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Theses and Dissertations

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Articles 1 - 30 of 47

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

White Power In Context: The Structural Correlates Of White Power Support Events In The United States, 2012-2015, Drew Cormac Medaris May 2017

White Power In Context: The Structural Correlates Of White Power Support Events In The United States, 2012-2015, Drew Cormac Medaris

Theses and Dissertations

Much of the prior research on white power groups focuses on very rare outcomes – criminal events, especially violent ones – without as much attention devoted to the more common or fundamental activities that often work to start the mobilization process for ethnocentric groups and the individuals associated with them. Broadly, the goal of the current study is to fill this gap in knowledge by integrating prominent criminological theories and themes drawn from the Social movement literature in order to explore the geographic distribution and macro-level correlates of ideologically-motivated white power movement activities. Specifically, I implement content analysis techniques of open source ...


Where We Get Our News: A Multilevel Analysis Of The Media Framing Of Immigration And Crime, Cody Robert Tuttle May 2017

Where We Get Our News: A Multilevel Analysis Of The Media Framing Of Immigration And Crime, Cody Robert Tuttle

Theses and Dissertations

Despite an abundance of literature demonstrating that immigration and crime are unassociated, public opinion often reflects the contrary. I examine a source that could contribute to this disconnect between research and public opinion – media framing – particularly, how the specific way that news outlets talk about immigration and crime, along with where they are located geographically, influence how prominently these stories are covered. I employ content analysis of newspaper articles from 2008-2012, which I geo-locate and pair with structural covariates gathered from several other data sources. I use multilevel models to analyze the effect of article-level framing and county-level contextual characteristics ...


Isis In America: A Sociohistorical Analysis, Kathryn Joanne Ratcliff May 2017

Isis In America: A Sociohistorical Analysis, Kathryn Joanne Ratcliff

Theses and Dissertations

During the summer of 2014, the terrorist organization Islamic State (commonly referred to as Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, or ISIS) garnered international attention after its unprecedented territorial acquisitions and violence in the Middle East. Today, ISIS vies with al-Qaeda for leadership of the global Islamic Extremist movement and has extended its violence all over the world, including the United States. U.S. based supporters generally choose to engage with the ideology in one of three categories: as a foreign fighter, domestic plotter, or domestic non-plotter. Despite this threat, there is very little quantitative research concerning U.S. ISIS ...


“Good Guys Do Rape”: An Examination Of College Student Perceptions Of Sexual Assault Perpetrators, Taylor Blythe Martinez May 2017

“Good Guys Do Rape”: An Examination Of College Student Perceptions Of Sexual Assault Perpetrators, Taylor Blythe Martinez

Theses and Dissertations

When people think of a typical sexual assault, they rely heavily on preconceived notions of sexual violence, which often represents stereotypical rape scenarios. Many stereotypical depictions of perpetrators tend to be centered around individuals who are strangers, mentally ill, lonely, with poor or impoverished upbringing. How perpetrators and victims are depicted impact the likelihood of others believing victims and attributing guilt to perpetrators. This may contribute to societal endorsement of acquaintance rape as not real compared to stereotypical rape scenarios. The current study examines how college students, and in particular fraternity men and sorority women, view perpetrators of sexual assault ...


Veterinarians And Their Perception Of The Treatment Of Animal Abuse Cases In The Criminal Justice System, Dustin A. Richardson Mar 2017

Veterinarians And Their Perception Of The Treatment Of Animal Abuse Cases In The Criminal Justice System, Dustin A. Richardson

Theses and Dissertations

Americans love their companion animals. In 2015, nearly two-thirds (65%) of all households in the U.S. housed at least one pet (APPA, n.d.). This love does not translate to policy, however, as many animals are left defenseless. Interestingly, the Animal Legal Defense Fund (2016) has ranked Illinois’ animal protection laws as the strongest in the nation for the last eight years. Extant animal abuse research is almost exclusively concerned with the ramifications that the abuse has for humans, and there is a dearth of social science research that examines veterinarians and the criminal justice system. Extremely limited research ...


