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Articles 1 - 30 of 39

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

'The Environment Says It's Okay': The Tension Between Peer Support And Police Culture, Cindy Hohner Nov 2017

'The Environment Says It's Okay': The Tension Between Peer Support And Police Culture, Cindy Hohner

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study evaluates the implementation and subsequent operation of a peer support program in a Canadian police service. Data was collected from an online survey, available to the police service for a period of one year, and 16 in-depth interviews with peer support team members. There is very little data on police peer support programs in the literature. Thus, the purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of what issues members believe a peer support program should address, the circumstances under which they would seek help from the peer support program, and the reasons they may or may ...


Criminal Justice Theories And Variations In Legal Decisions Across Youth Justice Acts, Brenda Kobayashi Apr 2017

Criminal Justice Theories And Variations In Legal Decisions Across Youth Justice Acts, Brenda Kobayashi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Media stories of violent young offenders, while rare events, “signal” to the public that youth crime is on the rise and worse, that today’s youth are capable of horrific crimes. As a result, both the public and politicians call for change – legislation and the courts need to toughen up on youths. The present study, guided by penal populism and focal concerns theory, fills a gap in the literature by examining sentencing decisions of young offenders convicted of violent offences in Ontario, Canada. Three research questions were asked. First, drawing on penal populism is there evidence in Canada, particularly Ontario ...


An Exploration Of Gender Differences In Higher Risk Young Offenders: Implications For Assessment And Service Delivery, Jordyn G. Webb Feb 2017

An Exploration Of Gender Differences In Higher Risk Young Offenders: Implications For Assessment And Service Delivery, Jordyn G. Webb

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current research examining services for male and female youth in the criminal justice system has focused primarily on males and then generalizes findings to reflect the needs of females. However, more recent literature has identified critical differences between males and females involved in the youth criminal justice system, recognizing that females have unique concerns that need to be reflected in services and interventions. This study examined 277 high-risk, violent and chronic offending youth referred to an urban-based court clinic between the years 2010-2015. The youths' files contained information related to psychological functioning, family history, and information related to outside agencies ...


The Economics Of Policing Research, Laura Huey Jan 2017

The Economics Of Policing Research, Laura Huey

Sociology Publications

In 2012, provincial, territorial and federal governments of Canada reached consensus on an important policy issue: public policing costs were escalating and something needed to be done about ‘the economics of policing’. They also discovered that, as a result of the federal government’s chronic defunding of policing research, they had very little Canadian knowledge upon which to draw. The focus of the present paper is on how both the ‘economics of policing’ crisis, and policy-makers’ inability to utilize domestic research to resolve it, were generated by successive governments sharing an ideologically-informed view of the relative importance of criminal justice ...


Preparing Police Recruits Of The Future: An Educational Needs Assessment, Laura Huey, Hina Kalyal, Hillary Peladeau Jan 2017

Preparing Police Recruits Of The Future: An Educational Needs Assessment, Laura Huey, Hina Kalyal, Hillary Peladeau

Sociology Publications

Given increasing demand for post-secondary education (PSE) within Ontario’s police applicant pools, coupled with rising costs in post-secondary education, it is of critical importance we ensure the content and quality of PSE programs marketed to students as appropriate for a policing career, does, indeed, match the needs of potential employers. This study examines this issue by drawing on the results of a mixed-methodological approach, combining qualitative interviews of police recruiters and senior officers with an environmental scan of relevant college and university programs. Our findings indicate there are both strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of PSE when it ...


“Follow Me So I Can Dm You Back”: An Exploratory Analysis Of A Female Pro- Isis Twitter Network, Joseph A. Varanese Nov 2016

“Follow Me So I Can Dm You Back”: An Exploratory Analysis Of A Female Pro- Isis Twitter Network, Joseph A. Varanese

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study is to explore a network of female pro-Islamic State of Syria and Iraq (ISIS) supporters on Twitter. To do so, I identified twenty Twitter accounts (n=20) through snowball sampling, and analyzed their network comprising 5,861 vertices and 12,034 edges. I studied the network using three social network analysis metrics—Freeman’s normalized betweenness centrality, average geodesic distance, and tie strength. Females in the sample were more influential than males, and as a result, had a greater ability to radicalize other females within their network. Further, I observed that it took females longer ...


