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Edith Cowan University

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Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Criminology

What Are The Characteristics Of Vitamin D Metabolism In Opioid Dependence? An Exploratory Longitudinal Study In Australian Primary Care., Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Hulse Jan 2018

What Are The Characteristics Of Vitamin D Metabolism In Opioid Dependence? An Exploratory Longitudinal Study In Australian Primary Care., Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Hulse

ECU Publications Post 2013

OBJECTIVE: Compare vitamin D levels in opioid dependence and control population and adjust for relevant confounding effects. Nuclear hormone receptors (including the vitamin D receptor) have been shown to be key transducers and regulators of intracellular metabolism and comprise an important site of pathophysiological immune and metabolic dysregulation potentially contributing towards pro-ageing changes observed in opioid-dependent patients (ODPs).

DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective comparing ODPs with general medical controls (GMCs).

SETTING: Primary care.

PARTICIPANTS: Prospective review comparing 1168 ODP (72.5% men) and 415 GMC (51.6% men, p

INTERVENTIONS: Nil. Observational study only.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Serum vitamin D levels ...


Older Indigent Women’S Economic Crimes: Subsuming Feminism In Favour Of A Human Rights Explanation, Patricia Joan Rhodes Jan 2017

Older Indigent Women’S Economic Crimes: Subsuming Feminism In Favour Of A Human Rights Explanation, Patricia Joan Rhodes

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Many people today believe the concept of gender inequality is outmoded, irrelevant and unnecessary in Western societies that are deemed egalitarian. As a consequence, feminism as a movement with gender equality at its core has often been proclaimed ‘dead’,a relic of the past. Feminist perspectives, nevertheless, have produced differing points of view about the sources of gender inequality affecting crime rates and criminal behaviour.

For the last 50 years or so, women and girls have been the subject of criminological research that has largely evolved from sociological perspectives and specifically from feminism. Although gender intersects with other social realities ...


Factors Influencing Young Bystanders' Decisions To Intervene When Witnessing Cyber-Aggression: A Mixed Methods Exploration, Lisa Jodi Patterson Jan 2016

Factors Influencing Young Bystanders' Decisions To Intervene When Witnessing Cyber-Aggression: A Mixed Methods Exploration, Lisa Jodi Patterson

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

With the modern proliferation of computers, the Internet and smart phones, adolescents are at increased risk of cyber-aggression: negative, harmful behaviour expressed through electronic means and aimed at an individual (or group of individuals). Cyber-aggression can have serious consequences for the social, emotional and physical health of both targets and perpetrators. Some experts recommend tackling cyberaggression using the strategies applied to face-to-face forms of aggression and bullying in school environments. One such strategy is to encourage peer bystanders to intervene in a positive way, which has been demonstrated to influence both the duration and severity of bullying episodes in the ...


Written Plans And Self-Evaluations In Investigative Interviews With Witnesses, Jane Tudor-Owen Jan 2016

Written Plans And Self-Evaluations In Investigative Interviews With Witnesses, Jane Tudor-Owen

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

The PEACE model of investigative interviewing (Preparation and planning; Engage and explain; Account, clarification, and challenge [Account]; Closure; and Evaluation), has been in operation internationally since the early 1990s when it was introduced in England and Wales. The model is in operation in a number of Australian jurisdictions, including Western Australia (WA), where it was formally incorporated into interview training in 2009. While there have been a number of evaluations of the PEACE model, they have predominantly focused on the interview stages of the model; that is, Engage and explain, Account, and Closure. By comparison, the Preparation and planning and ...


Mining Social Networking Sites For Digital Evidence, Brian Cusack, Saud Alshaifi Jan 2015

Mining Social Networking Sites For Digital Evidence, Brian Cusack, Saud Alshaifi

Australian Digital Forensics Conference

OnLine Social Networking sites (SNS) hold a vast amount of information that individuals and organisations post about themselves. Investigations include SNS as sources of evidence and the challenge is to have effective tools to extract the evidence. In this exploratory research we apply the latest version of a proprietary tool to identify potential evidence from five SNS using three different browsers. We found that each web browser influenced the scope of the evidence extracted. In previous research we have shown that different open source and proprietary tools influence the scope of evidence obtained. In this research we asked, What variation ...


Efficacy Of Property Marking: Police Identification Of Stolen Property, Craig Separovic, David J. Brooks Dr. Jan 2014

Efficacy Of Property Marking: Police Identification Of Stolen Property, Craig Separovic, David J. Brooks Dr.

