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Criminology Commons

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Articles 1 - 30 of 784

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Probation In The United States: A Historical And Modern Perspective, Ryan M. Labrecque Dec 2017

Probation In The United States: A Historical And Modern Perspective, Ryan M. Labrecque

Ryan M. Labrecque

Probation is a court order through which a criminal defendant is placed under the control, supervision, and care of a probation officer in lieu of imprisonment; so long as the probationer maintains certain standards of conduct. This chapter reviews the historical development of probation in the United States, and highlights how the practice is used in the 21st century. Probation has many advantages over imprisonment, including lower operational costs, increased opportunities for rehabilitation, and reduced risk of criminal socialization. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest probation strategies that focus on compliance monitoring and other law enforcement aspects of supervision ...


Self-Control And Crime: Theory, Research, And Remaining Puzzles, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick, Alex R. Piquero Oct 2017

Self-Control And Crime: Theory, Research, And Remaining Puzzles, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick, Alex R. Piquero

Chad Posick

No abstract provided.


Juvenile Violence, A. J. Fox, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick Oct 2017

Juvenile Violence, A. J. Fox, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick

Chad Posick

No abstract provided.


Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio Oct 2017

Once Bitten, Thrice Wise: The Varying Effects Of Victimization On Routine Activities And Risk Management, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

While the relationship between offending and victimization is well established, less is understood about what contributes to the varied effects of victimization on future behavior. Drawing on qualitative interviews from a sample of at-risk men, the study explores recognized and unrecognized effects of victimization on subsequent behavior and management of lifestyle risks both within and across narratives. Findings demonstrate a range of perceived effects on behavior and risk management, with the presence or absence of substantive effects related to whether the event was both severe and directly attributable to involvement in at-risk behavior. Consequences for the victimization–termination hypothesis are ...


Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio Oct 2017

Youth Gangs: An Overview Of Key Findings And Directions For The Future, Terrance J. Taylor, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Youth gangs have received considerable attention for many decades. Undoubtedly, their disproportionate involvement in violence is one main reason for this attention. While gang members spend most of their lives engaging in the same types of behaviors as other youth (sleeping, eating, playing video games, going to school), they are also much more likely than non-gang members to be involved in violence and other criminal activity. Indeed, scholars have often highlighted the functional nature of violence as it pertains to gangs. Gangs come in a variety of forms: prison gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, extremist groups, and drug trafficking organizations, among ...


Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio Oct 2017

Leaving The Gang: A Review And Thoughts On Future Research, Dena C. Carson, J. Michael Vecchio

J. Michael Vecchio

Researchers have examined aspects of gangs and their members for almost a century. This work, however, focuses primarily on youth prior to joining as well as during gang involvement. While comparatively less is known about the leaving processes, work in this area has been increasing in recent years. This chapter will discuss the growing body of research on the processes associated with leaving the gang. Specifically, it will review difficulties associated with defining gang desistance, theoretical perspectives on desistance, variations in motives, methods, and consequences of leaving, barriers to desistance, as well as make recommendations for policy and future research.


The Scale Of Imprisonment In The United States: Twentieth Century Patterns And Twenty-First Century Prospects, Franklin E. Zimring Oct 2017

The Scale Of Imprisonment In The United States: Twentieth Century Patterns And Twenty-First Century Prospects, Franklin E. Zimring

Franklin E. Zimring

No abstract provided.


Kids, Groups And Crime: Some Implications Of A Well-Known Secret, Franklin E. Zimring Oct 2017

Kids, Groups And Crime: Some Implications Of A Well-Known Secret, Franklin E. Zimring

Franklin E. Zimring

No abstract provided.


Declining Homicide In New York City: A Tale Of Two Trends, Jeffrey Fagan, Franklin E. Zimring, June Kim Oct 2017

Declining Homicide In New York City: A Tale Of Two Trends, Jeffrey Fagan, Franklin E. Zimring, June Kim

Franklin E. Zimring

Part of a special issue on why crime is decreasing. The writers discuss the extent and causes of the decline in life threatening violence in New York City over a five-year period. In its relative and absolute magnitude, the falls in homicide in New York after 1992 were by far the biggest in the city's postwar history. The patterns for homicide during the decline differ in terms of location, weapon, and demography. The patterns show that there are two separate trends in nongun and gun homicides. The decline in gun homicides could probably be attributed to police intervention, but ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 42: Police Shootings, Tasers, And Community Efforts To Improve Police Accountability, Philip M. Stinson Sep 2017

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 42: Police Shootings, Tasers, And Community Efforts To Improve Police Accountability, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Eugene Puryear that originally aired on the Radio Sputnik show By Any Means Necessary on August 31, 2017.


