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Articles 1 - 30 of 58

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

An Empirical Analysis Of The Effects Of Juvenile Offender Placement In Adult Facilities On Recidivism Rates, Heather Lorraine Swanson Jan 2018

An Empirical Analysis Of The Effects Of Juvenile Offender Placement In Adult Facilities On Recidivism Rates, Heather Lorraine Swanson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over time, efforts have been aimed at protecting the public while at the same time resocializing young people who have entered the juvenile justice system. However, once they have entered, the juvenile justice system is putting young offenders into adult incarceration facilities resulting in them actually becoming worse criminals with higher chances of reoffending. This study demonstrates that not only are juvenile offenders different from adult offenders, they need to be treated as such. This thesis will discuss the ways in which youth offenders are different from adults and use quantitative analyses to show that juveniles incarcerated in adult prisons ...


The Debt Prison: The Effect Of Court-Ordered Monetary Sanctions On Recidivism, Jennifer Jewel Tostlebe Jan 2017

The Debt Prison: The Effect Of Court-Ordered Monetary Sanctions On Recidivism, Jennifer Jewel Tostlebe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of monetary sanctions as part of the punishment process has been a part of the American criminal justice system since colonization. However, there has been little empirical research investigating the effect of financial penalties incurred by criminal offenders and the extent to which such sanctions relate to the likelihood of recidivism. By applying General Strain Theory, this study explores how monetary sanctions, along with demographics and prior offense type, affect the recidivism rates of persons who were incarcerated. Utilizing a sample of 729 first-time prisoners released from Iowa prisons and then followed for three years, secondary data from ...


Forensic Tool Mark Comparisons: Tests For The Null Hypothesis Of Different Sources, Jeremy R. Hadler Jan 2017

Forensic Tool Mark Comparisons: Tests For The Null Hypothesis Of Different Sources, Jeremy R. Hadler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

If a striated tool such as a screw driver is used to commit a crime, often there is a tool mark left behind as evidence. It is then the job of a forensic tool mark examiner to compare this crime scene tool mark to tool marks made by a suspect's tool to determine if they match, i.e were made by the same tool. Forensic tool mark examiners say that these striated tool marks are comprised of 'class' and 'individual' characteristics where class characteristics are traits common to a large number of tools such as the width of a ...


Black Feminist Criminology In Action: A Study Of Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, And Offending Among African American Females, Alexia Angton Jan 2017

Black Feminist Criminology In Action: A Study Of Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, And Offending Among African American Females, Alexia Angton

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the past decade, an increasing number of scholars have begun to explore the link between experiences of interpersonal racial discrimination and an increased risk of offending. The evidence shows that racial discrimination is a risk factor and that ethnic-racial socialization (ERS) provides resilience. However, much of the research on this phenomenon is largely focused on African American males. Drawing on Burt, Simons, and Gibbon’s (2012) research, I investigate the ways in which interpersonal racial discrimination increases the risk of offending among African American females and whether familial ERS practices provide resilience to its criminogenic effects. Using panel data ...


Who Commits What? An Evaluation Of Offenders Convicted Of Domestic Violence And Sexual Abuse In Iowa, Taylor Jo Barry Jan 2017

Who Commits What? An Evaluation Of Offenders Convicted Of Domestic Violence And Sexual Abuse In Iowa, Taylor Jo Barry

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the criminal histories of a cohort of offenders in Iowa who have been newly admitted to prison on a most serious domestic or sex offense. Moreover, addressing whether offenders convicted of domestic violence and sex abuse have intersecting, specialized, or versatile criminal histories. Data was collected from the Justice Data Warehouse and offenders newly admitted to prison during FY2015 on a most serious domestic violence or sex crime, as well as a matched comparison group, were assessed. Analyses by logistical regression and receiver operating characteristic curves examined the criminal histories of these ...


