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Criminology Commons

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2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 159

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes Jun 2015

Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes

Alexander Hayes Mr.

- From in-car video recording to body-worn video recording

- Exploring available technologies: how do they work, pros and cons

- Storing direct evidence in secure storage: factors to consider

- Citizens “shooting” back with POV tech – what are their rights?

- Crowdsourced sousveillance- harnessing public data for forensic profiling

- Police force policies and practices on the application of new media


Do Experience Tables Matter, Peter B. Hoffman, Harvey M. Goldstein Dec 2013

Do Experience Tables Matter, Peter B. Hoffman, Harvey M. Goldstein

Peter R. Hoffman

No abstract provided.


Race, Social Disorganization And Delinquency, Alina Bazyler Dec 2013

Race, Social Disorganization And Delinquency, Alina Bazyler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities in crime has been an issue of debate. Some evidence, however, has shown that racial differences in offending are largely accounted for by economic disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 4,290), the relationship between race and delinquency was examined looking at social disorganization factors. It was hypothesized that there would be racial and ethnic differences in delinquency and that these differences would be accounted for by social disorganization factors, specifically collective efficacy and economic disadvantage. The results show that compared to White adolescents Hispanic adolescents have ...


An Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Increased Judicial Oversight And Court-Ordered Batterer Intervention Programming In Milwaukee County Misdemeanor Domestic Violence Cases: Preliminary Findings, Nelida Cortes Dec 2013

An Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Increased Judicial Oversight And Court-Ordered Batterer Intervention Programming In Milwaukee County Misdemeanor Domestic Violence Cases: Preliminary Findings, Nelida Cortes

Theses and Dissertations

In 1999, Milwaukee County was one of three locations in the United States chosen by the Office on Violence Against Women to participate in the Judicial Oversight Demonstration Initiative (JODI). JODI was a five year project aimed at testing the idea of whether an organized community response to domestic violence, with increased judicial and criminal justice involvement, would affect victims' safety and offender accountability. Due to its involvement with JODI, Milwaukee County implemented a number of procedural changes intended to increase victim safety, increase offender accountability, and reduce instances of domestic violence. The most prominent change was the institution of ...


Juvenile Court Officers’ Perceptions Of Innovation Adoption; What Personal And Contextual Factors Make A Difference In Levels Of Adoption? An Exploratory Mixed-Method Study., Brenda Jean Moran Dec 2013

Juvenile Court Officers’ Perceptions Of Innovation Adoption; What Personal And Contextual Factors Make A Difference In Levels Of Adoption? An Exploratory Mixed-Method Study., Brenda Jean Moran

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

This exploratory research examined levels of innovation adoption among Juvenile Court Officers (JCOs) in a Midwestern state. The researcher applied Dr. Everett M. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation model as the study’s framework. According to Rogers (2003), innovation is “an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption” (p. 475). The study sought to determine the extent that demographic and work-life variables such as gender, office location, caseload, years of service, personality/temperament and employee engagement contributed to levels of innovation adoption by JCOs. This study examined the characteristics of individuals ...


A Historical Comparative Analysis Of Executions In The United States From 1608 To 2009, Emily Jean Abili Dec 2013

A Historical Comparative Analysis Of Executions In The United States From 1608 To 2009, Emily Jean Abili

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The death penalty has been a contested issue throughout American history. The United States has been executing offenders since Jamestown became a colony in 1608 (Allen & Clubb, 2008). Since that time, many issues have been raised about the death penalty including whether or not it is moral, discriminatory, or a deterrent.

This study examines the history of executions, including lynchings, in the United States from 1608 to 2009 using a variety of sociological theories on law and society. Some of the research questions that guide this project are:

* What is the nature of change in the relative prevalence of legal ...


Constitutionally Tailoring Punishment, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas Dec 2013

Constitutionally Tailoring Punishment, Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas

Faculty Scholarship

Since the turn of the century, the Supreme Court has begun to regulate non-capital sentencing under the Sixth Amendment in the Apprendi line of cases (requiring jury findings of fact to justify sentence enhancements) as well as under the Eighth Amendment in the Miller and Graham line of cases (forbidding mandatory life imprisonment for juvenile defendants). Though both lines of authority sound in individual rights, in fact they are fundamentally about the structures of criminal justice. These two seemingly disparate lines of doctrine respond to structural imbalances in non-capital sentencing by promoting morally appropriate punishment judgments that are based on ...


