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San Jose State University

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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

Solitary Confinement: Social Death And Its Afterlives, Jen Rushforth May 2017

Solitary Confinement: Social Death And Its Afterlives, Jen Rushforth

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

No abstract provided.


Mass Shootings And The Media: How Race And Ethnicity Influence Media Coverage, Emily Wheeler May 2017

Mass Shootings And The Media: How Race And Ethnicity Influence Media Coverage, Emily Wheeler

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Topics related to crime and the criminal justice system comprise a majority of topics discussed in the media. This study explores how media coverage of mass shootings varies based on the racial or ethnic identity of the shooter. Topics examined include popular beliefs and misconceptions about the race of mass murderers, the role mass media plays in influencing public perceptions about race and crime related topics, and the alarming rate at which the public recognizes and accepts the media as a reliable source of information when official data sources provide a much different picture. Further analysis of the Columbine High ...


Body-Worn Cameras: Reducing Citizen Complaints And Improving Relationships, Julie Bui May 2017

Body-Worn Cameras: Reducing Citizen Complaints And Improving Relationships, Julie Bui

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Video recordings of police-citizen interactions, most notably those obtained from the dashboard cameras (dashcams) of police cars, have been successful in objectively capturing police-citizen exchanges. However, since police-civilian interactions do not solely occur in front of police cars, dashcams present significant limitations. Off-camera violent, and sometimes fatal, encounters (such as the notorious Ferguson case) have fueled increased public support for body-worn cameras. This is especially true in cases with conflicting accounts from the officer(s), victim(s), and witness(es). Requiring officers to wear bodycams may reduce incidents of force and citizen complaints, and increase officer accountability. This paper will ...


How Japan’S Cultural Norms Affect Policing: A Side-By-Side Comparison With The United States, Katrina Tran May 2017

How Japan’S Cultural Norms Affect Policing: A Side-By-Side Comparison With The United States, Katrina Tran

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The ways of policing have been critiqued throughout the years—some have advocated for a direct approach while others value diplomatic techniques. Consideration is emphasized by how culture affects policing in the United States and Japan. In the United States, the customs of policing involve violence, individualism, pragmatism, social mobility, and low power distance, whereas Japan encourages non-violence, face-saving, conservatism, and high power distance. The difference in these cultural norms reflects how policing is conducted in these two countries. To understand how policing in these two countries are different, this paper examines the difference of cultural norms and its impact ...


Addressing The Ab 109 Population In Santa Cruz County: The Santa Cruz County Recidivism Study Of Post-Realignment Offenders (2011–2016), Shea Johnson May 2017

Addressing The Ab 109 Population In Santa Cruz County: The Santa Cruz County Recidivism Study Of Post-Realignment Offenders (2011–2016), Shea Johnson

Master's Projects

The goal of this paper and the included “Santa Cruz County Recidivism Study of Post-Realignment Offenders (2011–2016)” is to provide a meaningful presentation of recidivism rates for Santa Cruz County and, in doing so, help Santa Cruz County agencies to better design recidivism reduction programs, highlight the problems every county faces in trying to conduct recidivism reduction studies, and provide a roadmap for what is and is not possible for policymakers who are increasingly demanding more refined data sets and streamlined data for budgeting.


Criminal Careers In Cyberspace: Examining Website Failure Within Child Exploitation Networks, Bryce G. Westlake, Martin Bouchard May 2015

Criminal Careers In Cyberspace: Examining Website Failure Within Child Exploitation Networks, Bryce G. Westlake, Martin Bouchard

Faculty Publications

Publically accessible, illegal, websites represent an additional challenge for control agencies, but also an opportunity for researchers to monitor, in real time, changes in criminal careers. Using a repeated measures design, we examine evolution in the networks that form around child exploitation (CE) websites, over a period of 60 weeks, and determine which criminal career dimensions predict website failure. Network data were collected using a custom-designed web-crawler. Baseline survival rates were compared to networks surrounding (legal) sexuality and sports websites. Websites containing CE material were no more likely to fail than comparisons. Cox regression analyses suggest that increased volumes of ...


