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Full-Text Articles in Criminology

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy Nov 2018

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy

Shared Knowledge Conference

Based on a review of research and best practices in mental health awareness and skills, this inquiry project argues for state legislative policies that would require mental health awareness and skills in the K-12 curriculum. Mental health affects individual accomplishments in every stage of people’s lives beginning in early childhood and throughout the life cycle. Prevention and treatment of mental illness plays a key role in the ability of an individual to cope with loss and develop resiliency and perseverance in challenging times and to make better decisions that improve the individual’s life and the lives of those ...


Bonding Images: Photography And Film As Acts Of Perpetration, Christophe Busch Oct 2018

Bonding Images: Photography And Film As Acts Of Perpetration, Christophe Busch

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Historical and contemporary cases of collective violence show an incremental use of photography and film to capture and disseminate violent acts. Recording cruelty during conflict seems to be a highly ritualised practice that urges the question what communicative and psychological functions these acts have? Why and how does perpetrator photography shape a binding moral world that divides 'us' versus 'them'? These visualising acts are commonly seen as proof of power that desensitises the perpetrators and dehumanises the victims. This contribution focuses on the imagery of the Holocaust, looks into the functions that capturing and sharing cruelty has on the evolution ...


Abuse Or Be Abused: Traumatic Memory, Sex Inequality, And Millennium As A Socio-Literary Device, Kate Rose Oct 2018

Abuse Or Be Abused: Traumatic Memory, Sex Inequality, And Millennium As A Socio-Literary Device, Kate Rose

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article applies the research of French psychiatrist Muriel Salmona to literary analysis of Stieg Larsson’s protagonist, Lisbeth Salander, in the Millennium trilogy (The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, 2008; The Girl Who Played with Fire, 2009; The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet’s Nest, 2010). It suggests that Larsson’s novels may be useful in raising awareness of childhood sexual abuse, through reading neglected signs linked to the neurology of traumatic memory. In the tradition of Nordic noir novels, hyperboles in Salander’s sensationalized identity serve to magnify and bring to light a misunderstood social problem. The article ...


A Structural Equation Analysis Of The Relationships Between Ptsd, Depressive Symptoms And Suicidal Ideation : Is General Strain Theory A Viable Framework For Explaining Suicide Risk Among Correctional Staff?, Wm. Clay Johnson Aug 2018

A Structural Equation Analysis Of The Relationships Between Ptsd, Depressive Symptoms And Suicidal Ideation : Is General Strain Theory A Viable Framework For Explaining Suicide Risk Among Correctional Staff?, Wm. Clay Johnson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is a large body of evidence, which suggests PTSD is strongly related to increased suicide risk, however, some studies suggest the true nature of their relationship is better explained through the development of depression due to the effects of PTSD. While a majority of the studies examining this relationship focus only on general populations, a growing body research suggests that high-risk occupations such as police, firefighters and correctional staff are developing PTSD at rates as high as 8 to 10 times that of the rate of these general samples. This study, then, aims to fill a small gap in ...


Does Mental Illness Affect Societal Perception Of Sex Offenders?, Keely A. Bartram Jun 2018

Does Mental Illness Affect Societal Perception Of Sex Offenders?, Keely A. Bartram

Student Theses

Although mental illness is common in the sex offender population, it has never been examined how evidence of such may influence societal perception. In comparison to the non-sex offender population, it was hypothesized that participants would consider mental illness less mitigating for sex offenders, would be less likely to support the mental health treatment of sex offenders while incarcerated, and would consider certain mental illnesses (schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders) as particularly aggravating for this group of offenders. Respondents were asked to read a short vignette and then respond to a series of questions about culpability, sentencing decisions, and mental ...


The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer Apr 2018

The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to identify and describe the importance of the predictors of juvenile recidivism and the effectiveness of efforts to prevent/avoid juvenile recidivism as perceived by previously detained, arrested, convicted, and/or incarcerated adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education in Northern California. A second purpose was to explore the types of support provided by alternative schools and the perceived importance of the support to avoid recidivism according to adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education.

