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Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard Mar 2019

Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard

Daria Domin

Recent legislation and regulation governing Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS), the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 (WIOA), and settlement agreements between states and the U.S. Department of Justice are clarifying federal intent and paving the way to supporting opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities. With an increasing emphasis on integrated employment and an Employment First philosophy, the nation is poised for transformation that could put Americans with disabilities on a path out of poverty and towards self-sufficiency. However, there remains a significant gap in employment rates between people with and ...


State Agency Promising Practice: Washington - Promoting Public Sector Jobs For People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Jean Winsor, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Dana Scott Gilmore Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Washington - Promoting Public Sector Jobs For People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Jean Winsor, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Dana Scott Gilmore

Jean Winsor

King County’s program to employ people with disabilities in county jobs is an example of Washington’s commitment to the use of innovative approaches to increase integrated employment. In 1989, a training resource funded by Washington State and the county Division of Developmental Disabilities, O’Neill and Associates, submitted a grant application to the Rehabilitation Services Administration to develop public sector jobs for people with developmental disabilities within the state. These jobs were to be concentrated in King County (Seattle area) government because of the availability of high-paying jobs with benefits. With the political assistance of a King County ...


Data Note: State Intellectual And Developmental Disability Agencies’ Service Trends, Agnes Zalewska, Jean Winsor Mar 2019

Data Note: State Intellectual And Developmental Disability Agencies’ Service Trends, Agnes Zalewska, Jean Winsor

Jean Winsor

In FY2016, an estimated 638,568 individuals received day or employment supports from state IDD program agencies. This number grew from 455,824 in FY1999. The estimated number of individuals in integrated employment services increased from 108,227 in FY1999 to 120,244 in FY2016. Despite the trend to terminate facility-based services in some states, the overall state investment continues to emphasize non-work services, rather than integrated employment services. Figure 1 shows the trends in the percentage of people served in integrated employment and facility-based and non-work settings between FY2008 and FY2016.


State Agency Promising Practice: Community Employment Training By And For Individuals With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities In Tennessee, Jean Winsor Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Community Employment Training By And For Individuals With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities In Tennessee, Jean Winsor

Jean Winsor

Project Income was a joint venture between the Tennessee Microboards Association (statewide organization that supports individual microboards, which procure and oversee supports and services) and People First of Tennessee (a statewide selfadvocacy organization for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities). The focus of the project was to educate people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) and their families about the benefits of and opportunities for community employment.


Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard Mar 2019

Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard

John Butterworth

Recent legislation and regulation governing Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS), the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 (WIOA), and settlement agreements between states and the U.S. Department of Justice are clarifying federal intent and paving the way to supporting opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities. With an increasing emphasis on integrated employment and an Employment First philosophy, the nation is poised for transformation that could put Americans with disabilities on a path out of poverty and towards self-sufficiency. However, there remains a significant gap in employment rates between people with and ...


State Agency Promising Practice: Washington - Promoting Public Sector Jobs For People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Jean Winsor, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Dana Scott Gilmore Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Washington - Promoting Public Sector Jobs For People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Jean Winsor, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Dana Scott Gilmore

John Butterworth

King County’s program to employ people with disabilities in county jobs is an example of Washington’s commitment to the use of innovative approaches to increase integrated employment. In 1989, a training resource funded by Washington State and the county Division of Developmental Disabilities, O’Neill and Associates, submitted a grant application to the Rehabilitation Services Administration to develop public sector jobs for people with developmental disabilities within the state. These jobs were to be concentrated in King County (Seattle area) government because of the availability of high-paying jobs with benefits. With the political assistance of a King County ...


State Agency Promising Practices: The Maine Employment Curriculum - Delivering Best Practices For Employment Support Professionals, John Butterworth, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practices: The Maine Employment Curriculum - Delivering Best Practices For Employment Support Professionals, John Butterworth, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons

John Butterworth

The University of Maine’s Center for Community Inclusion and Disability Studies (CCIDS), along with the Maine Department of Behavioral and Developmental Services (BDS) and the Bureau of Rehabilitation Services, developed the Maine Employment Curriculum (MEC). The comprehensive curriculum fosters best practices in employment supports for people with disabilities statewide by using a cadre of trainers who are supported by the Maine Employment Curriculum project staff. The Maine Employment Curriculum ultimately seeks an increase in the number of integrated, communitybased supports available and builds the capacity of the employment support provider community to achieve this goal.


State Agency Promising Practices: New Hampshire’S Employment Data Collection - The Power To Transform Communication, Partnership, And Service Delivery, Jennifer Bose Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practices: New Hampshire’S Employment Data Collection - The Power To Transform Communication, Partnership, And Service Delivery, Jennifer Bose

Jennifer Bose

In 2010, when the New Hampshire Bureau of Developmental Services (BDS) received grant funds to strengthen multisystem service delivery, its administrators partnered with area agencies; community rehabilitation providers, or CRPs (employment providers); and other stakeholders to improve and streamline the process of collecting employment data. Originally a multi-system process, BDS continued the data-collection effort when other systems withdrew. BDS’s new data-collection system allows unprecedented access to clear data displays, as well as the ability to run a variety of detailed reports to guide the statewide promotion of integrated employment.


