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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

The Role Of Organizational Justice In Police Interaction Decisions With Citizens Post-Ferguson, Joshua Lee Adams Jan 2018

The Role Of Organizational Justice In Police Interaction Decisions With Citizens Post-Ferguson, Joshua Lee Adams

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Recent negatively publicized police-citizen interactions in the media, followed by a subsequent rise in crime rates in the United States, has been named the Ferguson Effect. The Ferguson Effect has been explored by prominent scholars in the criminal justice community; however, little is known about how police officers in small police agencies perceive the Ferguson Effect. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of police officers regarding the Ferguson Effect in small police agencies, as well as police officers' perceptions of their own organizational justice. The theoretical framework for this study was ...


Incarceration Of Nonviolent Offenders At The High Court In Oyo State, Nigeria, Olugbenga Rotimi Akanji Jan 2018

Incarceration Of Nonviolent Offenders At The High Court In Oyo State, Nigeria, Olugbenga Rotimi Akanji

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The nonuse of community correction in the Nigeria criminal justice system has led to increased recidivism, contributed to prison congestion, introduced the risk of prison victimization, and lacked the provision of a rehabilitative structure for nonviolent offenders. The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to explore Nigerian judges' use of alternatives to incarcerations for nonviolent offenders. Dolinko retributive punishment theory provided the theoretical framework for this study. Ten participant judges comprised the study sample from a purposeful and criterion random sampling method. Data were collected from participants through structured interviews and were coded manually, sorted, and analyzed using the ...


Government And Nongovernmental Collaboration To Build Community Resiliency Against Terrorism In Oklahoma City, Kimberly K. Heltz Jan 2018

Government And Nongovernmental Collaboration To Build Community Resiliency Against Terrorism In Oklahoma City, Kimberly K. Heltz

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The way communities build resiliency and prepare for acts of terrorism is ambiguous in the United States; best practices remain unclear. Due to mobility and advancements in communication technologies, individuals and organizations share information, incite anger, recruit, and act on ideological grievances with ease. Such grievances are bolstered by the political and social exclusion of disparate groups through poorly designed policies and ineffective government structures. Using a combination of social constructivism and systems thinking theories, this case study explored collaboration efforts between government agencies and nongovernment experts in Oklahoma City, OK, identifying best practices as a result of lessons learned ...


Trauma And Juvenile Justice In Carson City, Nevada, Ali M Jan 2018

Trauma And Juvenile Justice In Carson City, Nevada, Ali M

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The Nevada State Juvenile Justice and School systems do not currently screen or treat juveniles for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Left untreated, PTSD may contribute to behaviors that can lead to engagement with the juvenile justice system and contribute to high rates of recidivism and possible future engagement with the adult justice system. Using Erickson's theory of psychological development as the foundation, the purpose of this case study was to explore whether, from the perspectives of key stakeholders whether interventions and prevention services for juvenile justice clients in Carson City met the needs of youthful offenders also diagnosed with ...


Stress And Coping Abilities Of Swat Personnel In A Metropolitan Area Of Florida, Pedro Corpas Jan 2018

Stress And Coping Abilities Of Swat Personnel In A Metropolitan Area Of Florida, Pedro Corpas

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

For decades, stress has been scientifically studied and found to have effects on the law enforcement community. Furthermore, scholars have thoroughly studied the correlation between stress and the law enforcement occupation which has been proven to affect their well-being. Although there is currently ample literature on stress and police officers, to date there has been little research on factors associated with stress and SWAT police officers. Using Lazarus and Folkman's cognitive theory of stress and coping as the foundation, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how SWAT police officers cope with stress while on duty and ...


A Global Perception On Contemporary Slavery In The Middle East North Africa Region, Kimberly Anne Pavlik Jan 2018

A Global Perception On Contemporary Slavery In The Middle East North Africa Region, Kimberly Anne Pavlik

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although human trafficking continues to be a growing problem around the world, there are scarce quantitative methodologies for evidence-based research because it is hard to gather reliable and comparable data on human trafficking. It is also difficult to track patterns in human trafficking on a regional or global scale because the victims are a vulnerable population. Using Datta and Bales conceptualization of modern slavery as the theoretical foundation, the primary purpose of this study was to establish a baseline measurement of trafficking predictors in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) as well as understand the statistical relationship between measurements of ...