No One Cried For Help: The Integration Of Groupthink Into Modern Rape Culture, Jourdin Hermann May 2014

No One Cried For Help: The Integration Of Groupthink Into Modern Rape Culture, Jourdin Hermann

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Rape symbolizes lost innocence. Many young females increasingly endure sexual violence at the hands of multiple male assailants. Despite the common coupling of group dynamics and rapes, little evidence proposes Irving Janis’s theory of groupthink as one plausible explanation. This paper argues that the two concepts are related; groupthink needs to hold a more prominent position within the sexual violence literature. A case in the small town of Steubenville, Ohio provides the backdrop for investigating how groupthink impacts instances of gang rapes. Integration of the scholarly literature available on groupthink and sexual violence establishes the basis of this research ...


Democracy, Prison, And Public Safety Realignment: Renewing Our Imagination, Kimberly Turner May 2014

Democracy, Prison, And Public Safety Realignment: Renewing Our Imagination, Kimberly Turner

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The American carceral condition has waged a 200-year-old struggle where the lives of the guilty, the innocent, and the victimized have taken center stage in a debate centered on rehabilitation, reformation, and revenge. The drama has undergone a number of revisions from great scholarly authors, multidisciplinary intellectuals, and literary muses. Despite a number of new renderings, the central themes of the American prison have remained constant, and just as there have been builders of prisons, there have been forces intent on their destruction. The current state of the American carceral condition has burgeoned since the neoliberal political and economic shift ...


The Stigmatization Of Individuals Convicted Of Sex Offenses: Labeling Theory And The Sex Offense Registry, Carla Schultz May 2014

The Stigmatization Of Individuals Convicted Of Sex Offenses: Labeling Theory And The Sex Offense Registry, Carla Schultz

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The sex offender registry currently lists over half a million U.S. citizens as sex offenders. Modern day legislation directed toward sex offenders was born in an era of public fear and rash decision-making. Terrible consequences have since been identified as resulting from the labeling of sex offenders via the registry. These unintended consequences socially, economically, and psychologically influence the lives of sex offenders. Labeling theory states that individuals who are given a label eventually subscribe to that label; in other words, it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. In the case of sex offenders, this can only mean more damage to ...


Comparing Methods For Detecting Child Exploitation Content Online, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard, Richard Frank Jan 2012

Comparing Methods For Detecting Child Exploitation Content Online, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard, Richard Frank

Faculty Publications

The sexual exploitation of children online is seen as a global issue and has been addressed by both governments and private organizations. Efforts thus far have focused primarily on the use of image hash value databases to find content. However, recently researchers have begun to use keywords as a way to detect child exploitation content. Within the current study we explore both of these methodologies. Using a custom designed web-crawler, we create three networks using the hash value method, keywords method, and a hybrid method combining the first two. Results first show that the three million images found in our ...


Finding The Key Players In Online Child Exploitation Networks, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard, Richard Frank May 2011

Finding The Key Players In Online Child Exploitation Networks, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard, Richard Frank

Bryce Garreth Westlake

The growth of the Internet has been paralleled with a similar growth in online child exploitation. Since completely shutting down child exploitation websites is difficult (or arguably impossible), the goal must be to find the most efficient way of identifying the key targets and then to apprehend them. Traditionally, online investigations have been manual and centered on images. However, we argue that target prioritization needs to take more than just images into consideration, and that the investigating process needs to become more systematic. Drawing from a web crawler we specifically designed for extracting child exploitation website networks, this study 1 ...


Finding The Key Players In Online Child Exploitation Networks, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard, Richard Frank May 2011

Finding The Key Players In Online Child Exploitation Networks, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard, Richard Frank

Faculty Publications

The growth of the Internet has been paralleled with a similar growth in online child exploitation. Since completely shutting down child exploitation websites is difficult (or arguably impossible), the goal must be to find the most efficient way of identifying the key targets and then to apprehend them. Traditionally, online investigations have been manual and centered on images. However, we argue that target prioritization needs to take more than just images into consideration, and that the investigating process needs to become more systematic. Drawing from a web crawler we specifically designed for extracting child exploitation website networks, this study 1 ...


