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Criminology Commons

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2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 144

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

The Community Context Of Animal And Human Maltreatment: Is There A Relationship Between Animal Maltreatment And Human Maltreatment: Does Neighborhood Context Matter?, Jodi Levinthal Dec 2010

The Community Context Of Animal And Human Maltreatment: Is There A Relationship Between Animal Maltreatment And Human Maltreatment: Does Neighborhood Context Matter?, Jodi Levinthal

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The purpose of the study is to explore the influence of demographic and neighborhood factors on the phenomenon of animal maltreatment in an urban setting as well as the association of animal maltreatment with human maltreatment. Using a unique dataset of animal maltreatment from the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the distribution and prevalence of animal neglect, abuse, and dog fighting in Philadelphia were mapped with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Statistical analysis was employed to examine the relationship between animal maltreatment and neighborhood factors, domestic violence, and child maltreatment. The low correlation between animal abuse and ...


The Disutility Of Injustice, Paul H. Robinson, Geoffrey P. Goodwin, Michael Reisig Dec 2010

The Disutility Of Injustice, Paul H. Robinson, Geoffrey P. Goodwin, Michael Reisig

Faculty Scholarship

For more than half a century, the retributivists and the crime-control instrumentalists have seen themselves as being in an irresolvable conflict. Social science increasingly suggests, however, that this need not be so. Doing justice may be the most effective means of controlling crime. Perhaps partially in recognition of these developments, the American Law Institute's recent amendment to the Model Penal Code's "purposes" provision – the only amendment to the Model Code in the 47 years since its promulgation – adopts desert as the primary distributive principle for criminal liability and punishment. That shift to desert has prompted concerns by two ...


Criminal Offending Among Respondents To Protective Orders: Crime Types And Patterns That Predict Victim Risk, Carol E. Jordan, Adam J. Pritchard, Danielle Duckett, Richard Charnigo Dec 2010

Criminal Offending Among Respondents To Protective Orders: Crime Types And Patterns That Predict Victim Risk, Carol E. Jordan, Adam J. Pritchard, Danielle Duckett, Richard Charnigo

Office for Policy Studies on Violence Against Women Publications

Research has shown that respondents to protective orders have robust criminal histories and that criminal offending behavior often follows issuance of a protective order. Nonetheless, the specific nature of the association between protective orders and criminal offending remains unclear. This study uses two classes of statistical models to more clearly delineate that relationship. The models reveal factors and characteristics that appear to be associated with offending and protective order issuance and provide indications about when a victim is most at risk and when the justice system should be most ready to provide immediate protection.


Geographic Factors Of Residential Burglaries - A Case Study In Nashville, Tennessee, Jonathan A. Hall Nov 2010

Geographic Factors Of Residential Burglaries - A Case Study In Nashville, Tennessee, Jonathan A. Hall

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examines geographic patterns and geographic factors of residential burglary at the Nashville, TN area for a twenty year period at five year interval starting in 1988. The purpose of this study is to identify what geographic factors have impacted on residential burglary rates, and if there were changes in the geographic patterns of residential burglary over the study period. Several criminological theories guide this study, with the most prominent being Social Disorganization Theory and Routine Activities Theory. Both of these theories focus on the relationships of place and crime. A number of spatial analysis methods are hence adopted ...


Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, Rodger E. Broome Oct 2010

Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, Rodger E. Broome

Rodger E. Broome

A non-reductive approach to inquiry of the emergency responders' life-worlds.


Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, Rodger E. Broome Oct 2010

Lived Experience As An Emergency Responder, Rodger E. Broome

Rodger E. Broome

A non-reductive approach to inquiry of the emergency responders' life-worlds.


Realism, Punishment & Reform [A Reply To Braman, Kahan, And Hoffman, "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism”], Paul H. Robinson, Owen D. Jones, Robert O. Kurzban Oct 2010

Realism, Punishment & Reform [A Reply To Braman, Kahan, And Hoffman, "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism”], Paul H. Robinson, Owen D. Jones, Robert O. Kurzban

Faculty Scholarship

Professors Donald Braman, Dan Kahan, and David Hoffman, in their article "Some Realism About Punishment Naturalism," to be published in an upcoming issue of the University of Chicago Law Review, critique a series of our articles: Concordance and Conflict in Intuitions of Justice (http://ssrn.com/abstract=932067), The Origins of Shared Intuitions of Justice (http://.ssrn.com/abstract=952726), and Intuitions of Justice: Implications for Criminal Law and Justice Policy (http://.ssrn.com/abstract=976026). Our reply, here, follows their article in that coming issue. As we demonstrate, they have misunderstood our views on, and thus the implications of ...


