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Criminology Commons

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2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 169

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

The Community Context Of Animal And Human Maltreatment: Is There A Relationship Between Animal Maltreatment And Human Maltreatment: Does Neighborhood Context Matter?, Jodi Levinthal Dec 2010

The Community Context Of Animal And Human Maltreatment: Is There A Relationship Between Animal Maltreatment And Human Maltreatment: Does Neighborhood Context Matter?, Jodi Levinthal

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The purpose of the study is to explore the influence of demographic and neighborhood factors on the phenomenon of animal maltreatment in an urban setting as well as the association of animal maltreatment with human maltreatment. Using a unique dataset of animal maltreatment from the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the distribution and prevalence of animal neglect, abuse, and dog fighting in Philadelphia were mapped with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Statistical analysis was employed to examine the relationship between animal maltreatment and neighborhood factors, domestic violence, and child maltreatment. The low correlation between animal abuse and ...


The Disutility Of Injustice, Paul H. Robinson, Geoffrey P. Goodwin, Michael Reisig Dec 2010

The Disutility Of Injustice, Paul H. Robinson, Geoffrey P. Goodwin, Michael Reisig

Faculty Scholarship

For more than half a century, the retributivists and the crime-control instrumentalists have seen themselves as being in an irresolvable conflict. Social science increasingly suggests, however, that this need not be so. Doing justice may be the most effective means of controlling crime. Perhaps partially in recognition of these developments, the American Law Institute's recent amendment to the Model Penal Code's "purposes" provision – the only amendment to the Model Code in the 47 years since its promulgation – adopts desert as the primary distributive principle for criminal liability and punishment. That shift to desert has prompted concerns by two ...


Criminal Offending Among Respondents To Protective Orders: Crime Types And Patterns That Predict Victim Risk, Carol E. Jordan, Adam J. Pritchard, Danielle Duckett, Richard Charnigo Dec 2010

Criminal Offending Among Respondents To Protective Orders: Crime Types And Patterns That Predict Victim Risk, Carol E. Jordan, Adam J. Pritchard, Danielle Duckett, Richard Charnigo

Office for Policy Studies on Violence Against Women Publications

Research has shown that respondents to protective orders have robust criminal histories and that criminal offending behavior often follows issuance of a protective order. Nonetheless, the specific nature of the association between protective orders and criminal offending remains unclear. This study uses two classes of statistical models to more clearly delineate that relationship. The models reveal factors and characteristics that appear to be associated with offending and protective order issuance and provide indications about when a victim is most at risk and when the justice system should be most ready to provide immediate protection.


Geographic Factors Of Residential Burglaries - A Case Study In Nashville, Tennessee, Jonathan A. Hall Nov 2010

Geographic Factors Of Residential Burglaries - A Case Study In Nashville, Tennessee, Jonathan A. Hall

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examines geographic patterns and geographic factors of residential burglary at the Nashville, TN area for a twenty year period at five year interval starting in 1988. The purpose of this study is to identify what geographic factors have impacted on residential burglary rates, and if there were changes in the geographic patterns of residential burglary over the study period. Several criminological theories guide this study, with the most prominent being Social Disorganization Theory and Routine Activities Theory. Both of these theories focus on the relationships of place and crime. A number of spatial analysis methods are hence adopted ...


Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, Rodger E. Broome Oct 2010

Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, Rodger E. Broome

Rodger E. Broome

A non-reductive approach to inquiry of the emergency responders' life-worlds.


Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, Rodger E. Broome Oct 2010

Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, Rodger E. Broome

Rodger E. Broome

A non-reductive approach to inquiry of the emergency responders' life-worlds.


Realism, Punishment & Reform [A Reply To Braman, Kahan, And Hoffman, "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism”], Paul H. Robinson, Owen D. Jones, Robert O. Kurzban Oct 2010

Realism, Punishment & Reform [A Reply To Braman, Kahan, And Hoffman, "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism”], Paul H. Robinson, Owen D. Jones, Robert O. Kurzban

Faculty Scholarship

Professors Donald Braman, Dan Kahan, and David Hoffman, in their article "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism," to be published in an upcoming issue of the University of Chicago Law Review, critique a series of our articles: Concordance and Conflict in Intuitions of Justice (http://ssrn.com/abstract=932067), The Origins of Shared Intuitions of Justice (http://.ssrn.com/abstract=952726), and Intuitions of Justice: Implications for Criminal Law and Justice Policy (http://.ssrn.com/abstract=976026). Our reply, here, follows their article in that coming issue. As we demonstrate, they have misunderstood our views on, and thus the implications of ...