Methodology: This qualitative, descriptive research design ...


“It Ruined My Life”: The Effects Of The War On Drugs On People Who Inject Drugs (Pwid) In Rural Puerto Rico, Roberto Abadie, C. Gelpi-Acosta, C. Davila, A. Rivera, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Kirk Dombrowski Jan 2018

“It Ruined My Life”: The Effects Of The War On Drugs On People Who Inject Drugs (Pwid) In Rural Puerto Rico, Roberto Abadie, C. Gelpi-Acosta, C. Davila, A. Rivera, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Kirk Dombrowski

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Background—The War on Drugs has raised the incarceration rates of racial minorities for non-violent drug-related crimes, profoundly stigmatized drug users, and redirected resources from drug prevention and treatment to militarizing federal and local law enforcement. Yet, while some states consider shifting their punitive approach to drug use, to one based on drug treatment and rehabilitation, nothing suggests that these policy shifts are being replicated in Puerto Rico.

Methods—This paper utilizes data from 360 PWID residing in four rural towns in the mountainous area of central Puerto Rico. We initially recruited 315 PWID using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and collected ...


Examining The Effects Of A Service-Trained Facility Dog On Stress In Children Undergoing Forensic Interview For Allegations Of Child Sexual Abuse, Cheryl A. Krause-Parello, Michele Thames, Colleen M. Ray, John Kolassa Jan 2018

Examining The Effects Of A Service-Trained Facility Dog On Stress In Children Undergoing Forensic Interview For Allegations Of Child Sexual Abuse, Cheryl A. Krause-Parello, Michele Thames, Colleen M. Ray, John Kolassa

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be a stressful experience for the child. Gaining a better understanding of how best to serve the child, while preserving the quality of their disclosure, is an ever-evolving process. The data to answer this question come from 51 children aged 4–16 (M = 9.1, SD = 3.5), who were referred to a child advocacy center in Virginia for a forensic interview (FI) following allegations of sexual abuse. A repeated measures design was conducted to examine how the presence of a service-trained facility dog (e.g. animal-assisted intervention (AAI) may serve as a mode ...


Unpacking The Mind Of Evil: A Sociological Perspective On The Role Of Intent And Motivations In Genocide, Timothy Williams, Dominik Pfeiffer Oct 2017

Unpacking The Mind Of Evil: A Sociological Perspective On The Role Of Intent And Motivations In Genocide, Timothy Williams, Dominik Pfeiffer

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

For quite some time, theories on the role of intent in genocide were conceptually frozen in polarised liberal and post-liberal, or purpose- and knowledge-based approaches, respectively. In accordance with recent criminological thought that moves beyond the narrow debate, this article develops a new sociological perspective on the role of intent in genocide. Drawing on frame analysis it is argued that intent is mainly relevant for framing genocidal action at the macro level. However, individual low-level perpetrators act from a large number of different motivations, of which ideologies of intent are only one. Others range from obedience to authority, coercion and ...


Born To Run: A Grounded Theory Study Of Cheating In The Online Speedrunning Community, Christopher G. Brewer Aug 2017

Born To Run: A Grounded Theory Study Of Cheating In The Online Speedrunning Community, Christopher G. Brewer

Master's Theses

Video games represent a growing genre of media quickly becoming one of the leading forms of entertainment (Jordan, 2014). This popularity has allowed new playstyles to emerge across the video game genre, such as e-Sports and speedrunning. In particular, the speedrunning community has somewhat redefined what it means to “cheat” in a video game by accepting the use certain software and hardware violations that could be seen as “cheating” to the general gaming community. This paper examined the social construction of cheating in this digital community through the use of grounded theory methods.