Cj Times Volume 4, Issue 1, Department Of Criminal Justice Oct 2010

Cj Times Volume 4, Issue 1, Department Of Criminal Justice

CJ Times (Newsletter)

No abstract provided.


Polishing The "Boots," Part 2, Rodger E. Broome Sep 2010

Polishing The "Boots," Part 2, Rodger E. Broome

Rodger E. Broome

Autocracy, Bureaucracy, and Complacency, the A-B-Cs of bad management.


Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, David S. Abrams, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan Sep 2010

Do Judges Vary In Their Treatment Of Race?, David S. Abrams, Marianne Bertrand, Sendhil Mullainathan

Faculty Scholarship

Are minorities treated differently by the legal system? Systematic racial differences in case characteristics, many unobservable, make this a difficult question to answer directly. In this paper, we estimate whether judges differ from each other in how they sentence minorities, avoiding potential bias from unobservable case characteristics by exploiting the random assignment of cases to judges. We measure the between-judge variation in the difference in incarceration rates and sentence lengths between African-American and White defendants. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation in order to explicitly construct the appropriate counterfactual, where race does not influence judicial sentencing. In our data set ...


Abnormal Mental State Mitigations Of Murder – The U.S. Perspective, Paul H. Robinson Sep 2010

Abnormal Mental State Mitigations Of Murder – The U.S. Perspective, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

This paper examines the U.S. doctrines that allow an offender's abnormal mental state to reduce murder to manslaughter. First, the modern doctrine of "extreme emotional disturbance," as in Model Penal Code Section 210.3(1)(b), mitigates to manslaughter what otherwise would be murder when the killing "is committed under the influence of extreme mental or emotional disturbance for which there is reasonable explanation or excuse." While most American jurisdictions are based upon the Mode Code, this is an area in which many states chose to retain their more narrow common law "provocation" mitigation. Second, the modern doctrine ...


Where To From Here?, Wayne Petherick Sep 2010

Where To From Here?, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract:

The history of profiling is easy to trace - after all, it has already been recorded and is available for review (see Chapter 1; Petherick, 2003; Turvey, 2008). The future of profiling is another story entirely. Given the nature of the craft and the advances made in recent years, it stands to reason that only further improvements will be made. At least, this should be our hope.

An increase in use in the real world is matched by an increase in the number of scholarly works dedicated to the field. Most provide a general overview of profiling (Ainsworth, 2001; Jackson ...


Criminal Profiling Methods, Wayne Petherick Sep 2010

Criminal Profiling Methods, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract:As an investigative aid, criminal profiling has received a great deal of attention from academic audiences and popular culture (Petherick, 2003), and significant advances have been made in both practical and theoretical terms. Even though our collective knowledge about this area has grown, there is still much about the process that remains a mystery. For example, there is little acknowledgment or understanding of the logic or reasoning employed within the profiling process (see Chapter 2), or that there are indeed different methods employed within the profiling community. Of more concern is the fact that many practitioners continue to confuse ...


Criminal Profiling As Expert Evidence, Wayne Petherick, David Field, Andrew Lowe, Elizabeth Fry Sep 2010

Criminal Profiling As Expert Evidence, Wayne Petherick, David Field, Andrew Lowe, Elizabeth Fry

Wayne Petherick

Extract:
Profiling evidence has been accepted in courts in the United States in both trial and sentencing phases, but other jurisdictions have been more cautious in their acceptance. For example, courts in the United Kingdom and Australia have been reluctant to introduce profilers as experts, even though profiling has been given some exposure in courts operating at the lower end of the justice system. The reasons for this reluctance are varied but include a lack of uniformity processes and outcomes, fragmentation of methods, and conflict between profiling organizations and practitioners. In short, there are many methods of profiling, and not ...


Routine Activities As Determinants Of Gender Differences In Delinquency, Katherine B. Novak, Lizabeth A. Crawford Sep 2010

Routine Activities As Determinants Of Gender Differences In Delinquency, Katherine B. Novak, Lizabeth A. Crawford

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

This study examined the extent to which gender differences in delinquency can be explained by gender differences in participation in, or response to, various routine activity patterns (RAPs) using data from the second and third waves of the National Education Longitudinal Survey of 1988. While differential participation in routine activities by gender failed to explain males’ high levels of deviance relative to females, two early RAPs moderated the effect of gender on subsequent deviant behavior. Participation in religious and community activities during the sophomore year in high school decreased, while unstructured and unsupervised peer interaction increased, levels of delinquency two ...