"Support For Sisters Please": Comparing The Online Roles Of Al-Qaeda Women And Their Islamic State Counterparts, Hillary Peladeau Aug 2016

"Support For Sisters Please": Comparing The Online Roles Of Al-Qaeda Women And Their Islamic State Counterparts, Hillary Peladeau

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study evaluates female roles in pro-jihadist terrorism by examining online content. Data was collected from 36 Twitter accounts of women associated with al-Qaeda (AQ) affiliated groups for a period of six months. The purpose for collecting this data was to: 1) compare how traditional female roles, as constructed within a jihadi-Salafist ideology, are reproduced and challenged on social media; 2) and determine the extent that AQ-affiliated women conform to roles outlined in Huey’s classification of females in pro-Islamic State (IS) Twitter networks. The results of this study reveal that women’s traditional roles in pro-jihadist activities are reproduced ...


Representations Of Youth Crime In Canada: A Feminist Criminological Analysis Of Statistical Trends, National Canadian Newspapers, And Moral Panics, Jennifer Silcox Jun 2016

Representations Of Youth Crime In Canada: A Feminist Criminological Analysis Of Statistical Trends, National Canadian Newspapers, And Moral Panics, Jennifer Silcox

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research explores different representations of youth crime in Canada from a feminist criminological and social constructionist perspective. Using a mixed-methods approach that draws upon historical scholarly works, official governmental crime and court statistics, and national Canadian newspapers, I investigate statistical and media representations of youth crime in Canada.

Official crime and court statistics were analyzed to identify trends in youth crime and how they vary by gender and legislative changes. I provide an historical overview of changing definitions of youth, crime and delinquency, and consider how these combined with changing norms regarding morality to shape youth crime legislation in ...


Victimization, Stress, And Psychological Well-Being: An Analysis Of The 2009 Canadian Victimization Survey, Bryce E. Stoliker Apr 2016

Victimization, Stress, And Psychological Well-Being: An Analysis Of The 2009 Canadian Victimization Survey, Bryce E. Stoliker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study addresses several methodological and theoretical gaps in extant literature that has examined victimization and its correlation with resultant mental health outcomes. The 2009 Canadian GSS Victimization [cycle 23] survey, comprising of 19,422 participants aged 15 years or older, was used to examine: (1) the extent to which different forms of victimization are related to stress, psychological well-being (i.e., self-report mental health and life satisfaction), and substance abuse behavior; (2) whether stress acts as a mediator in the relationship between victimization and mental health outcome measures; (3) if low total household income moderates the association between victimization ...


Elusive Peace, Security, And Justice In Post-Conflict Guatemala: An Exploration Of Transitional Justice And The International Commission Against Impunity In Guatemala (Cicig), Daniel W. Schloss Aug 2015

Elusive Peace, Security, And Justice In Post-Conflict Guatemala: An Exploration Of Transitional Justice And The International Commission Against Impunity In Guatemala (Cicig), Daniel W. Schloss

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Guatemala has, until today, struggled to achieve security and justice following the end of nearly half a century of civil war in 1996. One specific institution, the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), has been implemented to rectify many of the Guatemalan state’s difficulties in establishing and maintaining the rule of law. In this thesis, I look to better explain CICIG’s role in Guatemala relative to security and justice in a post-conflict setting: I define CICIG as an institution potentially capable of building societal trust, and I explain how the inclusion of procedural justice within transitional justice ...


Cyber-Psychopathy: Examining The Relationship Between Dark E-Personality And Online Misconduct, Andrew D. Nevin Jul 2015

Cyber-Psychopathy: Examining The Relationship Between Dark E-Personality And Online Misconduct, Andrew D. Nevin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Currently, there is a lack of research investigating how the unique structural conditions of cyberspace may influence the expression of ‘dark’ personality and the role of such e-personality in explaining instances of online misconduct. Using a theoretical framework of context-dependent personality, this study seeks to fill a gap in the literature by using self-report survey data to explore whether the internet may decrease, increase, or intensify the expression of psychopathy. Quantitative data analysis in this study shows that when controlling for social context, internet users exhibit higher levels of psychopathy online than offline, which is especially pronounced in male subsamples ...


Are White Collar Criminals Exceptional?, Jordan Harel Jun 2015

Are White Collar Criminals Exceptional?, Jordan Harel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Some criminological theories of white collar crime suggest, both implicitly and explicitly, that white-collar criminals are an exceptional type of offender in comparison with other criminals. On the other hand, other scholarship implies the opposite, suggesting that white collar criminals are no different than other types of criminals, and hence, they are believed to be generalist offenders. As such, the following manuscript attempts to examine the following question: are white-collar criminals exceptional?