Prescription Drug Use Among Detainees: Prevalence, Sources And Links To Crime, Catherine Mcgregor, Natalie Gately, Jennifer Fleming Nov 2013

Prescription Drug Use Among Detainees: Prevalence, Sources And Links To Crime, Catherine Mcgregor, Natalie Gately, Jennifer Fleming

Natalie Gately Dr

Concern regarding the diversion and non-medical use of prescription pharmaceuticals continues to grow as anecdotal evidence and other research points to a sizeable increase in the illegal market for such drugs. Estimating the prevalence of illegal use and understanding how pharmaceutical drugs come to be traded in the illegal drug market remain key research priorities for policymakers and practitioners in both the public health and law enforcement sectors. This report is the first of its kind in Australia to examine the self-reported use of illicit pharmaceuticals among a sample of police detainees surveyed as part of the Australian Institute of ...


Gridland: An Allegorical Critique Of Federal Sentencing, Erik Luna Nov 2013

Gridland: An Allegorical Critique Of Federal Sentencing, Erik Luna

Erik Luna

No abstract provided.


Constitutional Road Maps, Erik Luna Nov 2013

Constitutional Road Maps, Erik Luna

Erik Luna

No abstract provided.


Slavery In Europe: Part 1, Estimating The Dark Figure, Monti Narayan Datta, Kevin Bales Nov 2013

Slavery In Europe: Part 1, Estimating The Dark Figure, Monti Narayan Datta, Kevin Bales

Political Science Faculty Publications

The estimation of the “dark figure” for any crime (the number of actual instances of a specific crime committed minus the reported cases of that crime within a population) has primarily rested on the ability to conduct random sample crime surveys. Such surveys are based on the assumption that victims experience crimes that are discrete, time-bound, and of relatively short duration. The crime of enslavement, however, presents a special challenge to estimation because it is of indeterminate duration. This challenge is compounded by the fact that victims of slavery are also often isolated by the stigma linked to sexual assault ...


Rural Women’S Pathways To Crime: A Grounded Theory Study Of Rural Women And Their Experiences In Jails And Prisons, Angela Mesenburg Oct 2013

Rural Women’S Pathways To Crime: A Grounded Theory Study Of Rural Women And Their Experiences In Jails And Prisons, Angela Mesenburg

Dana Jones Hubbard

In discussing the lack of research on female offenders there is even less research on women incarcerated from rural areas. Our focus is to initiate a discussion that could eventually be a part of a design of programs to provide much needed assistance for the women in these rural areas.


Moving Ahead: Five Essential Elements For Working Effectively With Girls, Betsy Mattews, Dana Jones Hubbard Oct 2013

Moving Ahead: Five Essential Elements For Working Effectively With Girls, Betsy Mattews, Dana Jones Hubbard

Dana Jones Hubbard

Quite a bit of literature these days addresses what is believed to be an increase in the frequency and severity of girls' problem behaviors and the need for gender-responsive treatment. The extent to which this literature has been translated into juvenile justice practices, however, appears limited by several factors. This article briefly discusses these impediments, and offers suggestions for five essential elements that reflect the current state of knowledge regarding effective intervention with girls involved in the juvenile justice system.


Clearing Murders: Is It About Time?, Wendy C. Regoeczi, John P. Jarvis, Marc Riedel Oct 2013

Clearing Murders: Is It About Time?, Wendy C. Regoeczi, John P. Jarvis, Marc Riedel

Wendy C. Regoeczi

This study uses data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) to explore the impact of model selection on determining the association of victim-level and incident-level factors to the likelihood of homicide clearance. We compare both traditional operationalizations of clearance rates as well as the time to clearance as dependent variables in examinations of correlates of solvability in homicide cases. Using a different approach than most other analyses of this problem, the results affirm the consistency of some effects but also reveal some important differences when the aspect of time is factored into the model. Implications for analyses of efficiency ...


Murder Clearance Rates: Guest Editors' Introduction, John P. Jarvis, Wendy C. Regoeczi Oct 2013

Murder Clearance Rates: Guest Editors' Introduction, John P. Jarvis, Wendy C. Regoeczi

Wendy C. Regoeczi

The journal Homicide Studies has long been devoted to empirical studies addressing issues pertinent to the study of homicide and violence. Although a large variety of theoretical papers, research summaries, and public policy reviews of issues concerning homicide and violence have been explored in the journal over the past 10 years, at least one issue has garnered relatively little attention—the law enforcement response to homicide. This special issue attempts to begin filling this gap in the literature.


The Conjunctive Analysis Of Case Configurations: An Exploratory Method For Discrete Multivariate Analyses Of Crime Data, Terance D. Miethe, Timothy C. Hart, Wendy C. Regoeczi Oct 2013

The Conjunctive Analysis Of Case Configurations: An Exploratory Method For Discrete Multivariate Analyses Of Crime Data, Terance D. Miethe, Timothy C. Hart, Wendy C. Regoeczi

Wendy C. Regoeczi

Derived from comparative approaches in both qualitative and quantitative research, the current study describes a simple exploratory technique for the multivariate analysis of categorical data. This technique is referred to as the conjunctive analysis of case configurations. After describing the logic and underlying assumptions of this conjunctive method, it is applied and illustrated in the study of the federal sentencing of drug offenders. The relative value of this conjunctive approach for purposes of exploratory data analysis and its overall utility as a method for confirmatory research are also discussed.