Australian Security and Intelligence Conference

Property marking, as a situational crime prevention technique, has found to be largely ineffectual in the reduction of property theft, although past studies have not considered the role property marking as an aid to the return of stolen or lost property. However, automotive identification and some studies have found that in some cases property marking is effective. Furthermore, many crime prevention groups focus on property marking as a means to reduce crime and the fear of crime.

Therefore, the study investigated the processes of lost, stolen and seized goods by law enforcement personnel. The study undertook a qualitative analysis of ...


I Remember Richelieu: Is Anything Secure Anymore?, Michael G. Crowley, Michael N. Johnstone Jan 2014

I Remember Richelieu: Is Anything Secure Anymore?, Michael G. Crowley, Michael N. Johnstone

Australian Security and Intelligence Conference

Petraeus-gate, hacked nude celebrity photos in the cloud and the recent use of a search and seizure warrant in the United States of America to seek production of customer email contents on an extraterritorial server raises important issues for the supposably safe storage of data on the World Wide Web. Not only may there be nowhere to hide in cyberspace but nothing in cyberspace may be private. This paper explores the legal and technical issues raised by the these matters with emphasis on the courts decision “In the Matter of a Warrant to Search a Certain E-Mail Account Controlled and ...


7th Australian Security And Intelligence Conference, 2014, Edith Cowan University: Conference Details, Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University Jan 2014

7th Australian Security And Intelligence Conference, 2014, Edith Cowan University: Conference Details, Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University

Australian Security and Intelligence Conference

No abstract provided.


Understanding The Role Of Social Groups In Radicalisation, Kira Harris, Eyal Gringart, Deirdre Drake Jan 2014

Understanding The Role Of Social Groups In Radicalisation, Kira Harris, Eyal Gringart, Deirdre Drake

Australian Security and Intelligence Conference

The inability to form psychological profiles of individual members across a variety of extremist groups, as well as the recognition in extremism and terrorism research indicates that no adequate personality profile exists. This requires an analysis of other factors that influence the radicalisation process. By drawing on social identity theory, this paper offers a psycho-social explanation for how people define themselves in relation to their social group, as well as how the intra-group relationships can lead to extreme behaviour and resistance to counter efforts. These groups promote a salient social identity that becomes intrinsic to the self to the extent ...


The Bad Guys Are Using It, Are You?, Hong-Eng Koh Jan 2014

The Bad Guys Are Using It, Are You?, Hong-Eng Koh

Australian Security and Intelligence Conference

From Occupy Wall Street to 2011 England riots to Arab Spring to Mumbai 26/11 to the ethnic cleansing rumors in India and increasingly used by pedophiles, social media is a very powerful tool for pedophiles, troublemakers, criminals and even terrorists to target individuals and even to go against the establishment. On the other hand, social media can save lives in a disaster, and its a natural extension of community policing or engagement. Community engagement is a must-have strategy for any public safety and security agency. However, this strategy requires the removal of stovepipe processes and systems within an agency ...


Prisoner Education And Training, And Other Characteristics: Western Australia, July 2005 To June 2010, Margaret Giles, Jacqui Whale Jan 2013

Prisoner Education And Training, And Other Characteristics: Western Australia, July 2005 To June 2010, Margaret Giles, Jacqui Whale

ECU Publications 2011

Executive summary

Spending public funds on educating and training prisoners can generate a significant return on investment, because as this report argues, studying in prison can reduce costly recidivism and improve life outcomes for ex-prisoners. What are the costs of recidivism? Let’s start with incarceration. Prisoners cost money - about $110,000 per prisoner a year. With over 4,000 prisoners in WA prisons at any one time and a turnover of 8,000 prisoners per year, incarceration is a costly business. In addition, there are policing and legal costs related to finding, charging and sentencing alleged offenders; as well ...


Prescription Drug Use Among Detainees: Prevalence, Sources And Links To Crime, Catherine Mcgregor, Natalie Gately, Jennifer Fleming Jan 2011

Prescription Drug Use Among Detainees: Prevalence, Sources And Links To Crime, Catherine Mcgregor, Natalie Gately, Jennifer Fleming

ECU Publications 2011

Concern regarding the diversion and non-medical use of prescription pharmaceuticals continues to grow as anecdotal evidence and other research points to a sizeable increase in the illegal market for such drugs. Estimating the prevalence of illegal use and understanding how pharmaceutical drugs come to be traded in the illegal drug market remain key research priorities for policymakers and practitioners in both the public health and law enforcement sectors. This report is the first of its kind in Australia to examine the self-reported use of illicit pharmaceuticals among a sample of police detainees surveyed as part of the Australian Institute of ...