Perceptions Of Reasonable Use Of Force By Probation Officers And Civilians, Timothy Loranzy Sowards Jan 2018

Perceptions Of Reasonable Use Of Force By Probation Officers And Civilians, Timothy Loranzy Sowards

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is little academic research that examines whether there are differences between the ways probation officers and community members perceive the use of force on juvenile offenders. Failure to understand the differences in these perceptions negatively affected a probation department in California, which failed to address public concerns regarding the use of force in the juvenile hall, which resulted in a consent decree and a costly financial settlement. Using socialization theory as the foundation, the purpose of this study was to understand if there is a statistically significant difference between probation officers and civilians regarding their perceptions of use of ...


Police And Citizens' Perceptions Of Community Policing In Richmond, Virginia, Denita R. Square-Smith Jan 2017

Police And Citizens' Perceptions Of Community Policing In Richmond, Virginia, Denita R. Square-Smith

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Community policing is an initiative that requires public cooperation and participation to be successful. Little is known, however, about police and citizens' perceptions of community policing and its impact on Richmond, Virginia neighborhoods. Using policy feedback theory as a lens, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and gain a better understanding of RPD's and Richmond citizens' perceptions of community-oriented policing strategies in Richmond neighborhoods. Research questions focused on how officers and citizens perceive the impact of community policing strategies and the specific strategies they viewed as most successful in building public trust. Data were collected from ...


Effects Of The Walters Criminal Lifestyle Program On Offenders' Criminal Thinking Styles, Alessandre Singher Singher Jan 2017

Effects Of The Walters Criminal Lifestyle Program On Offenders' Criminal Thinking Styles, Alessandre Singher Singher

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Researchers have documented the high prevalence of crime in society and the need for programs to assist in the reduction of crime. Social cognitive and criminal lifestyle theories were the two major theoretical frameworks applied to this study due to their focus on the influence of cognitive change on behavioral modifications. A lifestyle approach in such programs reshapes criminal thoughts and transforms criminal behaviors. The efficacy of a lifestyle program in a community correctional facility outside of federal prison walls, modified to run 3 months with parolees and probationers, lacks evidenced research. Using a 2x3 between groups factorial ANCOVA, archival ...


The Policing Strategy Of Racial Profiling And Its Impact On African Americans, Derrick Paul Jones Jan 2017

The Policing Strategy Of Racial Profiling And Its Impact On African Americans, Derrick Paul Jones

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Prior literature on racial profiling indicates that African Americans have been mistreated, harassed, and discriminated against by law enforcement because of this controversial policing strategy. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to bridge the gap in knowledge by analyzing the impact of racial profiling on African American adults and discover whether it contributed to unintentional violence in racial and ethnic minority communities. The theoretical framework for this research study was critical race theory. The research question for this study was: How does racial profiling impact African Americans' perception of the police? This phenomenological research study used purposeful sampling ...


Recidivism: An Analysis Of Race, Locus Of Control, And Resilience, Danisha Latrell Thomas Jan 2017

Recidivism: An Analysis Of Race, Locus Of Control, And Resilience, Danisha Latrell Thomas

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Recidivism is a growing problem in the United States that has contributed to prison overcrowding. In the United States, this is especially true for minorities, who have the highest incarceration, conviction, and recidivism rates. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the relationship between race, recidivism, locus of control, and resilience. For the quantitative component, the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) and the multidimensional locus of control scales were used to measure resiliency and locus of control differences among racial groups (N = 126) on parole at a Fort Worth, Texas parole office. For the qualitative component, in-depth interviews ...


Recidivism Rates Among Juveniles With Mental Illness, Kia Chevon Russell Jan 2017

Recidivism Rates Among Juveniles With Mental Illness, Kia Chevon Russell

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Treating mental illness is imperative to help reduce criminal justice involvement within the juvenile population. Receiving mental health care will help decrease the likelihood for youth to reoffend, ultimately reducing recidivism rates. Past studies showed there are risk factors associated with juveniles and recidivism; however, very few studies have examined what factors are prevalent after services have been received. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that increase the risk of recidivism among juveniles who have received psychiatric stabilization in Harris County, Texas. Risk factors that were assessed included age, gender, ethnicity, and criminal offense. The psychodynamic perspective ...