Behind The Badge, Will Dodds, Korrie Bysted Jul 2015

Behind The Badge, Will Dodds, Korrie Bysted

Ethos

You’re driving down the street, and flashing red and blue lights appear in your rear view mirror. Time to get pulled over, or as the police call it a “traffic stop.” You were probably speeding or forgot to put your headlights on. Thank your personal deity that you haven't had a drink. You sink in your seat—the night just went from great to horrible.


Cops: Know Your Rights, Jasmine Anderson, Jordan Welch, Yue Wu May 2015

Cops: Know Your Rights, Jasmine Anderson, Jordan Welch, Yue Wu

Ethos

Radars beeped, scans ran and the siren was ready for use. Taking the passenger seat in the Iowa State Campus Police car, flashbacks of “Reno 911” episodes ran through my mind as I imagined all of the sweet moves that would be thrown down on every freshman traveling with a backpack full of Keystone. Roaming through Campustown, we drove slowly, circling the mass of students traveling between parties and bars


Investigating The Aroma Of Marijuana, Cocaine, And Heroin For Forensic Applications Using Simultaneous Multidimensional Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Olfactometry, Somchai Rice Jan 2015

Investigating The Aroma Of Marijuana, Cocaine, And Heroin For Forensic Applications Using Simultaneous Multidimensional Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Olfactometry, Somchai Rice

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The active pharmacological compound in a street drug sample is not volatile at ambient temperatures and is probably not what triggers and alert response from a trained drug dog. Improved understanding of the ‘signature’ odor characteristics of illicit street drugs offers insight into the detection and some fundamental mechanisms of canine and human olfaction. Signature odor and smell of a drug is typically caused by compounds present as very low concentrations and are not targeted in forensic analytical methods. Forensic analytical methods focus on active compounds or their breakdown intermediates, which may not elicit any olfactory response or be only ...


Analysis Of The Propensity Of Employment On Recidivism Among Parolees In Iowa, Laura S. Glas Jan 2014

Analysis Of The Propensity Of Employment On Recidivism Among Parolees In Iowa, Laura S. Glas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The parole population continues to increase in the United States. This trend creates a need for an analysis of the effect of employment on the likelihood of parolee recidivism. The goal of the current research was to determine the propensity of employment on recidivism when the problem that employment was not randomly distributed among parolees was corrected. The effect of employment was examined among 1,270 parolees released from prison in Iowa in 2010 and its effect on recidivism, including re-arrest and re-incarceration, during a two-year follow up period. Employment was examined in two ways to assess economic factors and ...


Has The Addition Of Community Policing In Neighborhoods Targeted For Revitalization Enhanced The Community Revitalization Process - A Case Study Of Des Moines, Iowa From 1966 To 2012, Theodore Stroope Jan 2014

Has The Addition Of Community Policing In Neighborhoods Targeted For Revitalization Enhanced The Community Revitalization Process - A Case Study Of Des Moines, Iowa From 1966 To 2012, Theodore Stroope

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The city of Des Moines, Iowa has employed both community policing techniques as well as extensive neighborhood revitalization efforts on an ongoing basis since being selected as one of the first cities to participate in the Model Cities program in 1966. Since then, Des Moines has evolved its neighborhood revitalization and community policing programs into effective tools to facilitate the overall revitalization goal in Des Moines. This thesis uses historical review and human-subject interviews to analyze the effectiveness of these programs and whether their collaboration has enhanced the overall goal of revitalizing Des Moines' neighborhoods. The thesis also explores whether ...


Gangs In A Rural Town: An Analysis Of Community Perceptions Of Crime, Gangs, And The New In-Migrant Population., Angela Glosser Jan 2013

Gangs In A Rural Town: An Analysis Of Community Perceptions Of Crime, Gangs, And The New In-Migrant Population., Angela Glosser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Urban gangs have captivated social scientists and been the topic of research for decades. However, recent gang member migration has created a relatively new interest in the possibility of non-metropolitan, or rural, gang presence and activities. Current research literature contends that this phenomenon is the result of the in-migration of urban minority and immigrant gang members, whereas law enforcement asserts gang growth is caused by community apathy toward the growing problem. This research examined community perceptions within the rural case study community of Bridgetown, Iowa. Bridgetown has been experiencing an influx of minority in-migrants entering the community to work ...