Review Of Indigenous Offender Health, Jocelyn Grace, Ineke Krom, Caitlin Maling, Tony Butler, Richard Midford Jan 2011

Review Of Indigenous Offender Health, Jocelyn Grace, Ineke Krom, Caitlin Maling, Tony Butler, Richard Midford

ECU Publications 2011

This review provides an overview of health issues facing the Indigenous offender population, including some of the social and historical factors relevant to Indigenous health and incarceration. In doing so, it is important to first understand how Indigenous people conceptualise health. Health as it is understood in western society is a fairly discrete category, which differs from the traditional Indigenous perspective of health as holistic [1]. This is made explicit in the 1989 National Aboriginal health strategy that states 'health to Aboriginal peoples is a matter of determining all aspects of their life, including control over their physical environment, of ...


The Effects Of An Offender's Ethnicity As Well As The Type Of Crime Committed, On Public Perceptions Regarding Seriousness, And The Sentencing Principles Seen As Most Appropriate, Andrea Kysely Jan 2008

The Effects Of An Offender's Ethnicity As Well As The Type Of Crime Committed, On Public Perceptions Regarding Seriousness, And The Sentencing Principles Seen As Most Appropriate, Andrea Kysely

Theses : Honours

Public opinion has been evidenced as exerting significant influence over the development of, and alteration to, policies dealing with offenders (Roberts, 1992). Research suggests that an offender's ethnicity, as well as the seriousness of a crime, have a significant effect on public opinion regarding the appropriateness of an imposed sentence, and the goals of sentencing seen as most important (Herzog & Rattner, 2003). However whilst research in the United States and Europe has continued to expand, there is a significant lack of research directly related to the Australian context. The significant over-representation of Indigenous Australians in Australian prisons, potentially reflects ...


The Influence Of Childhood Factors On The Public Perceptions Of The Appropriate Consequences For Young Offender, Penny Hyde Jan 2007

The Influence Of Childhood Factors On The Public Perceptions Of The Appropriate Consequences For Young Offender, Penny Hyde

Theses : Honours

With changes in policy relating to juvenile offenders being heavily influenced by the perceived public opinion of juvenile crime, the opinion of the public on the appropriate punishment for young offenders is important within contemporary society (Mukherjee, 1997). Public opinion research suggested that while society remains unsatisfied with current methods used to punish juvenile offenders, they believe a juvenile's punishment should be proportionate to the crime and that rehabilitation should be the main goal of juvenile punishment (Barber & Doon, 2004). This research further suggested that ignorance of both the juvenile's circumstances and the perceived prevalence of juvenile crime ...


An Examination Of The Transitional Support Needs For Young People Leaving Detention, Kirsten Janke Jan 2005

An Examination Of The Transitional Support Needs For Young People Leaving Detention, Kirsten Janke

Theses : Honours

A successful transition from detention to living in the community is a critical step in preventing young people from recidivism and entrenchment in criminal activity (Utting & Vennard, 2000). According to Outcare, an organisation that provides support services to offenders, ex-offenders and their families, there seems to be difficulty accommodating newly released young people in existing accommodation services: additionally, many of these young people are not able to access existing support services which contributes significantly to recidivist behaviour. The purpose of undertaking this qualitative study was to examine the transitional support needs for young people leaving detention. The investigation adopted an 'Action Research' approach and utilised a reference group, involving stakeholders as experts in the field (Crane & Richardson, 2000; Wadsworth, 1997). A qualitative method was employed to collect data and to extrapolate common themes and meanings. Data was collected from three main sources (a literature review and scheduled interviews with service providers and two young people), and the method of triangulation was adhered to. The findings of the research will serve to inform Outcare on how to meet the needs of young people leaving detention, so that existing services may be improved, and ...


Women's Perceptions Of Safety : Cctv In An Inner City Setting, Kate Hancock Jan 2004

Women's Perceptions Of Safety : Cctv In An Inner City Setting, Kate Hancock

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

To date, most research on closed circuit television (CCTV) has come out of the United Kingdom (UK) where the growth of CCTV has reached immense proportions with wide support and funding from the Home Office. There are 33 systems operating in Australia, with the focus of this research on the first system installed in Perth, Western Australia in 1991. There is a dearth of information on CCTV in Australia, and little research looking at the link between CCTV, women’s safety and fear of crime. The literature on fear of crime shows that women are more fearful than men even ...


A Boredom Theory Of Youth Criminality, Julie-Anne Newton Jan 2001

A Boredom Theory Of Youth Criminality, Julie-Anne Newton

Theses : Honours

Boredom, although a regular occurrence among the general youth population of the modern society and a possible causal factor of truancy, drug use, suicide and crime, has been widely neglected within the fields of education, psychology, sociology, and criminology. Since it is the intention of this thesis to show that boredom is a causal factor of youth criminality which must be recognised and studied further, it is essential that boredom is thoroughly researched for both theoretical and practical reasons within the field of criminology. In a two part documentary analysis on boredom and youth criminality, this thesis demonstrates what makes ...