Barriocide: Investigating The Temporal And Spatial Influence Of Neighborhood Structural Characteristics On Gang And Non-Gang Homicides In East Los Angeles, Matthew Valasik, Michael S. Barton, Shannon E. Reid, George E. Tita Aug 2017

Barriocide: Investigating The Temporal And Spatial Influence Of Neighborhood Structural Characteristics On Gang And Non-Gang Homicides In East Los Angeles, Matthew Valasik, Michael S. Barton, Shannon E. Reid, George E. Tita

Matthew Valasik

This study explored how changes in neighborhood structural characteristics predicted variation in gang versus non-gang homicides in a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD). Longitudinal negative binomial models were examined to test the relationship between-neighborhood structural covariates with gang and non-gang homicides over a 35-year period. This study highlights the potential to estimate temporal effects not captured by cross-sectional analyses alone. The results underscore a unique feature that distinguishes gang homicides from other forms of non-gang violence, its tenacious clustering, and spatial dependence over time.


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 41: Police Body Cameras And The Planting Of Evidence, Philip M. Stinson Aug 2017

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 41: Police Body Cameras And The Planting Of Evidence, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Eugene Puryear that originally aired on the Radio Sputnik show By Any Means Necessary on August 11, 2017.


Is Downsizing Prisons Dangerous? The Effect Of California’S Realignment Act On Public Safety, Jody Sundt, Emily Salisbury, Mark G. Harmon Jul 2017

Is Downsizing Prisons Dangerous? The Effect Of California’S Realignment Act On Public Safety, Jody Sundt, Emily Salisbury, Mark G. Harmon

Mark G. Harmon

Research Summary: Recent declines in imprisonment raise a critical question: Can prison populations be reduced without endangering the public? This question is examined by testing the effect of California’s dramatic efforts to comply with court-mandated targets to reduce prison overcrowding using a pretest-posttest design. The results showed that California’s Realignment Act had no effect on violent or property crime rates in 2012, 2013, or 2014. When crime types were disaggregated, a moderately large, statistically significant association between Realignment and auto theft rates was observed in 2012. By 2014, however, this effect had decayed and auto theft rates returned ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 40: Conspiring To Cover Up Police Shootings, Philip M. Stinson Jul 2017

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 40: Conspiring To Cover Up Police Shootings, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost Podcast features an interview of Professor Phil Stinson by Eugene Puryear that originally aired on the Radio Sputnik show By Any Means Necessary on June 29, 2017.


A Post Mortem Of The Eichmann Case--The Lessons For International Law, Nicholas N. Kittrie Jun 2017

A Post Mortem Of The Eichmann Case--The Lessons For International Law, Nicholas N. Kittrie

Nicholas Kittrie

No abstract provided.


Copycat Firesetting: Bridging Two Research Areas, Rebekah Doley, Claire Ferguson, Ray Surette Jun 2017

Copycat Firesetting: Bridging Two Research Areas, Rebekah Doley, Claire Ferguson, Ray Surette

Rebekah Doley

Deliberate firesetting costs our community in destruction to property and lives. Public concern heightens when similar fires occur in a series, raising the specter of copycat firesetting. Difficulties associated with researching copycat crimes in general mean that not a lot is known about copycat firesetting. As an initial step toward filling this research gap, we explore connections between research on copycat crime and research into deliberate firesetting. The intention is to extract salient features from what is known about the phenomena of deliberate firesetting and copycat crime, map them together, and point out shared and unique characteristics. It is argued ...


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 38: Why Police Trials Are So Rare, Philip M. Stinson Jun 2017

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 38: Why Police Trials Are So Rare, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost podcast originally aired live on Minnesota Public Radio on May 30, 2017.


Charging A Police Officer In Fatal Shooting Case Is Rare, And A Conviction Is Even Rarer, Philip M. Stinson Jun 2017

Charging A Police Officer In Fatal Shooting Case Is Rare, And A Conviction Is Even Rarer, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

No abstract provided.