Dereliction Of Duty: Training Schools For Delinquent Parents In The 1940s, Sarah K. S. Shannon Sep 2010

Dereliction Of Duty: Training Schools For Delinquent Parents In The 1940s, Sarah K. S. Shannon

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Parental culpability for juvenile delinquency has permeated social welfare thought and practice throughout U.S. history. This article presents a case study of one Midwestern municipality's efforts to create a training school for parents as a remedy for delinquency in the 1940s. The case study illustrates how city leaders attempted to put theory about delinquency causation into practice by forging a collaborative intervention strategy among various community partners including public schools, social welfare agencies, and law enforcement. In light of the case study, this article examines historical and contemporary efforts to punish parents of juvenile delinquents.


The Fallacy Of Accuracy In Criminal Profiling, Wayne Petherick Aug 2010

The Fallacy Of Accuracy In Criminal Profiling, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract:
The defining criterion by which the utility of a particular tool is often judged is its accuracy or sensitivity of detection. We place little faith in that which is inaccurate or in those things that do not detect what they are meant to detect. Things are no different in the profiling community, and the most common measure by which a profiler claims utility is how close his or her approximations are to an offender, if one is caught. As will be shown in this chapter, with the craft being the way it is, this is probably the worst possible ...


A Snapshot Of Serial Arson In Australia, Rebekah Doley Aug 2010

A Snapshot Of Serial Arson In Australia, Rebekah Doley

Rebekah Doley

Studies into arson commonly have two underlying assumptions: 1) that arsonists are in some way different from non-arsonists; and, 2) that repeat arson offenders are quantifiably different from one- time arson offenders. In general these suppositions have remained implicit in the research, with few empirical investigations examining their veracity or otherwise against a sound theoretical model. The current project sought to establish how applicable these assumptions are in the Australian context. In the process a profile of Australian arsonists has been clarified and the concept that arsonists can be differentiated from each other and from other types of offender on ...


Metacognition In Criminal Profiling, Barry Woodhouse, Wayne Petherick Aug 2010

Metacognition In Criminal Profiling, Barry Woodhouse, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract:
As with many professions, one of the more serious problems that confronts the profiling community is that of the inept examiner. Deliberately unethical behavior is one thing, but ongoing incompetence because of profiler ignorance is something else entirely. In some instances, ignorance is the result of a metacognitive deficit caused by a lack of study, a lack of training, or a general lack of mental dexterity. In such instances, the profiler will continually do the wrong thing, such as using flawed methods and erroneous logic, because he lacks the ability to recognize his own ineptitude; the profiler cannot perceive ...


Victim Lifestyle Exposure, Joe Diaz, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

Victim Lifestyle Exposure, Joe Diaz, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey

Wayne Petherick

Extract: It has been said that for every crime there is at least one victim. However, victimity may not be assumed or otherwise presupposed. First, the existence of crime must be established; if there is no crime, there can be no victim. Then it is necessary to establish which participant is the victim. This cannot be assumed either as explained by von Hentig (cited in Wolfgang 1959, 245): Here are two human beings. As soon as they draw near to one another, male or female, young or old, rich or poor, ugly or attractive - a wide range of interactions, repulsions ...


School Shootings, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

School Shootings, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey

Wayne Petherick

Extract:
As with any attack that occurs at an educational facility - to include grade schools, colleges, and universities - school shootings are a particular form of workplace violence. The relationships are fairly straightforward in this regard. Instructors, administrators, and support staff are employed and work on site, and students are the "clients". Violent attacks may occur between or within any of these groups or their relationships.


Workplace Violence, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

Workplace Violence, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey

Wayne Petherick

Extract: Workplace violence is defined by one authority as "violence or the threat of violence against others" (OSHA 2002, 1). Because of sensational coverage by the popular media, the public perception of the frequency of different incarnations of workplace-related violence, such as homicide, is likely to be greatly distorted. Watching the evening news, it is not difficult to understand why. In our present culture, where sexuality, violence, and fear are valuable retail commodities, the workplace is routinely characterized with one or more of these when given airtime or column space. Stories without such marketable traits are seldom featured.