An Examination Of The Evolution Of Racially Biased Pretextual Investigatory Stops And Their Legitimacy In Policing, Brett A. Lacey Mar 2017

An Examination Of The Evolution Of Racially Biased Pretextual Investigatory Stops And Their Legitimacy In Policing, Brett A. Lacey

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the use of tactics originally purposed as a component of the Drug Enforcement Agency’s Operation Pipeline and their evolution since their creation in the 1980’s. The paper provides a history of investigatory policing stops regarding the argument of Epp et al. (2014) that primarily relied on Police Chief magazine and Remsberg’s Street Survival. Epp argues that the methods used in investigatory stops are an invasion of privacy, use racial profiling, and have proliferated from a tactic used in the war on drugs to combat drug trafficking to a routine day-to-day policing tactic. Through the ...


The Impact Of Employment On Probationer Recidivism, Clayton T. Cottle Mar 2017

The Impact Of Employment On Probationer Recidivism, Clayton T. Cottle

Theses and Dissertations

There is increasing need to understand and improve rates of recidivism in all fields associated with the Criminal Justice system. This research investigated the influence that employment status and job stability have on probationer recidivism. For this project, recidivism is defined as any arrest within four years after the termination of probation. Results from this study indicate that obtaining and sustaining employment can reduce the likelihood of recidivism in probationers. Additionally, the findings suggest that job stability is indicative of increased desistance. Findings from this study lend support to the notion that there is an employment-crime relationship. The findings of ...


Death And Destruction: Insight Into The Rhino Poaching Epidemic In South Africa, Richard Wayne Charlton Feb 2017

Death And Destruction: Insight Into The Rhino Poaching Epidemic In South Africa, Richard Wayne Charlton

Theses and Dissertations

The poaching of wildlife has been a concern to many involved in the protection of wildlife. Poaching is found throughout the world and has been around for thousands of years. In the past century, poaching has reached new heights and the concern of an extinction of a species has bought the topic of poaching to new light. Whilst poaching has been seen as a biological or conservation topic in the past, criminologists around the world have now started to delve into the topic. The poaching of wildlife and more so in recent years, rhino poaching, has been a concern in ...


Fitting Eyewitness Identification And Confidence To A Diffusion Model Of Processing, Brittany Nicole Race Dec 2016

Fitting Eyewitness Identification And Confidence To A Diffusion Model Of Processing, Brittany Nicole Race

Theses and Dissertations

It is necessary to better serve justice to understand the mechanisms behind eyewitness identification and reports of confidence. The material contained within attempt to fit eyewitness identification to a diffusion model of processing, RTCON (Ratcliff & Starns, 2009). Participants saw eight mock crime videos and were then tasked with using eight showups or eight lineups to identify the suspects within the video. Half of the presentations were target present and half were target absent. Additionally, participants were either presented with biased or unbiased instructions. Strangely, unbiased lineups led to higher hit rates which is contrary to most findings in the field. The key elements were comparing the ROC curves of the collected data with the ROC curves of simulated data from the RTCON model. The variables manipulated in the model included mu, a variable of memory strength; confidence criteria, a variable of response bias; and decision criteria, a second variable of response bias. The ROC curves derived from the simulated data were poor matches to the collected data. This finding leads to questions on the applicability of this model of diffusion processing to eyewitness research.


Black Male Emerging Adults: Investigating Inequalities In Adult Transitions, Social Learning, And Criminality, De Andre' Terrell Beadle Aug 2016

Black Male Emerging Adults: Investigating Inequalities In Adult Transitions, Social Learning, And Criminality, De Andre' Terrell Beadle

Theses and Dissertations

Emerging adulthood is a life stage that developed as a result of numerous macro-structural changes in recent decades (Arnett 2015), and which has implications for life course criminality and identity formation (Massoglia & Uggen 2010). Much research has been done in the area of the new life stage known as “emerging adulthood,” however little to no research has been done on how emerging adulthood relates to or changes classic findings in criminology, especially about the importance of disadvantages embedded in racial inequalities. This mixed method study analyzes data from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR) to examine Social learning ...