Fraud And Corruption Against The Government: A Proposed Statute To Establish A Taxpayer Remedy, Erwin Chemerinsky Jun 2017

Fraud And Corruption Against The Government: A Proposed Statute To Establish A Taxpayer Remedy, Erwin Chemerinsky

Erwin Chemerinsky

No abstract provided.


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 37: The Acquittal Of Police Officer Betty Jo Shelby, Philip M. Stinson May 2017

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 37: The Acquittal Of Police Officer Betty Jo Shelby, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost podcast was originally recorded for the Radio Sputnik show By Any Means Necessary on May 18, 2017.


Perceptions Regarding Public Safety In Portland’S King Neighborhood, Kris R. Henning, Greg Stewart May 2017

Perceptions Regarding Public Safety In Portland’S King Neighborhood, Kris R. Henning, Greg Stewart

Kris R. Henning

The Portland Police Bureau (PPB) is partnering with Portland State University (PSU) and neighborhood groups to develop new strategies for improving police-community relations and reducing crime. Our most recent initiative seeks to provide residents with greater voice in where PPB officers work in their neighborhood and what steps the City takes there to address public safety concerns. The King neighborhood in Northeast Portland was chosen as the starting point for this work following a recent gang related shooting at King School Park. Officers from North Precinct had already begun outreach to the community and they wanted additional input from the ...


Public Perceptions Regarding The Police Bureau And Crime In Portland, Oregon, Brian Renauer, Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Kris R. Henning, Greg Stewart May 2017

Public Perceptions Regarding The Police Bureau And Crime In Portland, Oregon, Brian Renauer, Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Kris R. Henning, Greg Stewart

Kris R. Henning

On September 12, 2012 the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) filed a complaint in the Federal District Court for Oregon asserting that the City of Portland has engaged in a pattern and practice of unnecessary or excessive force against persons experiencing a mental health crisis. This survey is the result of a settlement agreement between Portland’s City Council and the DOJ which specified the Portland Police Bureau (PPB) develop a means of assessing public perceptions.

This report examines public perceptions of PPB across four content areas that are highlighted in the DOJ settlement agreement. Data for the report ...


Police Shootings Data: What We Know And What We Don't Know, Philip M. Stinson Apr 2017

Police Shootings Data: What We Know And What We Don't Know, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

Stinson, P. M. (2017, April 20). Police shootings data: What we know and what we don’t know. 2017 Urban Elected Prosecutors Summit, Atlanta, GA.


Op-Ed: Cops Shoot And Kill Someone About 1,000 Times A Year: Few Are Prosecuted: What Can Be Done?, Philip M. Stinson Apr 2017

Op-Ed: Cops Shoot And Kill Someone About 1,000 Times A Year: Few Are Prosecuted: What Can Be Done?, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

No abstract provided.


Crime Stats Should Inform The Public: Trump Is Misusing Them To Scare Us Instead, Philip M. Stinson Apr 2017

Crime Stats Should Inform The Public: Trump Is Misusing Them To Scare Us Instead, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

No abstract provided.


Research Brief One-Sheet No.8: The Impact Of Police Crime On Lgbtq+ People, Philip M. Stinson Apr 2017

Research Brief One-Sheet No.8: The Impact Of Police Crime On Lgbtq+ People, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This research brief provides a summary of a research presentation at the Forum on 21st Century Policing: Protecting the Rights of LGBTQ+ People held by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services at the U.S. Department of Justice, on July 21, 2016, in Washington, DC.


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 36: Police Crime And Police Integrity: Policy Implications For Law Enforcement Agencies, Philip M. Stinson Mar 2017

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 36: Police Crime And Police Integrity: Policy Implications For Law Enforcement Agencies, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost podcast was produced by the National Institute of Justice and features a recording of Phil Stinson discussing police crime policy implications for law enforcement agencies.


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 32: More Police Shootings In The United States: Business As Usual, Philip M. Stinson Mar 2017

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 32: More Police Shootings In The United States: Business As Usual, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

This episode of the Police Integrity Lost podcast revisits the issue of police shootings in the United States.


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 35: The Truth About Police Body Cameras, Philip M. Stinson Mar 2017

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 35: The Truth About Police Body Cameras, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

No abstract provided.


Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 34: The Takeaway From The Murder Mistrial Of Michael Slager, Philip M. Stinson Mar 2017

Police Integrity Lost Podcast Episode 34: The Takeaway From The Murder Mistrial Of Michael Slager, Philip M. Stinson

Philip M Stinson

No abstract provided.