal violence known as honor violence has drawn international attention because it has been increasingly reported in immigrant communities in western countries. There are currently no specific institutional responses to honor violence in the United States, but the growing media coverage of honor-related crimes has led interest groups to call for new legislation and institutional responses specific to honor violence. The global debate on the codification of honor violence hinges on the discussion of whether honor violence is a cultural crime that deserves special consideration, or whether such codification encourages discriminatory responses ...


Dangerous Spaces: The Structural Context Of Violence Against Foreign Nationals In South Africa, Alexandra Hiropoulos Sep 2015

Dangerous Spaces: The Structural Context Of Violence Against Foreign Nationals In South Africa, Alexandra Hiropoulos

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since South Africa's heralded democratic transition in the mid-1990s, ongoing patterns of violence specifically targeting people on the basis of their race and nationality have been observed throughout the country. This dissertation study examines the spatial nature of violent incidents against foreign nationals in the Republic of South Africa and the effect of structural conditions on the occurrence of anti-foreigner violence.

While international migration has been historically accompanied by resentment and ill-treatment of migrants worldwide, this phenomenon is inadequately studied in developing countries such as South Africa. Since nationwide riots targeting foreign nationals in townships in 2008, there has ...