Two Questions, The Same Answer: The Role Of Demand In Prostitution And Sex Trafficking, Shamere Mckenzie Jul 2017

Two Questions, The Same Answer: The Role Of Demand In Prostitution And Sex Trafficking, Shamere Mckenzie

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


The Global Supply Chain Of Sexual Exploitation And The Necessity Of Combating The Demand For Commercial Sex, Lisa L. Thompson Jul 2017

The Global Supply Chain Of Sexual Exploitation And The Necessity Of Combating The Demand For Commercial Sex, Lisa L. Thompson

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Dog Breed Discrimination In Criminology And Public Knowledge, Megan Ekkert Apr 2017

Dog Breed Discrimination In Criminology And Public Knowledge, Megan Ekkert

Honors Theses

Animal abuse is never an easy topic for people to discuss. Until recently, animal abuse was only considered a misdemeanor charge under the law, but now it can be considered a felony charge. While that should be good news for animals, there are still a lot of questions when it comes to animal abuse. Breed discrimination is a topic of animal abuse that is largely ignored in criminology. This topic brings about several questions. Should breed discrimination be a topic studied more in criminology and why? What is the current view of breed discrimination by the community? Are certain behaviors ...


Pathways To Self-Injury: A Qualitative Exploration Of Social Psychological Processes, Thomas W. Wojciechowski Feb 2017

Pathways To Self-Injury: A Qualitative Exploration Of Social Psychological Processes, Thomas W. Wojciechowski

The Qualitative Report

Self-injury is a deviant behavior often understood as the intentional infliction of harm onto one’s own body that exists absent of suicidal. This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the etiology and perpetuation of self-injury using the terminology of relevant social-psychological theories to determine which processes best describe a causal pathway leading to self-injury and its perpetuation after the onset of the behavior. Data obtained from 16 semi-structured interviews with former and current self-injurers indicate that the processes described in general strain theory, social learning theory, and social control theory are all important for understanding the etiology and ...


The Fear Factor: Exploring The Impact Of The Vulnerability To Deportation On Immigrants' Lives, Shirley P. Leyro Feb 2017

The Fear Factor: Exploring The Impact Of The Vulnerability To Deportation On Immigrants' Lives, Shirley P. Leyro

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This qualitative study explores the impact that the fear of deportation has on the lives of noncitizen immigrants. More broadly, it explores the role that immigration enforcement, specifically deportation, plays in disrupting the process of integration, and the possible implications of this interruption for immigrants and their communities. The study aims to answer: (1) how vulnerability to deportation specifically impacts an immigrant’s life, and (2) how the vulnerability to deportation, and the fear associated with it, impacts an immigrant’s degree of integration. Data were gathered through a combination of six open-ended focus group interviews of 10 persons each ...


Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael Jan 2017

Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...


Correctional Officers "Through The Looking Glass": Understanding Perceptions And Their Impact On Personal And Professional Identity, Emma Mistry Jan 2017

Correctional Officers "Through The Looking Glass": Understanding Perceptions And Their Impact On Personal And Professional Identity, Emma Mistry

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

ABSTRACT

The external and institutional stressors that correctional officers face while performing their duties, such as managing a demanding workload, staffing shortages, and monitoring potentially dangerous inmates, have received some attention in the literature. However, researchers have not examined correctional officers’ perceptions of how others view their role and professional identity—whether prisoners, their families, or members of the general public—and how these perceptions are believed to influence an officer’s perspective of their work and their well-being. To explore this gap in the literature, this project seeks to analyze whether or not correctional officers sense these perceptions while ...


Rhetorical Commonsense And Child Molester Panic--A Queer Intervention, Ian Barnard Jan 2017

Rhetorical Commonsense And Child Molester Panic--A Queer Intervention, Ian Barnard

English Faculty Articles and Research

This article considers how contemporary representations of child molesters in scholarly, political, and popular culture participate in projects that revolve around the recuperation of heteronormativity. I argue that these multimodal obsessions with child molestation displace the resilience of entrenched homophobic fears, prejudices, and dispositions, giving the lie to the commonplace that the political advance of same-sex marriage in the United States signals the apotheosis of gay rights. My analysis focuses on two representative popular and scholarly texts: the long-running television series Law and Order: SVU and a scholarly article about the Jerry Sandusky case published in jac. The former capitalizes ...