Cj Times Volume 4, Issue 1, Department Of Criminal Justice Oct 2010

Cj Times Volume 4, Issue 1, Department Of Criminal Justice

CJ Times (Newsletter)

No abstract provided.


The Use Of Off-Trade Glass As A Weapon In Violent Assaults By Young Offenders, Alasdair Forsyth, Furzana Khan, William Mckinlay Sep 2010

The Use Of Off-Trade Glass As A Weapon In Violent Assaults By Young Offenders, Alasdair Forsyth, Furzana Khan, William Mckinlay

Dr Alasdair Forsyth

This article aims to highlight the neglected issue of ‘glassing’ injury risk from off-trade alcohol bottles. The study participants included a survey of male Young Offenders (n=172) recruited during their induction into Scotland's only Young Offenders Institution in 2007 and an interview sample (n=30) recruited in the same way during 2008. A self-complete questionnaire enquired about respondent's drinking and offending. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to qualitatively investigate issues raised by the 2007 survey. The survey comprised more than a quarter of Scotland's male Young Offenders. Over 80 per cent had been drinking before their current ...


Polishing The "Boots," Part 2, Rodger E. Broome Sep 2010

Polishing The "Boots," Part 2, Rodger E. Broome

Rodger E. Broome

Autocracy, Bureaucracy, and Complacency, the A-B-Cs of bad management.


Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, David S. Abrams, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan Sep 2010

Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, David S. Abrams, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan

Faculty Scholarship

Are minorities treated differently by the legal system? Systematic racial differences in case characteristics, many unobservable, make this a difficult question to answer directly. In this paper, we estimate whether judges differ from each other in how they sentence minorities, avoiding potential bias from unobservable case characteristics by exploiting the random assignment of cases to judges. We measure the between-judge variation in the difference in incarceration rates and sentence lengths between African-American and White defendants. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation in order to explicitly construct the appropriate counterfactual, where race does not influence judicial sentencing. In our data set ...


Abnormal Mental State Mitigations Of Murder – The U.S. Perspective, Paul H. Robinson Sep 2010

Abnormal Mental State Mitigations Of Murder – The U.S. Perspective, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

This paper examines the U.S. doctrines that allow an offender's abnormal mental state to reduce murder to manslaughter. First, the modern doctrine of "extreme emotional disturbance," as in Model Penal Code Section 210.3(1)(b), mitigates to manslaughter what otherwise would be murder when the killing "is committed under the influence of extreme mental or emotional disturbance for which there is reasonable explanation or excuse." While most American jurisdictions are based upon the Mode Code, this is an area in which many states chose to retain their more narrow common law "provocation" mitigation. Second, the modern doctrine ...


Where To From Here?, Wayne Petherick Sep 2010

Where To From Here?, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract:

The history of profiling is easy to trace - after all, it has already been recorded and is available for review (see Chapter 1; Petherick, 2003; Turvey, 2008). The future of profiling is another story entirely. Given the nature of the craft and the advances made in recent years, it stands to reason that only further improvements will be made. At least, this should be our hope.

An increase in use in the real world is matched by an increase in the number of scholarly works dedicated to the field. Most provide a general overview of profiling (Ainsworth, 2001; Jackson ...


Serial Stalking: Looking For Love In All The Wrong Places, Wayne Petherick Sep 2010

Serial Stalking: Looking For Love In All The Wrong Places, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract:With the recent drafting of stalking legislation in most Western jurisdictions, our exposure to this crime is still relatively new. Although our contact with stalkers and their behavior is new in many ways, according to Sheridan, Blauuw, and Davies (2003, p. 148), "It may no longer be the case that stalking research is in its infancy and that we are feeling our way in the dark." With our general knowledge increasing exponentially, so too does our understanding of different types of stalking and stalkers.


Criminal Profiling Methods, Wayne Petherick Sep 2010

Criminal Profiling Methods, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract:As an investigative aid, criminal profiling has received a great deal of attention from academic audiences and popular culture (Petherick, 2003), and significant advances have been made in both practical and theoretical terms. Even though our collective knowledge about this area has grown, there is still much about the process that remains a mystery. For example, there is little acknowledgment or understanding of the logic or reasoning employed within the profiling process (see Chapter 2), or that there are indeed different methods employed within the profiling community. Of more concern is the fact that many practitioners continue to confuse ...