The Recovery Experiences Of Child Identity Theft Victims: Preliminary Results, Axton Betz, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Gong-Soog Hong Jan 2012

The Recovery Experiences Of Child Identity Theft Victims: Preliminary Results, Axton Betz, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Gong-Soog Hong

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Identity theft occurs when personal information is stolen and used for the thief’s gain (Cullen, 2007; Sullivan, 2004). Nine million new cases of identity theft are reported each year (Federal Trade Commission, n.d.). Many more cases occur that are not reported or occur without the victim’s knowledge. Anyone with a Social Security number (Sharp, Shreve-Neiger, Fremouw, Kane, & Hutton, 2004) can become a victim of identity theft. For example, it is estimated that 500,000 U.S. children are victimized annually (Office of the Florida Attorney General, 2008) with incidents of child identity theft rising more quickly than any other type of identity theft (Cullen, 2007). As with adult victims, thieves may use a child’s identity to obtain loans, establish credit accounts and obtain employment (California Office of Privacy Protection, 2006; Collins, 2006). Consequences of identity theft include severely hindered financial security (e.g., inability to obtain loans, obtain rental housing, or gain employment), and impaired mental and physical health. Surprisingly, identity theft, while affecting millions of Americans, has captured limited ...


Sex Trafficking: How The Media Portrays Victims And Reflects Legislation, Rachel Rae Curtis Jan 2012

Sex Trafficking: How The Media Portrays Victims And Reflects Legislation, Rachel Rae Curtis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sex trafficking is a pervasive problem in the United States and around the world. For most of its history in the United States, the issue of sex trafficking has been hidden from the public and pushed into the back of peoples' minds. It has been a problem that people are sympathetic to, but made to believe is not happening in our country. Recently, though, light has been shed on this problem through increased public awareness, primarily through the news media. Using a content analysis, I investigated the content of news media articles that have been used to describe the people ...


Peering Beyond The Bars: Institutional Confinement Of Female Inmates, Anna E. Kosloski Jan 2012

Peering Beyond The Bars: Institutional Confinement Of Female Inmates, Anna E. Kosloski

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Criminal behavior does not cease when an individual is removed to the confines of the prison walls. Correctional violence is a exists among America's modern prison system. Criminology has built a vast body of research on the institutional misconduct of male offenders, while at the same time has ignored the misconduct of female offenders. This study extends the importation model of inmate behavior to a cohort of female offenders through an examination of demographic characteristics, criminological history, victimization history, and personality disorders on institutional misconduct in a maximum security female prison.


Following The Creative Capital Model: The Social Consequences For Urban And Suburban Counties, Matthew Dennis Moore Jan 2012

Following The Creative Capital Model: The Social Consequences For Urban And Suburban Counties, Matthew Dennis Moore

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many cities have tried different solutions to develop the city economically. The creative capital model of economic development is gaining acceptance as a viable model of development for city planners and mayors (Dreher 2002; Kratke 2010; Long 2009; Peck 2007; Ponzini and Rossi 2010). According to Florida (2002) a city should attract what he termed creative people to aid the city's economic development. These creative class individuals will bring their creative ideas to the city, which will then attract businesses to the city. The arrival of businesses and creative class individuals should create an economic and social panacea for ...


Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston Jan 2008

Validation Of The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool--Ii, Christopher Allen Ralston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The accurate assessment of risk of sexual reoffense for juveniles has the potential to inform many actions, including the segregation of low risk from high risk offenders, allocation of limited resources, matching treatment assignments and other programming with risk, and implementation of various state and federal regulations (e.g., registration and community notification laws) (Epperson, Ralston, Fowers, DeWitt, & Gore, 2006). The Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool -- II (JSORRAT-II; Epperson et al., 2006) is the only known fully actuarially-derived risk assessment tool designed specifically for juveniles who have offended sexually (JSOs). However, it has yet to be validated. To test the predictive validity of the JSORRAT-II, the present study employed an ...


The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski Jan 2008

The Effect Of Prisonization On Female Criminality, Anna Elizabeth Kosloski

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Prisonization theory asserts that inmates who internalize the attitudes and behaviors of a criminal lifestyle are most likely to continue their criminal careers and thus less likely to desist from crime. Unfortunately, virtually all prior studies of prisonization have used male samples and ignored female inmates. Using official data from 174 female inmates in Arizona, the current study examined predictors of 10 forms of institutional misconduct. Net the effects of demographic, social history, criminal career, and other risk factors, women who had served prior prison terms were significantly likely to commit all forms of misconduct. The effect of prior prison ...


Strain, Negative Emotional Affect, And The Criminal Adaptations Of Women, Audrey Elaine Lair Jan 2007

Strain, Negative Emotional Affect, And The Criminal Adaptations Of Women, Audrey Elaine Lair

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the capacity of Agnew's General Strain Theory to explain the self-reported criminality of women. Using a sample of chemically addicted women, this research examines how strains with special relevance for women---losing custody of a child, homelessness, being a victim of assault, suffering from female related health problems, and getting a positive HIV diagnosis, can accumulate and lead to criminal behavior. It also explores the mediating effects of negative emotions and anger in the strain-crime relationship.;The results reveal that exposure to a greater number of strains increases the likelihood of criminal behavior. They also reveal that ...


An Interdisciplinary Review Of The Crowd At Eighteenth Century Hangings In England, Susan Renee Stockdale Jan 2007

An Interdisciplinary Review Of The Crowd At Eighteenth Century Hangings In England, Susan Renee Stockdale

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This is an interdisciplinary study of the crowds at eighteenth century hangings in England. The three disciplines involved are sociology, psychology and history. The first two disciplines are combined in the first chapter which provides an overview of psychosocial research on crowd behavior and shows that these theories have evolved from initial theories which hypothesized that an individual loses his autonomy and becomes subject to the collective mind to more recent theories which hypothesize that an individual's behavior in a crowd is consistent with an existing norm which the individual uses as a model for his behavior in that ...


Adjusted Actuarial Assessment Of Sex Offenders: The Impact Of Clinical Overrides On Predictive Accuracy, Kathleen Spencer Gore Jan 2007

Adjusted Actuarial Assessment Of Sex Offenders: The Impact Of Clinical Overrides On Predictive Accuracy, Kathleen Spencer Gore

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As evidenced by the passage of the Adam Walsh Act and the comprehensive media coverage of several high-profile cases, "The prediction of criminal behavior is perhaps one of the most central issues in the criminal justice system" (Andrews & Bonta, 1998, p. 211). Recent research has generally documented the superiority of actuarial prediction over clinical judgment in decision-making across various domains including risk assessment (Harris, et al., 1993; Grove & Meehl, 1996; Grove, et al., 2000). Several actuarial sexual recidivism risk assessment tools are now well-established (e.g. Static-99; RRASOR; SORAG; and MnSOST-R).;Despite this, Hanson (1998) noted that clinicians may still question the comprehensiveness of actuarial methods and "Those skeptical of actuarial predictions will always find reasons to adjust actuarial estimates" (p. 65). In response to this debate, many clinicians have argued ...