Police Officers' Perceptions Of Social Media's Involvement On Delinquent Behavior By Juveniles, Rachel K. Wisnefski Jan 2017

Police Officers' Perceptions Of Social Media's Involvement On Delinquent Behavior By Juveniles, Rachel K. Wisnefski

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The rapid growth of social media platforms coupled with the technological savviness of juveniles has led to their delinquent behavior involving social media. Researchers should investigate this phenomenon in order to establish its extent and to minimize the harmful effects this behavior may have. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate and explore potential connections between social media and delinquent acts committed by juvenile offenders through the use of police officers' perceptions of those types of acts. The primary research question focused on determining what the perceptions and experiences of police officers in a southeastern state were relative ...


Security Strategies For Hosting Sensitive Information In The Commercial Cloud, Edward Steven Forde Jan 2017

Security Strategies For Hosting Sensitive Information In The Commercial Cloud, Edward Steven Forde

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

IT experts often struggle to find strategies to secure data on the cloud. Although current security standards might provide cloud compliance, they fail to offer guarantees of security assurance. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the strategies used by IT security managers to host sensitive information in the commercial cloud. The study's population consisted of information security managers from a government agency in the eastern region of the United States. The routine active theory, developed by Cohen and Felson, was used as the conceptual framework for the study. The data collection process included IT security ...


Static-99, Mnsost-R, And Pcl-R In Predicting Recidivism Among Texas' Sexual Violent Predators, Diana Jefferson Jefferson Jan 2017

Static-99, Mnsost-R, And Pcl-R In Predicting Recidivism Among Texas' Sexual Violent Predators, Diana Jefferson Jefferson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Recidivism within the sexually violent predator (SVP) population has gained worldwide attention because of the lack of protection offered to the victims that may lead to loss of life. Behavioral theory suggests that accuracy of predictive behaviors based on empirical judgement is more reliable than that based on clinical judgement. The purpose of this research was to see whether three actuarial assessment tools, Static-99, PCL-R, and MnSOST-R, could predict recidivism and whether the combination of the three-increased predictive value in the Texas SVP population. As yet, the literature provides no evidence. The Texas Open Record System provided assessment scores and ...


Exploring The Merging Of Two Divergent Behavioral Support Systems In Juvenile Justice, Linda Susan Spaulding Jan 2017

Exploring The Merging Of Two Divergent Behavioral Support Systems In Juvenile Justice, Linda Susan Spaulding

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In 2016, over 47,000 youths in the state of Florida were served by the Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) probation services. While on probation, these youths were exposed to 2 different, and potentially conflicting disciplinary management systems. Youth are under the authority of juvenile probation officers (JPOs), who are bound to a consequence-based management approach. This approach is guided by negative reinforcement. The youths are simultaneously engaged with staff from diversion programs, many of which are strengths-based and guided by positive reinforcement. According to the ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict, exposure to incongruent systems can have negative effects such ...


Roles And Services Of Probation Officers Among Rural Female Juvenile Offenders, Amy Marie Warmingham Jan 2017

Roles And Services Of Probation Officers Among Rural Female Juvenile Offenders, Amy Marie Warmingham

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Each year, hundreds of thousands of youth move through juvenile justice systems in the United States, and the number of female offenders is increasing. At the probation level, there appears to be a lack of services, such as mentoring, mental health services, sex education, and counseling, to meet the gender-specific needs of female juvenile delinquents in rural settings. The purpose of this study was to discover county probation officers' perceptions of girls' needs and the officers' decision-making processes related to recommending services. This case study was based on feminist criminology theory. The research questions sought to learn how probation officers ...


The Impact Of Racial Stereotyping On Juror Perception Of Criminal Offenders, Tameka T. Price Jan 2017

The Impact Of Racial Stereotyping On Juror Perception Of Criminal Offenders, Tameka T. Price

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

For decades, research has consistently demonstrated that minorities are overrepresented in the prison population, yet relatively little is known about whether juror perceptions about race and criminal culpability may impact this problem in the United States. Using Hill's folk theory of race and racism as the theoretical foundation, this cross sectional study examined the relationship between perceptions of the race of the defendant and the verdicts to be handed down. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 25 people who self-reported having served on a jury or were eligible for jury service within the past 5 years in ...