Does Gender Still Matter? Child Custody Bias In The Illinois Family Court System, Derek K. Ronnfeldt Jul 2016

Does Gender Still Matter? Child Custody Bias In The Illinois Family Court System, Derek K. Ronnfeldt

Theses and Dissertations

Over the last several decades, nearly all of the states have formed task forces to look at the perception of a gender bias within the family court systems as they pertain to child custody. This self-scrutiny has included the attitudes of judges and attorneys within the system and the need of reform of our family courts. This research focused on replicating a study conducted by Dotterweich and McKinney that was completed in 2000 that compiled statistics from four different state task forces in Maryland, Missouri, Texas, and Washington. This research focused on Illinois judges and attorneys, using the same questions ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of Sex Trafficking Law On The Decriminalization Of Youth Involved In Commercialized Sex, Nay Petrucelli Jun 2016

A Quantitative Analysis Of Sex Trafficking Law On The Decriminalization Of Youth Involved In Commercialized Sex, Nay Petrucelli

Theses and Dissertations

Legislators have been responding to the growing push to treat youth in the sex industry as victims of a crime instead of perpetrators. Recent legislative changes have occurred in every state and nationally as part of anti-trafficking legislation, not prostitution law directly. While the content of these laws has been studied, its outcomes for youth have not. This study uses a cross-sectional time-series model to test the impact that changes to state trafficking law has had on juvenile prostitution arrest rates. Findings support the hypothesis that legislation passed with a juvenile protection component decreases the juvenile prostitution arrest rate. It ...


An Analysis Of The Sovereign Citizen Movement: Demographics And Trial Behaviors, Stephen Garrett Smith May 2016

An Analysis Of The Sovereign Citizen Movement: Demographics And Trial Behaviors, Stephen Garrett Smith

Theses and Dissertations

To date little to no empirical research has been conducted on the Sovereign Citizen Movement (SCM) and how it fits into the broader far-right domestic terrorist movement. The main focus of this study is to determine if there is a significant difference between the SCM and the far-right in their demographic composition, trial strategies, and trial behaviors and whether the SCM should be grouped together with the broader far-right during analysis. Using the American Terrorism Study (ATS), I coded 97 federal court cases involving sovereign citizen defendants (N=150) and ran basic frequencies on demographic and trial behavior variables on ...


Collateral Impact Of Maternal Incarceration: Burdens Placed On Child Caregivers, Daniel Anderson Mar 2016

Collateral Impact Of Maternal Incarceration: Burdens Placed On Child Caregivers, Daniel Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

Although parental incarceration is both a maternal and paternal issue, it is particularly detrimental to the family when the mother is incarcerated. The number of children with a mother in prison has more than doubled since 1991 (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008). Although there are more children of incarcerated fathers than mothers, it is particularly important to note that sixty-four percent of mothers were the primary caregivers to their children at their time of arrest (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008; Mumola, 2000). The incarceration of a mother is often more detrimental than that of the father as it typically results in displacement of children from the home and more complex issues related to the detachment from the parent (Bloom, 1993). With only 1 in 4 children of incarcerated mothers moving in with their fathers, the incarcerated mother must often find a suitable ...


The Role Of Official Misconduct In Wrongful Convictions, Mia Gilliam Mar 2016

The Role Of Official Misconduct In Wrongful Convictions, Mia Gilliam

Theses and Dissertations

As the number of wrongful convictions and exonerations of individuals imprisoned for crimes they did not commit has increased dramatically, the study of wrongful conviction has become increasingly important. The majority of past research has focused on the various causes of wrongful convictions. However, very little attention is given in detail to the specific nature of each of these causes. This thesis examined the most current, inclusive database of exonerations in the United States that exists, the National Registry of Exonerations. Qualitative and Quantitative data was examined and refined, and statistical analyses were run including descriptives, frequencies, and correlations in ...