Homicides Clearances An Analysis Of Arrest Versus Exceptional Outcomes, John P. Jarvis, Wendy C. Regoeczi Oct 2013

Homicides Clearances An Analysis Of Arrest Versus Exceptional Outcomes, John P. Jarvis, Wendy C. Regoeczi

Wendy C. Regoeczi

A number of studies in the homicide clearance literature combine arrest and exceptional clearances into a single category. This study addresses the question of whether these divergent homicide case outcomes are influenced differently by various aspects of the case. Using National Incident-Based Reporting System data on homicides from 1996 to 2002, the authors analyze logistic regression models of cases cleared by arrest and exceptionally cleared. Our results show that although certain factors have similar influences on both arrest and exceptional clearances, victim gender, offender race, weapon use, victim/offender relationship, and circumstances have differing impacts on case outcomes. The findings ...


Rape And Dimensions Of Gender Socioeconomic Inequality In U.S. Metropolitan Areas, Ruth Peterson, William C. Bailey Oct 2013

Rape And Dimensions Of Gender Socioeconomic Inequality In U.S. Metropolitan Areas, Ruth Peterson, William C. Bailey

William C. Bailey

There is a growing consensus that a major cause of the rape problem is the subordinate position of women in the social, political, and economic order. Despite this consensus, there have been few structural analyses of rape and inequality. Further, extant investigations suffer from a number of serious shortcomings such that, at present, there is not a sound basis for accepting, or rejecting, rape and inequality arguments. Correcting for many of the limitations of previous studies, this investigation extends our understanding of the role of gender socioeconomic inequality and other structural factors in the etiology of rape. The authors examine ...


Murder And Capital-Punishment In The Evolving Context Of The Post-Furman Era, Ruth D. Peterson, William C. Bailey Oct 2013

Murder And Capital-Punishment In The Evolving Context Of The Post-Furman Era, Ruth D. Peterson, William C. Bailey

William C. Bailey

In view of (1) escalating national attention, and political and judicial activity centering on capital punishment during the past decade and a half, and (2) concomitant changes in homicides this paper investigates the impact of the death penalty on state homicide rates for the post-Furman period, 1973 -84 The research also addresses the debate over the relative merits of the contiguous state matching strategy versus multiple regression as a means of controlling for the influence of possible confounding factors in examining the capital punishment/homicide relationship. The two approaches yield quite similar results. Consistent with a long line of deterrence ...


Deterrence And The Celerity Of The Death Penalty - A Neglected Question In Deterrence Research, William C. Bailey Oct 2013

Deterrence And The Celerity Of The Death Penalty - A Neglected Question In Deterrence Research, William C. Bailey

William C. Bailey

This paper examines the deterrent effect of the celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates. Although in recent years there have been a number of investigations of the certainty of execution and deterrence, the effect of celerity of execution has not been examined empirically. As a result, we can only speculate about the merit of the deterrence hypothesis for the celerity of executions, and how previous deterrence and death penalty investigations may be biased due to celerity being ignored. The deterrent effect of the certainty and celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates is examined cross-sectionally for states ...


Crime, Punishment And Personality: Examination Of Deterrence Question, William C. Bailey, Ruth P. Lott Oct 2013

Crime, Punishment And Personality: Examination Of Deterrence Question, William C. Bailey, Ruth P. Lott

William C. Bailey

While the presumed deterrent effect of punishment provides the cornerstone of the criminal justice system, it would be a mistake to assume that deterrence is well established in both theory and research. Recognizing the limitations of deterrence investigations, this study examines the relationship between a person's perceptions of punishment and their actual criminal involvement. Most deterrence investigations have focused primarily upon homicide and the death penalty. Although these investigations suggest that the threat of sanctions may have an important deterrent effect, careful examination shows them to suffer from serious theoretical and methodological limitations. Through this study, it was found ...


Review Of Executions In America, William C. Bailey Oct 2013

Review Of Executions In America, William C. Bailey

William C. Bailey

Reviews the book "Executions in America," by William J. Bowers.


Certainty Of Arrest And Crime Rates For Major Felonies: Research Note, William C. Bailey Oct 2013

Certainty Of Arrest And Crime Rates For Major Felonies: Research Note, William C. Bailey

William C. Bailey

A recent investigation by Tittle and Rowe (1974) examining the deterrent effect of the certainty of arrest on felony rates in Florida is briefly summarized and critiqued. Examination shows their analysis to suffer from serious theoretical and methodological limitations. To extend their investigation and thus better understand the deterrent effect of arrest we examine the relationship between arrest rates and offense rates for cities and counties of Florida for seven major felonies. Analysis lends general support to the deterrence argument, but shows that the effect of arrest is not uniform for each offense, with different levels of arrest (certainty of ...