The Predictive Accuracy Of The Violent Offender Treatment Program Risk Assessment Scale, Ann Ward Jan 1997

The Predictive Accuracy Of The Violent Offender Treatment Program Risk Assessment Scale, Ann Ward

Theses : Honours

Current methods for screening violent offenders for program eligibility are expensive and time consuming. Developers of the Violent Offender Treatment Program (VOTP) have designed 2 brief and economical instrument to screen offenders for program eligibility. The present study was undertaken to assess the reliability and predictive accuracy of the VOTP Risk Assessment Scale (RAS). An inter-rater reliability of 20 court histories attained a mean kappa of .8 I. The RAS was applied to court histories of 202 violent offenders released between 1985 and 1987. A I 0-year follow-up of convictions for violent behaviour yielded a 47~ base rate. Receiver Operating ...


Preliminary Exploration Of Risk Assessment Predictors : Can Probationers Who Re-Offend Be Identified?, Deborah Dawson Jan 1997

Preliminary Exploration Of Risk Assessment Predictors : Can Probationers Who Re-Offend Be Identified?, Deborah Dawson

Theses : Honours

A retrospective study of 243 male probationers who had been on community based orders in Western Australia for a mean time of 15 months, was undertaken to explore differences between re-offenders and non re-offenders. Discriminant function analyses were employed in a series of designs where the mediating effects of geographic location and Aboriginality and non Aboriginality were investigated. The analyses revealed that the best static predictor item for distinguishing between non re-offenders and re-offenders in the entire sample was offence type (Wilks Lambda, .88, chi-square 25.589, df = 6, p < .0005) and the best criminogenic need item was employment (Wilks Lambda, .96, chi-square 7.566, df = 2, p < .05). In regional areas, drug use was !he primary predictor contributing to a function which significantly discriminated between and re-offenders and non re-offenders (Wilks Lambda, .78, chi-square 12.557, df = 4, p < .05). The classification accuracy was 68% for grouped cases. This result was unexpected, as previous studies have consistently found static predictors to be primary predictors of risk. Analysis of the metropolitan area sub-sample produced results more consistent with previous findings. Offence type and number of breached orders loaded highly on a statistically significant function which satisfactorily discriminated between outcomes (Wilks Lambda, .81, chi-square 31.226, df= 6, p < .0005). The analysis of race produced similar results. The variables which had tile highest loadings on the derived functions for both sub-samples were al11 static predictors of risk. Based on meta-analytic research outcomes of Andrews et al. (1990), it was also hypothesised that a chi-square analysis of court sanctioned probation conditions would reveal differences across re-offending outcome and the nature of the probation conditions. The results were consistent with the finding that general correctional service combined with a judicial alternative produced greater reductions in recidivism than a judicial alternative alone. The outcomes related to geographic location and race reinforced the importance of assessing risk of recidivism on the basis of population-specific attributes. Despite several limitations associated with the research design, the exploration provided future directions for the development of risk models and the use of judicial alternatives to reduce recidivism.


The Role Of Trust And The Victim-Offender Relationship, Gail Della Torre Jan 1997

The Role Of Trust And The Victim-Offender Relationship, Gail Della Torre

Theses : Honours

It has been argued that trust is a moral value inherent in all relationships, however the moral obligation to keep trust is stronger in close relationships than in contractual type relationships. This study examined the effects of breach of trust for two crimes (rape and theft) occurring within two types of relationships (social relationship and employer-employee relationship). Trust was demonstrated by the victim agreeing to the offender entering her property because of his position (husband or lawnmower man). A second independent variable was victim risk which was manipulated by the victim either inviting the offender inside the house, or not ...


Issues That Concern Prison Officers About Hiv Positive Prisoners In Western Australia, David Francis Cain Jan 1994

Issues That Concern Prison Officers About Hiv Positive Prisoners In Western Australia, David Francis Cain

Theses : Honours

In 1988 the Department of Corrective Services established an AIDS Standing Committee to draw up an HIV positive/AIDS policy. The Committee consists of ten members, two of whom are union members who represent the issues that concern 1,227 prison officers statewide. The Policy which was issued in 1989 medically isolated HIV positive prisoners from the mainstream prison population. The aim of this research is to identify and quantify the issues that concern prison officers about HIV positive prisoners in Western Australia. Such information will act as a medium through which these will be communicated to the AIDS Standing ...