The data utilized for the analysis are an amalgamation of two nationally representative surveys originating in the United States - the 2004 Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities ...


The Westray Mine Incident: Corporate Violence And Governmental Crime As The Roots Of Disaster, Melissa Hughes Jan 2015

The Westray Mine Incident: Corporate Violence And Governmental Crime As The Roots Of Disaster, Melissa Hughes

2015 Undergraduate Awards

This paper addresses the catastrophic Westray mine disaster that rocked the East Coast of Canada in Plymouth, Nova Scotia, in May 1992 and outlines the causes and factors of the deadly explosion that resulted in the death of 26 miners. From a perspective of white-collar crime, particularly governmental crime and corporate violence, this paper asserts that the negligent actions of inspectors from the Nova Scotia Department of Labour and managers from Curragh Resources Inc., the corporation in charge of the Westray mining operation, led to the conditions in the mine that caused the explosion to occur. Despite there being no ...


An Evidential Review Of Police Misconduct: Officer Versus Organization, Emma Rose Bonanno Jan 2015

An Evidential Review Of Police Misconduct: Officer Versus Organization, Emma Rose Bonanno

2015 Undergraduate Awards

This paper explores the critical societal issue of police misconduct. Though a vast amount of literature surrounds the issue of police misconduct, conclusions regarding the correlates of police misconduct remain inconclusive. Previous research that attempts to explain police misconduct has consistently shown to be divided based on either individual or organizational correlates. Thus, the crux of the debate has become whether police misconduct is the product of a "bad apple" (individual or micro-level correlates), or a "bad barrel" (organizational or macro-level correlates). The aim of this paper is to explore existing empirical evidence, and discover which factors most strongly correlate ...


Policing Cyber Bullying: How Parents, Educators, And Law Enforcement Respond To Digital Harassment, Ryan Broll Jun 2014

Policing Cyber Bullying: How Parents, Educators, And Law Enforcement Respond To Digital Harassment, Ryan Broll

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Some prior research has emphasised how adults ought to address cyber bullying, yet little is known about how they actually prevent and respond to digital harassment. This study addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the formal and informal “policing” of cyber bullying by a network of security actors: parents, teachers and school administrators, and the public police. Data were collected through a mixed methods research design consisting of semi-structured qualitative interviews with eight parents, 14 teachers, and 12 members of law enforcement (n = 34) and quantitative surveys completed by 52 parents.

Drawing upon nodal governance theory as a ...


Queerly Monstrous: Reading Party Monster As A Postmodern Horror Film, Saralyn Russell Jun 2014

Queerly Monstrous: Reading Party Monster As A Postmodern Horror Film, Saralyn Russell

Kino: The Western Undergraduate Journal of Film Studies

Russell uses theories of masquerade to investigate queer typification and the possible reclamation of anti-reproductivity as a sexual ethic. It considers the film’s camp portrayal of Club Kid culture through the historical slippage of homosexuality and horror, suggesting that its moral relativism reveals aporia not only within mainstream endorsement of consumerist plenitude, but also within cinematic principles of identification.


Intimate Partner Violence In Canadian Lgb Communities, Betty J. Barrett, Melissa St. Pierre Feb 2014

Intimate Partner Violence In Canadian Lgb Communities, Betty J. Barrett, Melissa St. Pierre

CRDCN Research Highlight/RCCDR en évidence

After nearly three decades of scholarship, it is no longer contestable that intimate partner violence (IPV) is found within gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) communities just as it is in heterosexual partnerships. However, much of the research has been devoted to comparing heterosexual to same-sex couples and we know much less about the specific experience of bisexual-identified people. In this research we aimed to address these gaps by providing a look at within-group variations of LGB-identified individuals and their experiences of IPV.


Abortion And Crime In Canada: A Test Of The Bmdl Hypothesis, Timothy Kang May 2013

Abortion And Crime In Canada: A Test Of The Bmdl Hypothesis, Timothy Kang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Donohue and Levitt (2001) argued that the legalization of abortion in the US during the 1970s contributed to 50 percent of the dramatic decline in crime that occurred in the 1990s. Although a lengthy debate in the literature has proliferated and remains inconclusive, this controversial theory has been popularized by the Freakonomics (2005) franchise. The liberalization of abortion services that occurred in Canada in 1988 offers an improved focal intervention to perform an empirical test of this theory. The methods that have emerged from the debate are reviewed. The most promising strategies, namely time-series plots of crime, “effective abortion rate ...