Criminal Profiling As Expert Evidence, Wayne Petherick, David Field, Andrew Lowe, Elizabeth Fry Sep 2010

Criminal Profiling As Expert Evidence, Wayne Petherick, David Field, Andrew Lowe, Elizabeth Fry

Wayne Petherick

Extract:
Profiling evidence has been accepted in courts in the United States in both trial and sentencing phases, but other jurisdictions have been more cautious in their acceptance. For example, courts in the United Kingdom and Australia have been reluctant to introduce profilers as experts, even though profiling has been given some exposure in courts operating at the lower end of the justice system. The reasons for this reluctance are varied but include a lack of uniformity processes and outcomes, fragmentation of methods, and conflict between profiling organizations and practitioners. In short, there are many methods of profiling, and not ...


Criminal Profilers And The Media: Profiling The Beltway Snipers, Brent Turvey, Michael Mcgrath Sep 2010

Criminal Profilers And The Media: Profiling The Beltway Snipers, Brent Turvey, Michael Mcgrath

Brent E. Turvey

Extract:Criminal profilers are regularly enlisted as the pundit of choice by media agencies reporting on developments related to unsolved crimes in the public eye. In fact, a review of the Criminal Profiling Archives (located at http://www.corpus-delicti.com/prof_archives_media.html) shows that rarely has a sensational crime occurred in the past 5 years where a criminal profiler has not been solicited for public comment. Given the profit-oriented nature of the media, it is not difficult to surmise that their demand for criminal profilers must be a function of audience share. In other words, the media knows that the ...


Routine Activities As Determinants Of Gender Differences In Delinquency, Katherine B. Novak, Lizabeth A. Crawford Sep 2010

Routine Activities As Determinants Of Gender Differences In Delinquency, Katherine B. Novak, Lizabeth A. Crawford

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

This study examined the extent to which gender differences in delinquency can be explained by gender differences in participation in, or response to, various routine activity patterns (RAPs) using data from the second and third waves of the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988. While differential participation in routine activities by gender failed to explain males’ high levels of deviance relative to females, two early RAPs moderated the effect of gender on subsequent deviant behavior. Participation in religious and community activities during the sophomore year in high school decreased, while unstructured and unsupervised peer interaction increased, levels of delinquency two ...


Dereliction Of Duty: Training Schools For Delinquent Parents In The 1940s, Sarah K. S. Shannon Sep 2010

Dereliction Of Duty: Training Schools For Delinquent Parents In The 1940s, Sarah K. S. Shannon

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Parental culpability for juvenile delinquency has permeated social welfare thought and practice throughout U.S. history. This article presents a case study of one Midwestern municipality's efforts to create a training school for parents as a remedy for delinquency in the 1940s. The case study illustrates how city leaders attempted to put theory about delinquency causation into practice by forging a collaborative intervention strategy among various community partners including public schools, social welfare agencies, and law enforcement. In light of the case study, this article examines historical and contemporary efforts to punish parents of juvenile delinquents.


The Fallacy Of Accuracy In Criminal Profiling, Wayne Petherick Aug 2010

The Fallacy Of Accuracy In Criminal Profiling, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract:
The defining criterion by which the utility of a particular tool is often judged is its accuracy or sensitivity of detection. We place little faith in that which is inaccurate or in those things that do not detect what they are meant to detect. Things are no different in the profiling community, and the most common measure by which a profiler claims utility is how close his or her approximations are to an offender, if one is caught. As will be shown in this chapter, with the craft being the way it is, this is probably the worst possible ...


Serial Rape: An Investigative Approach, Terry Goldsworthy Aug 2010

Serial Rape: An Investigative Approach, Terry Goldsworthy

Terry Goldsworthy

No abstract provided.


Victimity: Entering The Criminal Justice System, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

Victimity: Entering The Criminal Justice System, Brent Turvey

Brent E. Turvey

Extract:
Mendelsohn (1963) describes victimity as being the opposite of criminality. Criminality refers to the state, quality, or fact of being criminal. Therefore, victimity refers to the state, quality or fact of being a victim. The purpose of this chapter is to describe what this means in an applied sense - what victimity involves as victims enter the criminal justice system and a record of evidence is created.