Murder And Death Penalty, William C. Bailey Oct 2013

Murder And Death Penalty, William C. Bailey

William C. Bailey

The article examines the relationship between homicide and capital punishment. Studies by several researches have convinced most students of homicide that the ineffectiveness of the death penalty as a deterrent to murder has been demonstrated conclusively. Not all remain convinced, however, of the conclusiveness of the evidence. Comparative examinations of homicide rates before and after abolition, and in some cases, the restoration of the death penalty, have also questioned the efficacy of capital punishment. In sum, the evidence reported here falls within the pattern of previous death penalty investigations which span five decades.


Crime And Deterrence: Correlation Analysis, William C. Bailey, J. David Martin, Louis N. Gray Oct 2013

Crime And Deterrence: Correlation Analysis, William C. Bailey, J. David Martin, Louis N. Gray

William C. Bailey

A correlation analysis of the severity and certainty of punish ment and offense rates for the major index crimes produces results consistent with the predictions of deterrence theory. Certainty of punishment proves to be the chief deterrent for most crimes. Homicide, however, is influenced by severity, pos sibly reflecting the differences between homicide and other of fenses. Little evidence of interaction is found between certainty and severity in effects on crime rate. A powerfunction proves to better describe the relationship between the punishment varia bles and crime rates than a rectilinear equation-a conclusion which, even apart from the date, appears ...


Disaggregation In Deterrence And Death Penalty Research: The Case Of Murder In Chicago, William C. Bailey Oct 2013

Disaggregation In Deterrence And Death Penalty Research: The Case Of Murder In Chicago, William C. Bailey

William C. Bailey

This article examines the deterrent effect of executions on first-degree murders in Chicago, Illinois for the period 1915-1921. Chicago provides an ideal research setting since there is close geographic proximity between the place where first-degree murders are committed and the place where the convicted murderers are executed. The population density factor included in the model is very highly correlated with the nonwhite population, male population fifteen to thirty-four years of age, and the foreign born population variables. In examining monthly first-degree murders and total criminal homicides, two execution measures are utilized: the actual number of monthly executions, and a dummy ...


Killings Of Police In U.S. Cities Since 1980: An Examination Of Environmental And Political Explanations, Stephanie L. Kent Oct 2013

Killings Of Police In U.S. Cities Since 1980: An Examination Of Environmental And Political Explanations, Stephanie L. Kent

Stephanie Kent

Most research on killings of police in urban areas attempted to link lethal violence against officers to the violence and disorder in the communities they work.Yet support for this relationship is inconsistent. Fewer studies considered whether local political arrangements affect killings of police. This study attempts to remedy this gap by using recent data to investigate the relationship between the political conditions of large U.S. cities and the number of homicides of police officers in the line of duty in the years 1980, 1990, and 2000. Negative binomial regression analyses suggest that racial income inequality and the size ...


Use Of Death Penalty V. Outrage At Murder: Some Additional Evidence And Considerations, William C. Bailey Oct 2013

Use Of Death Penalty V. Outrage At Murder: Some Additional Evidence And Considerations, William C. Bailey

William C. Bailey

In this paper we summarize and analyze Glaser and Zeigler's attempt to empirically examine three explanations of why murder rates have generally been highest in states where capital punishment has been used the most. Examination shows their analysis to suffer from serious methodological shortcomings. Neither their data nor additional evidence presented here lends much support to their conclusion that (1) both frequent use of the death penalty and high murder rates are consequences of a low valuation of life and (2) homicide rates can be reduced by abolition of the death penalty.


Less-Than-Lethal Weapons And Police-Citizen Killings In U.S. Urban Areas, William C. Bailey Oct 2013

Less-Than-Lethal Weapons And Police-Citizen Killings In U.S. Urban Areas, William C. Bailey

William C. Bailey

There appears to be general consensus in law enforcement circles that less-than-lethal weapons are effective in reducing police-citizen killings, but this “common wisdom” has not been subject to systematic empirical analysis. Considering a large sample of U.S. cities for 1990, this article examines the association between the availability to the police of various types of less-than-lethal weapons and general and race-specific justifiable homicide rates. The analysis produces no evidence that police killing rates are affected by the availability of less-than-lethal weapons.


Judicial Integrity: A Call For Its Re-Emergence In The Adjudication Of Criminal Cases, Robert M. Bloom Oct 2013

Judicial Integrity: A Call For Its Re-Emergence In The Adjudication Of Criminal Cases, Robert M. Bloom

Robert Bloom

No abstract provided.