Cracking Down On Exotic Dancers: How The Act, The Media And Interest Groups Frame Human Trafficking Policy In Canada, Leanne E. Kuchynski May 2013

Cracking Down On Exotic Dancers: How The Act, The Media And Interest Groups Frame Human Trafficking Policy In Canada, Leanne E. Kuchynski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examines the Preventing the Trafficking, Abuse, and Exploitation of Vulnerable Immigrants Act. The history of human trafficking and migrant policy in Canada generally and in relation to this amendment passed in 2012 are examined. The framing perspective, political process model, and the policy process literature are used to understand this law. I am interested in three main questions: does the Act differentiate between victims and criminals?; how did socio-political groups shape this law?; and how do the media portray the differences in victims and criminals in relation to this law? Content analysis is used to analyze the Act ...


A Critical Appraisal Of Responses To Māori Offending, Juan Marcellus Tauri, Robert Webb Dec 2012

A Critical Appraisal Of Responses To Māori Offending, Juan Marcellus Tauri, Robert Webb

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

This article critically analyses the role that criminological theory and specific policy formulations of culture play in New Zealand's state response to Māori crime. We begin by charting policy responses to the "Māori problem" during the 1980s to the 2000s, with a particular focus on policies and interventions based on theorising that Māori offending is attributable to loss of cultural identity, through to the current preference for risk factor and criminogenic needs approaches. The second part of the article critiques strategies employed by administrative criminologists who, in partnership with the policy sector, attempt to elevate their own epistemological constructions ...


Gender Neutral? An Empirical Test Of Life-Course Theories Of Criminal Behaviour, Jennie M. Thompson Nov 2012

Gender Neutral? An Empirical Test Of Life-Course Theories Of Criminal Behaviour, Jennie M. Thompson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The current study systematically assesses four mainstream theories – General Theory of Crime, Interactional Theory, Dual Taxonomy, and Age-graded Theory of Informal Social control – of criminal behaviour over the life-course; while examining the role of gender and several measures argued to be important in explaining the criminal behaviour of women. This study also explores both the within- and between-person variance (i.e., the role of population heterogeneity) and lag effects (i.e., the role of state dependence) in explaining the criminal behaviour. Random-Effects Negative Binomial Models were used to predict both serious and non-serious criminal behaviour over the life-course using panel ...


Communicating Crimes: Covering Gangs In Contemporary Canadian Journalism, Chris Richardson Jun 2012

Communicating Crimes: Covering Gangs In Contemporary Canadian Journalism, Chris Richardson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this integrated-article dissertation, I examine representations of gangs in Canadian journalism, focusing primarily on contemporary newspaper reporting. While the term “gang” often refers to violent groups of young urban males, it can also signify outlaw bikers, organized crime, terrorist cells, non-criminal social groups, and a wide array of other collectives. I build on Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework to probe this ambiguity, seeking to provide context and critical assessments that will improve crime reporting and its reception. In the course of my work, I examine how popular films like West Side Story inform journalists’ descriptions of gangs. Though reporters ...


Do Women Engage In Self-Protection Because Of Violence Generally Or Sexual Violence Specifically? An Analysis Based On The 2009 General Social Survey, Pamela R. Glatt Jun 2012

Do Women Engage In Self-Protection Because Of Violence Generally Or Sexual Violence Specifically? An Analysis Based On The 2009 General Social Survey, Pamela R. Glatt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Using data from the 2009 General Social Survey on victimization, this study examines the relationship between Canadian women’s past experiences of sexual and physical victimization within the past five years and their subsequent engagement in self-protective behaviour. Self-protective behaviour is divided into three categories, including self-defense class enrollment, weapon carrying and overall protection (combines self-defense class and weapons). Three hypotheses are examined. Firstly, this study looks at whether women who have been victimized (regardless of type) are more likely to practice self-protective behaviour than their non-victim counterparts. Then, within the victims-only group, this study looks at whether women who ...


Heavy Handed: A Multi-Level Approach To Understanding Regional Variation In The Use Of Force By Police, Zachary R. Young Apr 2012

Heavy Handed: A Multi-Level Approach To Understanding Regional Variation In The Use Of Force By Police, Zachary R. Young

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Using data from the Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2004 (ICPSR 4572) from the United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, the goal of this paper is to determine whether or not there are regional variations in the way in which American police officers use force at the time of arrest. Specifically, this paper suggests that lower levels of police-suspect violence are present in the Southern United States owning to a culture of violence. Conversely, higher levels of police-suspect violence are likely to be found in the Northern United States as a result of ...