Victimology At Trial, Claire Ferguson, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

Victimology At Trial, Claire Ferguson, Brent Turvey

Brent E. Turvey

Extract: Victimology - that is, information about the victim, his or her background, actions, and injuries - is a regular feature of civil and criminal trials. In cases involving victim death, evidence about the victim may be presented by fact witnesses, such as family members and investigators, or by expert witnesses, such as medical examiners, mental health experts, and other qualified professionals. In cases that involve a living victim, the victim may testify to these things in person along with corroboration from family members or medical and mental health professionals. It is fair to say that in a criminal matter, without evidence ...


School Shootings, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

School Shootings, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey

Brent E. Turvey

Extract:
As with any attack that occurs at an educational facility - to include grade schools, colleges, and universities - school shootings are a particular form of workplace violence. The relationships are fairly straightforward in this regard. Instructors, administrators, and support staff are employed and work on site, and students are the "clients". Violent attacks may occur between or within any of these groups or their relationships.


The False Allegation: A Construct Of Deviance, Brent Turvey, Michael Mcgrath, Claire Ferguson Aug 2010

The False Allegation: A Construct Of Deviance, Brent Turvey, Michael Mcgrath, Claire Ferguson

Brent E. Turvey

Extract:
Everyone has told a lie at some point in their life, whether it be to protect themselves or to protect others. We often tell the so called "white lie" so as not to hurt the feelings of others, and we might lie to ourselves about some aspect of our life such as weight gain or personal happiness. But lying is not in itself a crime when done in the context of interpersonal relationships, though depending on the nature and extent of the lie they could most certainly be viewed as a deviant behaviour. However, there are times when lying ...


Homicidal Deviance, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

Homicidal Deviance, Brent Turvey

Brent E. Turvey

Extract: The scrutiny afforded homicidal phenomenon of every description is all but immeasurable, whether in the mass media or the professional literature. Investigators prioritize it; the news leads with it; and we are all attentive when the subject arises. Yet, for all this consideration, we regularly struggle to understand and misperceive the nature and origin of homicide. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce students to the concepts of homicide and murder, along with their major deviant and non-deviant incarnations. It will provide a foundation from which any further study or examination of homicidal behaviour will be informed. This ...


Sex Offending, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

Sex Offending, Brent Turvey

Brent E. Turvey

Extract:
The term sex crime generally refers to any confluence of criminal and sexual acts. In some cases, sexual activity is inherently criminal, such as that involving a lack of consent. In other cases, sexual activity occurs between "consenting" parties but still involves a crime, as with prostitution in certain jurisdictions. As explained in Torres and van der Walt (2009, p. 450), "the law not only defines who can be a "victim" of sexual assault, but also which specific behaviours can be criminalized, even between consenting adults." Consider the description provided in Griffin and West (2006, pp. 143-144):

"Sex crime ...


False Allegations Of Crime, Brent Turvey, Michael Mcgrath Aug 2010

False Allegations Of Crime, Brent Turvey, Michael Mcgrath

Brent E. Turvey

Extract:
Having gathered data on the subject of false allegations of crime for more than a decade, we have observed that false allegations are not only commonplace but also a significant drain on law enforcement resources. Ignorance on the subject abounds, as does political motivation. Consequently, it remains a tremendous problem that few have sought to define, let alone solve.


Intimate Violence, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

Intimate Violence, Brent Turvey

Brent E. Turvey

Extract: Domestic violence is a general term that may be used to describe physical aggression between family members, or intimates. Accordingly, intimate violence is a particular type of domestic violence that occurs when a current or former intimate relationship partner becomes physically violent towards the other. It does not necessarily involve people that live together, but those involved must be or have been involved in a deep personal relationship of some kind. Often it is a sexual or romantic relationship, though it can involve nonsexual relationships. In cases of intimate violence, barring mental disorder or defect, the motivation is almost ...


Victim Situational Exposure, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

Victim Situational Exposure, Brent Turvey

Brent E. Turvey

Extract:
Before the turn of the century, I was a frequent visitor to the office of Dr. Stephen Pittel in Berkeley, California. Dr. Pittel still a friend and trusted colleague, is also a forensic psychologist who specializes in cases that involve interpreting the effects of drugs and alcohol. During one of my visits I noticed, tapes to the wall above his desk, a photocopied piece of paper ... Clearly intended as a form of dark humor, this list is also a didactic expression of precisely how one's immediate circumstances can influence direct exposure to harm. Being at the wrong end ...