An Exploratory Look At Career Criminality, Psychopathy, And Offending Persistence: Convergence Of Criminological And Psychological Constructs?, Christine Marie Graeve Jan 2007

An Exploratory Look At Career Criminality, Psychopathy, And Offending Persistence: Convergence Of Criminological And Psychological Constructs?, Christine Marie Graeve

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

There exists an abundance of literature on career criminality within criminology and psychopathy within psychology. However, relatively little effort has been made linking the constructs together. This thesis examines the influence of several potential determinants of career criminality, psychopathy, and persistent offending. Some of these potential determinants of these constructs include several psychological and sociological factors. The data (N = 2,486) used in this thesis were originally collected in 1964 and 1965 from young males entering the California Youth Authority (CYA) who were then studied for the next 20 years. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of ...


Using Counterfactuals To Assess Eyewitnesses' Abilities To Estimate The Effects Of External Influences On Their Lineup Identifications , Steve Douglas Charman Jan 2006

Using Counterfactuals To Assess Eyewitnesses' Abilities To Estimate The Effects Of External Influences On Their Lineup Identifications , Steve Douglas Charman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Eyewitnesses are often asked in real-world cases whether their responses to a lineup were affected by various external influences, but their ability to answer these types of questions accurately is unknown. Two experiments used a new paradigm to examine eyewitnesses' abilities to estimate the influence of lineup manipulations. Eyewitnesses were administered either confirming post-identification feedback or no post-identification feedback (Experiment 1, n = 103), or a cautionary pre-lineup instruction or no cautionary pre-lineup instruction (Experiment 2, n = 114). Eyewitnesses then gave actual responses (retrospective confidence, view, and attention measures in Experiment 1; identification decision in Experiment 2) as well as counterfactual ...


Doing Mothering From Prison: Using Narrative To Explore The Experiences Of Participants In A Mother-Child Support Program , Betty Chamness Trost Jan 2006

Doing Mothering From Prison: Using Narrative To Explore The Experiences Of Participants In A Mother-Child Support Program , Betty Chamness Trost

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Qualitative research was conducted at a Midwestern state women's prison to explore how six incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women created their mothering subjectivities prior to their imprisonment. It also investigated how their mothering subjectivities were affected by their experiences in the prison's intervention programs specifically with the Storybook Project of Iowa: a mother-child support program that focused on literacy. This feminist narrative research explored how prison intervention programs, when coupled with the mother-child support project, transformed the women's understandings of themselves and their mothering. This transformation was aided by the women's self-reflective use of narrative through ...


Pre-Prison, Prison, Post-Prison: Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms , Daniel Shawn Murphy Jan 2004

Pre-Prison, Prison, Post-Prison: Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms , Daniel Shawn Murphy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Those sentenced to prison bring with them individual characteristics acquired prior to incarceration. This study assesses the effect of pre-prison experiences on adjustment to the prison environment. Regression analysis indicates that pre-prison experiences are significantly related to the likelihood of participating in, or being exposed to, elements of the incarceration experience that may cause post traumatic stress symptoms. A second component of this study assesses the relationship between elements of the incarceration experience and post traumatic stress symptoms. Regression analysis indicates that aspects of the incarceration experience constitute traumatic stressors that cause post traumatic stress symptoms in some individuals. This ...


Investigating Types Of Delinquents In A Non-Western Country: A Group-Based Model Approach , Yi-Fu Chen Jan 2004

Investigating Types Of Delinquents In A Non-Western Country: A Group-Based Model Approach , Yi-Fu Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on the empirical status for theories of types of delinquents in a non-Western country: Taiwan. Based on the theories and current empirical status of them, current study tries to answer three main questions: (1) How many groups of delinquent trajectories in Taiwan? (2) What factors distinguish between trajectory groups? Do empirical findings support common factors argument or trajectory-specific argument? (3) Do the covariates of delinquency work differently for trajectory groups in different timing?;Using five-year prospective longitudinal research in Taiwan, current research applies Nagin's group-based models to exploring these questions. In group-based models, results show three ...