State Agency Promising Practice: Pennsylvania’S Employment Newsletter - A Communication Strategy To Promote Employment, Jennifer Bose Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Pennsylvania’S Employment Newsletter - A Communication Strategy To Promote Employment, Jennifer Bose

Jennifer Bose

The State of Pennsylvania’s Office of Developmental Programs (ODP) created a monthly newsletter called The Employment Update, which covers state- and nationwide news about the employment of people with disabilities, including intellectual/developmental disabilities. The Employment Update is sent via email to state agency contacts and a large stakeholder community, including individuals with disabilities, service providers, state associations, employers, advocacy groups, family members, representatives from academia and others. The Employment Update contains information about employment trends, employment policy, trainings and conferences throughout Pennsylvania and nationwide. The newsletter also contains information about employment grants and project activities, including links to ...


State Agency Promising Practice: Washington’S Investment In Robust Training And Technical Assistance, Jennifer Bose Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Washington’S Investment In Robust Training And Technical Assistance, Jennifer Bose

Jennifer Bose

In the mid-1980s, the state of Washington was awarded a five-year federal systems change grant to kick-start their supported employment efforts via the Washington State Employment Initiative. Funding from this grant was used to develop training on best practices and to generate high-quality integrated employment supports among agencies. At the end of this five-year period, with state funding and support from state leadership, the Washington State Employment Initiative re-formed as WISE, an independent training and technical assistance (TA) organization. WISE now contracts with the Washington Developmental Disabilities Administration to provide ongoing, high-quality training and TA across the state and to ...


State Agency Promising Practice: Oregon’S Employment Support Website - Communicating The Employment First Policy, Jennifer Bose Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Oregon’S Employment Support Website - Communicating The Employment First Policy, Jennifer Bose

Jennifer Bose

In 2009, the state of Oregon adopted its Employment First policy. When Oregon’s Office of Developmental Disabilities Services (DDS) decided to promote the implementation of this policy, it began by updating its existing employment website. The redesigned website (http:// www.dhs.state.or.us/dd/supp_emp/) emphasizes the value of integrated employment over other outcomes, and the importance of building community-wide conversations, with the goal of achieving integrated employment for people with developmental disabilities. The website shares the value of integrated employment with all targeted audiences by highlighting resources and illustrating employment successes. It was also designed to share ...


State Agency Promising Practice: Maryland - Collaborating To Promote Self-Employment For People With Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities, Jennifer Bose Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Maryland - Collaborating To Promote Self-Employment For People With Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities, Jennifer Bose

Jennifer Bose

Self-employment has emerged as a viable option for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). To meet increased self-employment demands, Maryland’s Developmental Disabilities Administration (DDA), in collaboration with the Maryland Division of Rehabilitation Services (DORS), adapted services offered through the Reach Independence through Self Employment (RISE) program. The RISE program, funded by DORS, provides technical assistance and financial support to people starting their own businesses. DDA’s role in this self-employment initiative has helped people with IDD start a wide variety of businesses and achieve meaningful employment.


State Agency Promising Practice: Pennsylvania’S Employment Newsletter - A Communication Strategy To Promote Employment, Jennifer Bose Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Pennsylvania’S Employment Newsletter - A Communication Strategy To Promote Employment, Jennifer Bose

Jennifer Bose

The State of Pennsylvania’s Office of Developmental Programs (ODP) created a monthly newsletter called The Employment Update, which covers state- and nationwide news about the employment of people with disabilities, including intellectual/developmental disabilities. The Employment Update is sent via email to state agency contacts and a large stakeholder community, including individuals with disabilities, service providers, state associations, employers, advocacy groups, family members, representatives from academia and others. The Employment Update contains information about employment trends, employment policy, trainings and conferences throughout Pennsylvania and nationwide. The newsletter also contains information about employment grants and project activities, including links to ...


State Agency Promising Practice: Massachusetts - Using A Collaborative, Person-Centered Planning Approach To Facilitate Community Employment, Jennifer Bose, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Massachusetts - Using A Collaborative, Person-Centered Planning Approach To Facilitate Community Employment, Jennifer Bose, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons

Jennifer Bose

The Northeast Region Supported Employment Project was developed by the North Shore area office of the Massachusetts Department of Developmental Services in 2007. This pilot program, open to any individual with ID/DD who wanted to work, emphasized a person-centered planning approach to achieving the individuals’ goals for employment in the community. The project emphasized the individual’s choice of employment providers, collaboration with the Massachusetts Rehabilitation Commission (MRC), and use of an independent facilitator to support career and life planning. The project was spearheaded by two DDS administrators dedicated to communicating the value of community-based employment to the Department.