Social Identities And Meanings In Correctional Work, Caitlin C. Botelho Dec 2016

Social Identities And Meanings In Correctional Work, Caitlin C. Botelho

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on correctional officers’ values and perceptions of their workplace, the people they work with and for, and members of the general public. Although prior research has investigated correctional staff members’ feelings about their occupation, far fewer studies have implemented a comprehensive qualitative, microsociological approach. The author conducted 20 in-depth interviews with current and former correctional officers (COs) in public-supported facilities. Additional data were collected through two public Facebook pages designated for COs and citizens interested in the criminal justice system. The study offers insights about the significance of COs’ feelings about their work and how the correctional ...


The Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes Dec 2016

The Inaugural Issue Of Dignity, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Bits Of Belonging:Information Technology, Water, And Neoliberal Governance In India, Simanti Dasgupta Aug 2016

Bits Of Belonging:Information Technology, Water, And Neoliberal Governance In India, Simanti Dasgupta

Simanti Dasgupta

India’s global success in the Information Technology industry has also prompted the growth of neoliberalism and the re-emergence of the middle class in contemporary urban areas, such as Bangalore. BITS of Belonging shows that this economic shift produces new forms of social inequality while reinforcing older ones. The study investigates this economic disparity by looking at IT and water privatization to explain how these otherwise unrelated domains correspond to our thinking about citizenship, governance, and belonging. The ethnographic study in this book shows how work and human processes in the IT industry intertwine to meet the market stipulations of ...


Problem Analysis In Community Violence Assessments: Reavealing Early Childhood Trauma As A Driver Of Youth And Gang Violence, Laurie Ross Phd, Samantha Arsenault, Sergeant Miguel Lopez Apr 2016

Problem Analysis In Community Violence Assessments: Reavealing Early Childhood Trauma As A Driver Of Youth And Gang Violence, Laurie Ross Phd, Samantha Arsenault, Sergeant Miguel Lopez

Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprise

Problem analysis conducted by a university-based research partner can provide communities with data-driven options to address the local drivers of serious youth and gang violence. Situated in Worcester, Massachusetts, this article describes how after early childhood trauma was identified as a potential driver of adolescent and young adult violence, problem analysis using local data confirmed that being the victim or witness of a traumatic incident before the age of 12 was significantly correlated with involvement in violence in adolescence or young adulthood. While there is a robust literature on the relationship between early childhood trauma and later delinquency, local decision-makers ...


Victimization, Stress, And Psychological Well-Being: An Analysis Of The 2009 Canadian Victimization Survey, Bryce E. Stoliker Apr 2016

Victimization, Stress, And Psychological Well-Being: An Analysis Of The 2009 Canadian Victimization Survey, Bryce E. Stoliker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study addresses several methodological and theoretical gaps in extant literature that has examined victimization and its correlation with resultant mental health outcomes. The 2009 Canadian GSS Victimization [cycle 23] survey, comprising of 19,422 participants aged 15 years or older, was used to examine: (1) the extent to which different forms of victimization are related to stress, psychological well-being (i.e., self-report mental health and life satisfaction), and substance abuse behavior; (2) whether stress acts as a mediator in the relationship between victimization and mental health outcome measures; (3) if low total household income moderates the association between victimization ...


Cyberbullying, General Strain Theory, And The Moderating Effect Of Anonymity In College Students, Matheson T. Sanchez Mar 2016

Cyberbullying, General Strain Theory, And The Moderating Effect Of Anonymity In College Students, Matheson T. Sanchez

Master of Science in Criminal Justice Theses & Policy Research Projects

Cyberbullying is an intricate and ever-evolving form of bullying. Little is known about how cyberbullying is perpetrated at the collegiate level. Applying a General Strain Theory framework, the current study aims to assess the role of six university-related strain elements as possible predictors for cyberbullying, cybervictimization, and frequency of the two. Survey questionnaires were administered to 15 undergraduate classes at a southeastern university (N = 406). Additionally, the moderating role of internet anonymity on these relationships is addressed. Being threatened with losing or actually losing a scholarship and being placed on probation are identified as significant predictors of cybervictimization and frequency ...