The Changing Nature Of Homicide And Its Impact On Homicide Clearance Rates: A Quantitative Analysis Of Two Trends From 1984-2009, Lauren Korosec Apr 2012

The Changing Nature Of Homicide And Its Impact On Homicide Clearance Rates: A Quantitative Analysis Of Two Trends From 1984-2009, Lauren Korosec

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The following analyses uses the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) data from 1984 to 2009 to examine factors that predict whether a homicide will be cleared or not (N=439,542). Two theories inform the current study: 1) Black’s theory of law (discretionary variables) proposes that characteristics of the victim, such as age or race, influence how diligently police work to solve a homicide; and 2) non-discretionary theories propose that characteristics of the homicide act, such as geographic location and weapon use, are more important to the solvability of a homicide. Preliminary analyses of ...


United States: A Global Criminal, Adam T. Noxell Jan 2012

United States: A Global Criminal, Adam T. Noxell

Sociology Publications

The paper was written to evaluate and discuss the crimes that the US committed during the decade long war on terrorism. It look specifically at the US invasion of Iraq, the nations motives for the attack and the process leading up to the attack. The paper argues the "super power" status that the US has allowed it to disregard domestic and international laws as well as human life to pursue its exploits in the middle east.


Counting The Cost: Estimating The Number Of Deaths Among Recently Released Prisoners In Australia, Stuart A. Kinner, David B. Preen, Azar Kariminia, Tony Butler, Jessica Y. Andrews, Mark Stoové, Matthew Law Jul 2011

Counting The Cost: Estimating The Number Of Deaths Among Recently Released Prisoners In Australia, Stuart A. Kinner, David B. Preen, Azar Kariminia, Tony Butler, Jessica Y. Andrews, Mark Stoové, Matthew Law

Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi)

Objective: To estimate the number of deaths among people released from prison in Australia in the 2007–08 financial year, within 4 weeks and 1 year of release. Design, participants and setting: Application of crude mortality rates for ex-prisoners (obtained from two independent, state-based record-linkage studies [New South Wales and Western Australia]) to a national estimate of the number and characteristics of people released from prison in 2007–08. Main outcome measures: Estimated number of deaths among adults released from Australian prisons in 2007–08, within 4 weeks and 1 year of release, classified by age, sex, Indigenous status and ...


Recidivism Risk Assessment For Aboriginal Males: A Brief Review Of The Scientific Literature, Andrew J.R. Harris, Collette Cousineau, Caroline A. Pagé, Paul Sonnichsen, Steven Varrette Mar 2011

Recidivism Risk Assessment For Aboriginal Males: A Brief Review Of The Scientific Literature, Andrew J.R. Harris, Collette Cousineau, Caroline A. Pagé, Paul Sonnichsen, Steven Varrette

Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi)

No level of violent recidivism is acceptable to Correctional Service of Canada staff or the Canadian public. Among other tools, CSC staff use counselling, supervision, education, and treatment programs to ensure the safe community reintegration of eligible offenders. The core method of determining risk for recidivism is an actuarially-based risk assessment instrument. The general process of contemporary risk assessment is outlined in this paper revealing a number of efficient and effective measures suitable for all male offender populations. Theory and research are reviewed showing that established risk prediction factors such as age, criminal history, anti-social peers, anti-social attitudes, and substance ...


Strategic Plan For Aboriginal Corrections, Correctional Service Canada Jan 2011

Strategic Plan For Aboriginal Corrections, Correctional Service Canada

Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi)

No abstract provided.


Access To Justice As A Component Of Citizenship: Reconsidering Policing Services For Canada’S Homeless, Laura Huey, Marianne Quirouette Sep 2009

Access To Justice As A Component Of Citizenship: Reconsidering Policing Services For Canada’S Homeless, Laura Huey, Marianne Quirouette

Sociology Publications

Due to their vulnerability on the streets, it has been frequently reported that the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, reports of such victimization are rarely made to the police. Failure to report crime has often been conceptualized as a problem for law enforcement, policy makers and social scientists (Skogan 1984). We conceptualize the failure to notify authorities as to the experience of criminal victimization by homeless men, women and youth as a problem directly linked to their status as ‘lesser citizens’, individuals and groups who are more often viewed as the criminal element to ...