Terrorism Preparedness: A Law Enforcement Perspective, Cayla Comens Mar 2016

Terrorism Preparedness: A Law Enforcement Perspective, Cayla Comens

Theses and Dissertations

Since September 11, 2001, the environments in which law enforcement agencies operate have been changing. Contingency theory hypothesizes that an organization adapts to their environment through organizational structure and contingencies in order to accomplish a state of fit or higher performance. Utilizing the contingency theory framework, the study looked to answer two research questions: (1) Do municipal and county police agencies believe they have the necessary resources and training to prevent and or respond to the next terrorist attack? (2) How does agency size, structure, funding, and perceived risk influence terrorism preparedness? A sample of 902 county and municipal law ...


The Role Of The Institution On The Adoption Of Law Enforcement Technology, Cassandra Dodge Mar 2016

The Role Of The Institution On The Adoption Of Law Enforcement Technology, Cassandra Dodge

Theses and Dissertations

While law enforcement agencies perceive that technology increases their ability to complete their mission in the most efficient manner possible, this may not be the case in reality. Considering the potential expenses, potential danger, and lack of proven efficiency, it is surprising that these technologies are continuing to be adopted. Observing law enforcement agencies through the lens of institutional theory provides an explanation for the discrepancy between what would be expected and what has actually occurred. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the use of five technologies (records management systems, broadband networking with vehicle computers, long range ...


Token Female Police Officers Or Police Exemplars: An Evaluation Of The Theory Of Tokenism, Cameron Michael Harper Mar 2016

Token Female Police Officers Or Police Exemplars: An Evaluation Of The Theory Of Tokenism, Cameron Michael Harper

Theses and Dissertations

Despite gains in the percentage of female police officers over past decades, female police officers are vastly underrepresented in modern policing. Female police officers face barriers to integration into policing and the surrounding culture that male police officers do not face, including unbalanced physical testing, double standards for success, and others. One explanation for the different experiences of female police officers compared to male police officers is the token status of women in policing. Instead of taking the token status of female police officers for granted, this study explored the utility of the theory of tokenism (Kanter, 1977) in explaining ...


Application Of Routine Activities Theory To The Study Of Residential Armed Robbery In Ghana, Neeh Nhai Lhayea Jan 2016

Application Of Routine Activities Theory To The Study Of Residential Armed Robbery In Ghana, Neeh Nhai Lhayea

Theses and Dissertations

This study utilized Routine Activities theory to explain deterrent and motivating factors associated with residential armed robbery in Ghana. Although several studies have examined crime through the lenses of Routine Activities theory, none such studies have been dedicated to the study of residential armed robbery in Ghana. This study, therefore, attempts to fill that void by applying Routine Activities theory to the study of residential armed robbery. This research samples 56 of armed robbers in three selected prisons of contemporary Ghana to provide a fuller criminological and descriptive analysis of the offence, the offenders, motivation and guardianship to committing residential ...


Human Intelligence In Federal Terrorism Cases, Noah James Schneider May 2015

Human Intelligence In Federal Terrorism Cases, Noah James Schneider

Theses and Dissertations

Though it has often been quipped that the September 11th attacks changed "everything", domestic policy alterations were among the most significant changes after 9/11. Specifically, the 2002 Ashcroft Attorney General Guidelines and the 2008 Mukasey Attorney General Guidelines were two of the most impactful policy changes following 9/11. These Attorney General Guidelines changed the way the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigated terrorism in the United States in addition to making counterterrorism the FBI's top priority. One of the ways the FBI prevents terrorism is through the use of undercover agents and confidential informants. How the 2002 ...


Policing And The Likelihood Of Terrorism: A Community Structural Approach To An Uncertain Relationship, Andy Bellamy Brooks May 2015

Policing And The Likelihood Of Terrorism: A Community Structural Approach To An Uncertain Relationship, Andy Bellamy Brooks

Theses and Dissertations

Prior research on terrorism has argued that local law enforcement play an important role in counterterrorism though the mechanisms by which the police should prevent terrorism are empirically unsettled and atheoretical in nature. Even less understood is how policing might differentially impact terrorism across specific ideological movements (e.g., far-right, environmental, Islamic extremism). Drawing from prominent sociological and criminological theories (i.e., Environmental perspectives, Social Disorganization, Conflict/Marxist) the current study addresses several key gaps in prior literature by utilizing data from the American Terrorism Study (ATS) paired with data from the FBI Uniform Crime Report and U.S. Census ...