An Introduction To Crime And Deviance, Wayne Petherick, Claire Ferguson Aug 2010

An Introduction To Crime And Deviance, Wayne Petherick, Claire Ferguson

Wayne Petherick

Extract: Criminological knowledge as it relates to concepts of deviance have been stagnating. Historically, new texts contain very little new knowledge. They have tended towards the recycled rather than the original. Old theories are posited over and over again, with little consideration or regard to whether they even apply in the current universe of criminal behavior. New editions rarely contain little more than new case studies as if this somehow keeps them contemporary. At best, many works offer a different spin on old approaches or theories. It is for these reasons that we have endeavoured to make this book a ...


Behavioral Consistency, The Homology Assumption And The Problems Of Induction, Wayne Petherick, Claire Ferguson Aug 2010

Behavioral Consistency, The Homology Assumption And The Problems Of Induction, Wayne Petherick, Claire Ferguson

Wayne Petherick

Extract: The ultimate goal of profiling is to identify the major behavioral and personality characteristics to narrow the suspect pool. Inferences about offender characteristics can be accomplished deductively, based on the analysis of discrete offender behaviors established within a particular case. They can also be accomplished inductively, involving prediction based on abstract offender averages from group data (these methods were detailed extensively in Chapter 2; see also Petherick & Turvey, 2008a). As discussed, these two approaches are by no means equal.


Alcohol, Drugs And Crime, Wayne Petherick, Nila Myers Aug 2010

Alcohol, Drugs And Crime, Wayne Petherick, Nila Myers

Wayne Petherick

Extract:
There are a great many factors that contribute to criminality. These include, but are not limited to poverty, mental disorder, personality disorder, sub-cultures (such as gangs), personality differences, and socialization. One of the more prevalent though would be the use of alcohol and other drugs. This applies to both the offender and the victim. That is, many offenders are under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol at the time of their offense, and so are victims. In fact, victim use of drugs parallels that of offenders in many offense types.


Cults, Wayne Petherick Aug 2010

Cults, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract: Cults are a universal phenomenon, and can likely be found in some form in every country around the world. Haworth (1997) suggests that there are 500 cult groups operating in the UK and other parts of Europe, meaning that on a per capita basis, the problem is the same as in the USA. Langone (undated) suggests that cult educational organizations have compiled lists of more than 2,000 groups with perhaps 1,000 of these groups actually meeting the criteria of cults, Furthermore, as an indication of their global nature, he suggests that grassroots cult educational organizations exist in ...


Stranger Violence, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey Aug 2010

Stranger Violence, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey

Wayne Petherick

Extract: A stranger is someone who is unknown or foreign. Stranger violence occurs when an offender attacks a victim whom he or she does not know; someone who is not part of the family, not a friend or coworker, and not an acquaintance of any kind. Though generally less common than violence suffered at the hands of friends, family, and acquaintances, stranger violence enjoys a great deal more of our attention.


Victims Of Stalking, Wayne Petherick Aug 2010

Victims Of Stalking, Wayne Petherick

Wayne Petherick

Extract: Stalking involves a repeated pattern of intrusion and harassment by (most typically) one person against another. It has serious physical and psychological implications for victims and presents problems to investigators, because it involves dynamics and behavior that are poorly understood (Petherick 2008). This includes, but is by no means limited to, motivations, effects on the victim, appropriate responses, and outcomes from intervention. The actual methods employed by stalkers are similarly many and varied, ranging from covert surveillance, letter writing, telephony, and in extreme forms, assault, sexual assault, and homicide.


School Shootings And Guns, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey, Jared Kreeger Aug 2010

School Shootings And Guns, Wayne Petherick, Brent Turvey, Jared Kreeger

Wayne Petherick

Extract: School shootings are a global phenomenon, as they occur in almost every country around the world. However, the United States ranks number one in terms of the total number of school shooters and total number of victims in a single incident. Despite the media attention such incidents receive, they are uncommon and as such are deviant both statistically and ideologically as an extreme form of anti-social (and homicidal) behavior.


'Shhh ... We Can't Tell You': An Update On The Naming Prohibition Of Young Offenders, Duncan Chappell, Robyn Lincoln Aug 2010

'Shhh ... We Can't Tell You': An Update On The Naming Prohibition Of Young Offenders, Duncan Chappell, Robyn Lincoln

Robyn Lincoln

Prohibitions on the naming of young offenders in criminal proceedings remain a controversial issue both in Australia and abroad. Despite international obligations, like those contained in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, to protect the privacy of young people in conflict with the law jurisdictions like the Northern Territory (NT) continue to flout such provisions by placing few restrictions on media reporting of criminal cases involving juveniles. Amidst political clamours for ever more punitive measures to deal with youth crime other jurisdictions now seem bent upon following the NT's approach. A notable and largely unnoticed exception ...