Law Enforcement Officer Knowledge Of Mental Illness, Nashira Funn Jan 2017

Law Enforcement Officer Knowledge Of Mental Illness, Nashira Funn

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Media and activist groups have recently exposed the problem of negative interactions between law enforcement officers and civilians. Many of these civilians have a mental illness. Various researchers attribute these negative interactions to insufficient officer knowledge of mental illness due to a lack of training, education, and personal experiences. Very little research addresses how insufficient knowledge of mental illness may influence interactions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and analyze self reported law enforcement knowledge using Malcolm Knowles' conceptualization of adult learning theory and andragogy as the theoretical framework. This framework bases self-directed learning/training on a ...


Realigning Community Policing In A Homeland Security Era, Alfred Stanford Titus, Jr. Jan 2017

Realigning Community Policing In A Homeland Security Era, Alfred Stanford Titus, Jr.

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The priority shift from community policing to homeland security in local police departments in the United States has threatened the relationships and successes established by community policing, though little empirical research explored the relationship between funding and implementation of homeland security versus community policing objectives among local law enforcement agencies. Using Karl Popper's conceptualization of the liberal democracy as the framework, the purpose of this descriptive study was to examine how trends in funding and implementation of both community policing and homeland security objectives changed among American law enforcement agencies between 1993 and 2013. Data were acquired from the ...


Policing The Mentally Ill In Coronado, Ca, Jennifer Susan Ayres Jan 2017

Policing The Mentally Ill In Coronado, Ca, Jennifer Susan Ayres

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The growing number of individuals suffering from mental illnesses and their inability to access intervention methods has adverse effects on the criminal justice system. These impairments increase the likelihood that police officers will have negative attitudes about persons with mental illnesses. This study sought to understand whether police officers' empathy, education, experience outside of work as well as on the job, and officers' training in the field of mental health all related to police officers' attitudes relating to persons with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to expand the body of knowledge and determine how factors such as ...


Black Male Probationers' Perceptions Of Juvenile Probation Officers' Role In Reducing Recidivism, Fern H. Clarke Jan 2017

Black Male Probationers' Perceptions Of Juvenile Probation Officers' Role In Reducing Recidivism, Fern H. Clarke

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The high recidivism rate of Black male juvenile offenders is a problem in the United States that continues to be of great concern. Probation has gained popularity as being a means of addressing and reducing the high recidivism rates of juvenile offenders. However, there is a lack of research regarding Black male juvenile probationers' perceptions of their probation officers' role in reducing their recidivism. This study examined the following: a) the predictive relationships between Black male probationers' perceptions of their probation officers, their perceptions of the probation officers' job, and their recidivism within 3 years of being place on probation ...


Youth Justice Arbitrators' Experiences With Restorative Justice In Rural American Areas, Leigh Dezuraye Hicks Jan 2017

Youth Justice Arbitrators' Experiences With Restorative Justice In Rural American Areas, Leigh Dezuraye Hicks

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The rise in the number of Black, male, incarcerated, rural youth and the retributive juvenile justice system is a prominent problem in the United States, creating a revolving door for youth in conflict with the law. Restorative justice is an alternative approach that diverts youth from court and focus on rehabilitation, but lacks sufficient experiential evidence from those involved in the process to support broader implementation. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of restorative justice arbitrators and the role they play in facilitating resolution of youth criminal charges in a rural setting in a southern U ...


The Psychological Impact Of Taser Utilization In Police Officers, Yolanda Waters Jan 2017

The Psychological Impact Of Taser Utilization In Police Officers, Yolanda Waters

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

A substantial body of scientific and medical research has examined the relationship between conductive energy devices and their physical risk to humans. This phenomenological study focused on the psychological impact of Taser utilization in police officers. This research explored how the experience of using a Taser in the line of duty affected officers from the conceptual framework of stress inoculation training and its applicability to Taser certification; the typical mental processes associated with using less-lethal weapons, perceptions of Taser training; and, the preparation provided in training for citizen injuries and deaths. Fifteen officers who had deployed a Taser were included ...