Explaining Bias Homicide Occurrences In The United States, Kayla Gruenewald May 2015

Explaining Bias Homicide Occurrences In The United States, Kayla Gruenewald

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between Social-structural characteristics and bias homicide across counties in the United States between the years 1990 and 2014. While there have been several notable studies on this topic, most have been conducted in single cities or at the state level, thus overlooking variations across community types for the broader United States. Moreover, scholars have failed to distinguish violent from non-violent bias crimes in their research. Drawing from several ecological theories of crime, this study seeks to contribute to the literature by asking (1) what are the structural predictors of the ...


Concentrated Disadvantage And Coercive Mobility: A Longitudinal Analysis Of The Impact Of Coercive Mobility, Megan Nicole Handley May 2015

Concentrated Disadvantage And Coercive Mobility: A Longitudinal Analysis Of The Impact Of Coercive Mobility, Megan Nicole Handley

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the impact of incarceration, or coercive mobility, on concentrated disadvantage, testing an essential component of the theoretical model proposed by Todd Clear and Dina Rose (1998) and elaborated by Clear (2007). These authors argue that while concentrated economic disadvantage may lead to high crime rates, chronically high rates of incarceration may operate as a type of "coercive mobility," exacerbating concentrated disadvantage and increasing crime rates, especially in high-minority urban communities. The study also examines the importance of religious congregations, as a measure of community Social capital, which may moderate the relationship between coercive mobility and concentrated disadvantage ...


Opportunity, Temporal Patterns, And Successful Outcomes Of Far-Right Terrorism Incidents In The United States, Brent Ryan Klein May 2015

Opportunity, Temporal Patterns, And Successful Outcomes Of Far-Right Terrorism Incidents In The United States, Brent Ryan Klein

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the impact that far-right terrorism opportunity structures and temporal patterns of precursor activity have on incident outcomes. Data from the American Terrorism Study (ATS) are extracted for several attributes of far-right opportunity, in addition to measures for temporal patterns of planning and preparatory behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate findings generally support expectations that target attractiveness and vulnerability, far-right group structures, and patterns of precursor activity are significantly associated with incident outcomes. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research and several implications for homeland security policy.


Framing Responsibility For Bullying: An Ethnographic Content Analysis, Kayla Knight May 2015

Framing Responsibility For Bullying: An Ethnographic Content Analysis, Kayla Knight

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the current study is to explore ways in which American print news media frame responsibility for adolescent and teen bullying. More specifically, how media portray responsibility for the underlying causes and consequences of bullying, as well as for responding to bullying, are examined. Drawing from media studies and the construction of Social problems literature, the study is guided by two broad research questions, 1) How do American news media frame responsibility for bullying? and 2) What news sources, or "claims-makers," are selected as authorities on bullying in news media articles? Articles published between 2009 and 2013 are ...


Evaluating A Brief Sexual Violence Therapy Group For Incarcerated Women, Marie Elisabeth Karlsson May 2015

Evaluating A Brief Sexual Violence Therapy Group For Incarcerated Women, Marie Elisabeth Karlsson