Predictors Of Police Harassment And Arrests Among Homeless And Runaway Adolescents , Lisa Ellen Thrane Jan 2003

Predictors Of Police Harassment And Arrests Among Homeless And Runaway Adolescents , Lisa Ellen Thrane

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examines risk factors associated with informal and formal contact with law enforcement among 602 homeless and runaway youth from the Midwest. This study considers the effects of extra-legal factors, family context, individual traits, and situational considerations on the frequency of police harassment and self-reported post-runaway arrests. In addition, potential interactions will be examined. In the final model, the findings reveal that males are more likely to be hassled by the police. Youth Self-Report (YSR) aggressive behavior is a subscale from Achenbach's Youth Self-Report (1991) Externalizing behavior. It is positively associated with police harassment. Deviant subsistence strategies and ...


Testing Thornberry's Interactional Theory: The Reciprocal Relations , Sangmoon Lee Jan 2003

Testing Thornberry's Interactional Theory: The Reciprocal Relations , Sangmoon Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Thornberry's interactional model (1987) suggested that the process of delinquency could be explained by the reciprocal relations between social control variables and social learning variables over developmental stages. However, previous studies for testing interactional model (Thornberry et al., 1991, 1994) had some limitations. They did not adequately include theoretically significant measures of both social control and social learning variables. They did not fully cover the transition throughout adolescence. They also did not adequately examine the variation of social category and individual criminal propensity. This study selects family attachment as social control and deviant peer association as social learning variable ...


Relationship Between Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity, Risk Factors, And Stress In A Law Enforcement Cohort , Sandra L. Ramey Jan 2002

Relationship Between Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity, Risk Factors, And Stress In A Law Enforcement Cohort , Sandra L. Ramey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

It remains uncertain whether law enforcement officers (LEOs) have an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and, if so, the extent to which stress affects this relationship. To redress this observation, the self-reported incidence of CVD and CVD risk factors among 2,818 currently employed male LEOs was compared to 9,650 male respondents. Perceived stress among the LEOs also was determined. The percentage for CVD incidence was lower in the LEO group than among the general population [2.3 (SD = .15) vs. 5.6 (SD = .23); p = .001]. The best predictor variables for CVD in the combined group were ...


Criminal Justice System Involvement And Continuity Of Youth Crime: A Longitudinal Test Of Labeling Theory , Lee Michael Johnson Jan 2001

Criminal Justice System Involvement And Continuity Of Youth Crime: A Longitudinal Test Of Labeling Theory , Lee Michael Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Adolescent crime is a major issue confronting not only the criminal justice system and the general public, but researchers as well. Studies of criminal careers reveal several possible factors explaining persistent offending. At one time, labeling theory was a popular explanation for continued deviance, but a lack of empirical support and conceptual objections soon made the theory unpopular. In this analysis, labeling theory is integrated with other theories and then re-considered as an explanation for persistent youth crime. The primary contention here is that formal legal sanctioning---in the form of involvement with the police, courts, and correctional agencies---may, ironically, operate ...


An Ecological Assessment Of Neighborhood, Family, Peer, And Individual Characteristics In Predicting Violence: A Multilevel Analysis Of African-American Families, Eric Allen Stewart Jan 2000

An Ecological Assessment Of Neighborhood, Family, Peer, And Individual Characteristics In Predicting Violence: A Multilevel Analysis Of African-American Families, Eric Allen Stewart

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study used epidemic, cultural deviance, and social learning perspectives to examine the extent to which exposure to various forms of violence predicted violent behavior among 867 African-American youth. The study examined the following macro-level predictors of childhood violence: neighborhood violence, neighborhood SES, neighborhood subculture of violence, and percent African American. The following micro-level predictors were examined: street code, associating with violent peers, corporal punishment, parental violence, and warm/supportive parenting. Using hierarchical linear modeling techniques (HLM), the results showed that neighborhood SES was the only macro-level variable to exert a significant influence on violence. Furthermore, childhood violence was significantly ...