The Effect Of Risk Factors On Recidivism Among Juveniles From The Perspectives Of Juvenile Justice Professionals, Diana R. Clarke Jan 2017

The Effect Of Risk Factors On Recidivism Among Juveniles From The Perspectives Of Juvenile Justice Professionals, Diana R. Clarke

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Within the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice system, juvenile delinquency referrals have decreased, yet at the same time, juvenile recidivism rates continue to challenge policy makers. Using Hirschi's social learning theory as the foundation, the purpose of this descriptive phenomenological study was to examine the perceptions of juvenile justice professionals about their experiences with youthful offenders in order to determine the causes of juvenile recidivism. Data came from in-depth interviews with 9 participants including state attorneys, judges, and mental health counselors from within the central region of the state of Florida. Data were analyzed and coded using Colaizzi's ...


Media Coverage Of Domestic Extremists And The Influence On Police Emotions, Jamie Porter Jan 2017

Media Coverage Of Domestic Extremists And The Influence On Police Emotions, Jamie Porter

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The media have influenced domestic extremists who are targeting the police, and this is related to negative emotions among the police. These extremists are targeting police officers based on how events are framed by the media. In this way, the media have influenced domestic extremists' target selection and caused negative emotions among police officers because they are now the targets. The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to understand the perceptions of police officers about how the media have influenced domestic extremists to target them. The narrative of this qualitative inquiry was guided by a semistructured interview sample consisting ...


Motivations To Return To A Gang After Severe Physical Victimization, Nora Vlaszof Jan 2017

Motivations To Return To A Gang After Severe Physical Victimization, Nora Vlaszof

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Abstract

Gang violence is a social concern because of the risks of victimization among gang members and their communities. Many gang members have been victims of gang violence, and some choose to remain involved with their gang even after being victimized. Researchers have explored why people join gangs, but less is known regarding the gangâ??victimization link, which is the focus of this study. Social bond theory guided the study's research question on the motivation of gang members to rejoin their gang after severe physical victimization. A multiple case study design was employed with a purposeful sample of six ...


Women's Quest To Occupy Executive Positions In Corporate America, Erica Charles-Lynch Jan 2017

Women's Quest To Occupy Executive Positions In Corporate America, Erica Charles-Lynch

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Women comprise 50.8% of the United States population and 47% of the workforce, and over the past few decades, many women have been promoted to midmanagement positions in Fortune 500 and other major corporations, but few run companies at the executive levels. The research problem addressed the underrepresentation of women in top leadership positions in the executive suite. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of women in upper level management in large corporations on rising to the C-suite. A basic qualitative naturalistic inquiry was used employing interviews in collecting and analyzing the data. The targeted ...


Offender Recidivism: A Quantitative Study Of Motivational Risk Factors And Counseling, Nazak Dadashazar Jan 2017

Offender Recidivism: A Quantitative Study Of Motivational Risk Factors And Counseling, Nazak Dadashazar

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The prison system releases over 590,000 inmates annually, adding to the current 5 million ex-offenders on supervised release. The purpose of this study was to explore the problem of increasing recidivism by identifying ex-offenders' dynamic risk and criminogenic need factors using the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R), coupled with or without mental health services during reentry in relation to recidivism. This quantitative, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study included data collected from a sample of 128 male recidivist and nonrecidivist federal ex-offenders currently on supervised release, who were recruited during probation office meetings within the South Texas region. Regression analysis yielded statistical ...


Domestic Violence Recidivism: Restorative Justice Intervention Programs For First-Time Domestic Violence Offenders, Tamika L. Payne Jan 2017

Domestic Violence Recidivism: Restorative Justice Intervention Programs For First-Time Domestic Violence Offenders, Tamika L. Payne

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Domestic violence impacts millions of Americans annually and, in spite of the use of rehabilitative programs, recidivism in domestic violence continues to be more likely than in any other offense. To date, batterer intervention programs (BIPs) have not proven to be consistently impactful in reducing recidivism in cases of domestic violence. The purpose of this quasi-experimental, quantitative study was to examine differences in recidivism for first-time male domestic violence offenders who have participated in a BIP and a more recently developed alternative: victim-offender mediation (VOM). The theories of restorative justice and reintegrative shaming frame this study to determine if offenders ...