Theses and Dissertations

Incarcerated women report higher rates of sexual victimization and mental illness than the average woman and incarcerated men. Researchers have argued that sexual victimization is a pathway to prison for women, and that there is a lack of trauma-focused treatments in prisons. Some researchers have evaluated trauma-focused group treatments for incarcerated women (Bradley & Follingstad, 2003; Cole et al., 2007; Ford, Chang, Levine, & Zhang, 2013; Kubiak, Kim, Fedock, & Bybee, 2012; Paquin, Kivlighan, & Drogosz, 2013; Roe-Sepowitz, Bedard, Pate, & Hedberg, 2014; Zlotnick, Johnson, & Najavits, 2009), with mixed results and several limitations. Most of these treatments are lengthy and resource intensive (cf. Ford et al., 2013) and they provide few, if any, additional benefits compared to treatment as usual or support groups. They also do not include exposure therapy, despite research supporting exposure's efficacy (Foa, Hembree, & Rothbaum, 2007). Future studies could benefit from evaluating briefer treatments that target specific mechanism known to maintain posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other common trauma outcomes. Although there are empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) for PTSD that would fit these criteria, the prison context might provide several unique contextual factors that are likely to make it difficult to implement and/or may impact the efficacy of these treatments. The current group treatment for incarcerated women was designed to overcome concerns with implementing ESTs in this population as well as limitations with previous studies evaluating trauma treatments among female prisoners. Results from 58 incarcerated women showed significant reductions in PTSD, depression, and anxiety/worry symptoms as well as trauma-related cognitions from pre-to post-treatment. Approximately 40-50% of participants who were above the clinical cutoff for possible PTSD (n = 30), depression (n = 25), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 26) at pre-treatment were below at post-treatment (PTSD: n = 14; depression: n = 18; GAD: n = 18). Additionally, 40-60% reported a clinically significant improvement (reliable change index > 1.96; Jacobsen ...


Student Criminality: The Influence Of Strain, Family And Peers, Annie Cvetan Feb 2015

Student Criminality: The Influence Of Strain, Family And Peers, Annie Cvetan

Theses and Dissertations

General strain theory suggests that a number of conditioning factors affect who is more likely to respond to strain with crime. Research has also demonstrated that an individual's self-complexity plays a role in how an individual responds to strain. Self-complexity refers to (1) the number of identities individuals perceive as important to themselves; and (2) the varied characteristics they ascribe to these identities. This research study analyzed if college students were committing crime, whether the crimes were major or minor in nature, and if criminality was a new behavior or an imported one. This study also looked at who ...


Sex Offender Management Policies And Their Unintended Cosequences: A National Survey Of The Perceptions Of Professionals, Corey Call Jan 2015

Sex Offender Management Policies And Their Unintended Cosequences: A National Survey Of The Perceptions Of Professionals, Corey Call

Theses and Dissertations

The mid-1990s brought sex offenders to the forefront of policy issues due to several highly publicized cases of abduction, sexual assault, and murder involving children. Following these cases, a number of sex offender management policies were passed to quell public concern over the safety of children due to sex offenders. Most notably, these new sex offender management policies mandated the creation of publicly available registries of sex offenders and enacted residence restrictions that forbid sex offenders from residing within certain distances from areas where children commonly congregate.

Although current sex offender management policies have been revealed to be largely ineffective ...


Incarcerating Exceptional Pupils: Is There A School-To-Prison Pipeline In Eastern Oklahoma?, Brett Alan Fitzgerald Dec 2014

Incarcerating Exceptional Pupils: Is There A School-To-Prison Pipeline In Eastern Oklahoma?, Brett Alan Fitzgerald

Theses and Dissertations

The school-to-prison pipeline metaphor represents an educational environment that allows public schools to push many at-risk children out of school and into the juvenile justice system or even worse, the adult criminal justice system (Wald and Losen, 2003; Lynn, 2010; Tuzzolo and Hewitt, 2006). The purpose of this study is to examine whether a school-to-prison pipeline exists in eastern Oklahoma, and if so, to better understand the characteristics of the public schools that may be contributing to it. The school-to-prison pipeline metaphor guided three research questions regarding whether certain public schools in eastern Oklahoma referred greater percentages of their students ...


Identifying Program Needs Of Women Detainees In A Jail Environment, Jeanna Michele Rodda Oct 2014

Identifying Program Needs Of Women Detainees In A Jail Environment, Jeanna Michele Rodda

Theses and Dissertations

Since the 1980s, the population of incarcerated women has been steadily increasing. Approximately 200,000 women are incarcerated in prisons and jails in the United States (Clarke, Phipps, Tong, Rose, and Gold, 2010). There is an increasing level of comorbidity among the population of incarcerated women, with the majority requiring mental health, physical health, substance abuse and pregnancy services at the time of their incarceration or soon afterwards. Incarcerated women face a number of challenges; they are cut off from their primary support system and their children. Their physical health deteriorates, they lack appropriate coping skills, and often experience withdrawal ...