Strategies To Disrupt Online Child Pornography Networks, Kila Joffres, Martin Bouchard, Richard Frank, Bryce Westlake Jan 2011

Strategies To Disrupt Online Child Pornography Networks, Kila Joffres, Martin Bouchard, Richard Frank, Bryce Westlake

Faculty Publications

This paper seeks to determine which attack strategies (hub, bridge, or fragmentation) are most effective at disrupting two online child pornography networks in terms of outcome measures that include density, clustering, compactness, and average path length. For this purpose, two networks were extracted using a web-crawler that recursively follows child exploitation sites. It was found that different attack strategies were warranted depending on the outcome measure and the network structure. Overall, hub attacks were most effective at reducing network density and clustering, whereas fragmentation attacks were most effective at reducing the network's distance-based cohesion and average path length. In ...


The Structure And Content Of Online Child Exploitation Networks, Richard Frank, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard Jan 2010

The Structure And Content Of Online Child Exploitation Networks, Richard Frank, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard

Faculty Publications

The emergence of the Internet has provided people with the ability to find and communicate with others of common interests. Unfortunately, those involved in the practices of child exploitation have also received the same benefits. Although law enforcement continues its efforts to shut down websites dedicated to child exploitation, the problem remains uncurbed. Despite this, law enforcement has yet to examine these websites as a network and determine their structure, stability and susceptibleness to attack. We extract the structure and features of four online child exploitation networks using a custom-written webpage crawler. Social network analysis is then applied with the ...


The Structure And Content Of Online Child Exploitation Networks, Richard Frank, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard Jan 2010

The Structure And Content Of Online Child Exploitation Networks, Richard Frank, Bryce Westlake, Martin Bouchard

Bryce Garreth Westlake

The emergence of the Internet has provided people with the ability to find and communicate with others of common interests. Unfortunately, those involved in the practices of child exploitation have also received the same benefits. Although law enforcement continues its efforts to shut down websites dedicated to child exploitation, the problem remains uncurbed. Despite this, law enforcement has yet to examine these websites as a network and determine their structure, stability and susceptibleness to attack. We extract the structure and features of four online child exploitation networks using a custom-written webpage crawler. Social network analysis is then applied with the ...


Sunday Friends: The Working Alternative To Charity, James D. Lee, Yoko Baba, Claudio V. Sanchez, Rebecca Wang, Chelsey White Jan 2009

Sunday Friends: The Working Alternative To Charity, James D. Lee, Yoko Baba, Claudio V. Sanchez, Rebecca Wang, Chelsey White

Faculty Publications

Sunday Friends is a non-profit organization in San José, California, that provides multiple activities for families who are in need of financial support. Given the particular location of the program, most families are Latino and bilingual. Participants and program volunteers form a community at an elementary school on a couple of scheduled Sundays each month. When family members participate in activities designed to educate, improve skills, and to give back to the larger community, they earn tickets that they can redeem for items that they need and want from the Sunday Friends store. Activities include healthy cooking projects, “Thank You ...


Stigma Sentiments And Self-Meanings: Applying The Modified Labeling Theory To Juvenile Delinquents, James Lee, Amy Kroska, Nicole Carr Aug 2008

Stigma Sentiments And Self-Meanings: Applying The Modified Labeling Theory To Juvenile Delinquents, James Lee, Amy Kroska, Nicole Carr

Faculty Publications

We use “stigma sentiments” as a way to operationalize the stigma associated with a juvenile delinquency label. Stigma sentiments are the evaluation, potency, and activity (EPA) associated with the cultural category “a juvenile delinquent.” We find consistent support for the validity of the evaluation component as measures of these conceptions. Then we assess hypotheses derived from the modified labeling theory: we expect each stigma sentiment to be related positively to the corresponding dimension of self-identities among juvenile delinquents but unrelated to the corresponding dimension among non-delinquents. We find support for this hypothesis on the evaluation dimension. We also find two ...