Content Analysis In The Study Of Crime, Media, And Popular Culture, Lisa Kort-Butler Jan 2016

Content Analysis In The Study Of Crime, Media, And Popular Culture, Lisa Kort-Butler

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Content analysis is considered both a quantitative and a qualitative research method. The overarching goal of much of the research using this method is to demonstrate and understand how crime, deviance, and social control are represented in the media and popular culture. Unlike surveys of public opinions about crime issues, which seek to know what people think or feel about crime, content analysis of media and popular culture aims to reveal a culture’s story about crime. Unlike research that examines how individuals’ patterns of media consumption shape their attitudes about crime and control, content analysis appraises the meaning and ...


Every Breath You Take: An Examination Of The Natural Phenomenon Of Stalking, Gordon A. Crews, Sara K. Green, Paige A. Heinrich Jul 2015

Every Breath You Take: An Examination Of The Natural Phenomenon Of Stalking, Gordon A. Crews, Sara K. Green, Paige A. Heinrich

Gordon A Crews

Everyone is a potential stalker, given the right set of circumstances. There are a vast number of tools readily available—from social media networking to easily accessible websites that provide background checks for a minimal fee—that allow individuals to observe the life (or lives) of whomever they so desire. But what are the innate, essential traits and characteristics of an individual that extends beyond the more normative expression of romantic interest and the general curiosity that is a natural and accepted occurrence for anyone who has ever been infatuated with another? This paper will consider the intentionality and motivation ...


Pretty Woman: Twenty-Five Years Of Lies About Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes Dr. Apr 2015

Pretty Woman: Twenty-Five Years Of Lies About Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

No abstract provided.


Everyday Racial Interactions For Whites And College Students Of Color, Leslie H. Picca Jan 2015

Everyday Racial Interactions For Whites And College Students Of Color, Leslie H. Picca

Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work Faculty Publications

While in the recent past overtly racist comments were tolerated and expected, now social pressures exist to avoid such racist statements (Feagin, 2006). However, subtle measures and tests in psychology and social psychology suggest a nonracist mask is covering an intact racist core, and that whites regularly underestimate the extent of their prejudice (Bonilla-Silva & Forman, 2000; Kawakami, Dunn, Karmali, & Dovidio, 2009). There is much social science literature on modern racism or colorblind racism: negative racial attitudes that haven't disappeared, they've just gone underground (Bonilla-Silva, 2006; Carr, 1997; Dovidio & Gaertner, 1991). Specifically, many argue that racism is hidden, subtle, and invisible, even if its consequences are not.

In order to further investigate this underground or subtle racism, Joe Feagin and I asked over 1,000 college students of all racial backgrounds across the U.S. to keep a journal or diary detailing their everyday racial interactions. We sought to examine if and how race impacts college students' daily lives. We published a book, Two-Faced Racism: Whites in the Backstage and Frontstage (Picca & Feagin, 2007) that examines the accounts of the 626 white college students; we're currently writing a second book on the experiences of the more than 400 students of color. The college students were recruited from across the United States, oversampIing in the southeast and midwest, and the majority of the students ...


Citizen Volunteers In Prison: Bringing The Outside In, Taking The Inside Out, Lisa Kort-Butler, Sarah E. Malone Jan 2015

Citizen Volunteers In Prison: Bringing The Outside In, Taking The Inside Out, Lisa Kort-Butler, Sarah E. Malone

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

The United States correctional system relies heavily on citizen volunteers, but there is little contemporary research on prison volunteers, which is further limited by sample and geographic region. The purpose of this project was to explore the role of citizen volunteers, including investigating why they volunteer and what their experiences with inmates and prison staff are like. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with citizen volunteers in the penal system of a Midwestern state. Volunteers had altruistic or faith-based motivations, viewing themselves as ‘seed planters’ but not saviors, and placing priority on building relationships. They described how volunteering transformed their views on ...


Best Practices In Campus Threat Assessment & Management – An Overview, Sigma Threat Assessment Group Oct 2014

Best Practices In Campus Threat Assessment & Management – An Overview, Sigma Threat Assessment Group

National Security and Intelligence Symposium

No abstract provided.