State Agency Promising Practice: Oregon’S Keys For Case Managers Initiative - Ensuring Case Manager Technical Capacity, Investment, And Engagement In Employment First, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Oregon’S Keys For Case Managers Initiative - Ensuring Case Manager Technical Capacity, Investment, And Engagement In Employment First, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons

Jaimie Timmons

After the adoption of the Employment First policy in Oregon in 2010, state administrators identified the critical role of case managers for people on the support services waiver, and acknowledged the need for their buy-in and investment in the Employment First agenda. The case managers’ knowledge of the individuals they serve, the conversations they have with individuals and their families, and their knowledge of the community are critical to each individual’s success in finding employment, as well as to the forward movement of the Employment First initiative. At that time, the state agency serving individuals with intellectual/developmental disabilities ...


Data Note: Social Security Administration Data Show A Record Low Level Of Pass Usage Among Ssi Recipients, Daria Domin, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons Mar 2019

Data Note: Social Security Administration Data Show A Record Low Level Of Pass Usage Among Ssi Recipients, Daria Domin, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons

Jaimie Timmons

The Social Security Administration (SSA) offers a set of work incentives for Supplemental Security income (SSI) beneficiaries. Work incentive employment supports help SSI recipients go to work by minimizing the risk of losing their SSI or Medicaid benefits (Social Security Administration, 2018). One such incentive, the Plan to Achieve Self-Support (PASS), allows approved individuals to set aside earned or unearned income and resources to achieve an employment goal. The money or resources set aside are excluded from SSI income and resource tests and can be used to pay for goods or services needed to reach the goal, such as education ...


Data Note: Social Security Administration Data Show A Record Low Level Of Pass Usage Among Ssi Recipients, Daria Domin, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Jan 2019

Data Note: Social Security Administration Data Show A Record Low Level Of Pass Usage Among Ssi Recipients, Daria Domin, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

The Social Security Administration (SSA) offers a set of work incentives for Supplemental Security income (SSI) beneficiaries. Work incentive employment supports help SSI recipients go to work by minimizing the risk of losing their SSI or Medicaid benefits (Social Security Administration, 2018). One such incentive, the Plan to Achieve Self-Support (PASS), allows approved individuals to set aside earned or unearned income and resources to achieve an employment goal. The money or resources set aside are excluded from SSI income and resource tests and can be used to pay for goods or services needed to reach the goal, such as education ...


Service Provider Promising Practice - The Arc Of Westchester: Creative Partnership With Mercy College, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Jan 2019

Service Provider Promising Practice - The Arc Of Westchester: Creative Partnership With Mercy College, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

The Arc of Westchester benefits from an agency culture that values innovative partnerships. In fact, an agency leader explained that the organization “will work with anybody who is willing to sit and talk.” This collaborative spirit led to a creative endeavor with Mercy College, a four-year school offering degrees in Business, Education, Liberal Arts, Health and Natural Sciences, and Social and Behavioral Sciences. Within Health and Natural Sciences are departments such as nursing, speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and nutrition. The Arc of Westchester partnered with these departments to form a mutually beneficial relationship, creating opportunities for both college ...


Service Provider Promising Practice - Penn-Mar Human Services: Creating Their “2020 Strategic Plan”, Esther Kamau, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Jan 2019

Service Provider Promising Practice - Penn-Mar Human Services: Creating Their “2020 Strategic Plan”, Esther Kamau, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

At the beginning of the transformation process, Penn-Mar recognized the importance of robust strategic planning to understand what the organization needed to do differently to transform. Therefore, Penn-Mar created the 2020 Strategic Plan, a 5-year plan to help focus the organization, and to strategize about how to achieve their objectives. The 2020 Strategic Plan outlines Penn-Mar’s goal to close its sheltered workshop, with a set of action steps for achievement. The plan set a specific date for closure, as Penn-Mar staff argued that without it, the transformation process would “linger forever.” Penn-Mar established a task force to support the ...


Service Provider Promising Practice - Work Inc.: Developing A Community Liaison Program To Address Holistic Needs, Esther Kamau, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Jan 2019

Service Provider Promising Practice - Work Inc.: Developing A Community Liaison Program To Address Holistic Needs, Esther Kamau, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Leadership at Work Inc., a provider in the Boston area, thought about the holistic approach to providing individual supports even before their agency’s transformation began. Work Inc. designed its community liaisons program to have three components: volunteerism, with the intention of identifying employment opportunities and contributing to the community; recreation, “because everyone wants to have fun”; and instruction, with a focus on skill-building and identifying interests and talents. In designing and implementing the program, Work Inc. staff considered each person’s interests, and turned former workshop staff into “community liaisons.”


Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Oct 2018

Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Recent legislation and regulation governing Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS), the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 (WIOA), and settlement agreements between states and the U.S. Department of Justice are clarifying federal intent and paving the way to supporting opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities. With an increasing emphasis on integrated employment and an Employment First philosophy, the nation is poised for transformation that could put Americans with disabilities on a path out of poverty and towards self-sufficiency. However, there remains a significant gap in employment rates between people with and ...


Building An Evidence-Based, Holistic Approach To Advancing Integrated Employment, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Jean Winsor, John Kramer, Kelly Nye-Lengerman, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Sep 2018

Building An Evidence-Based, Holistic Approach To Advancing Integrated Employment, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Jean Winsor, John Kramer, Kelly Nye-Lengerman, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Since the introduction of supported employment in the Developmental Disabilities Act of 1984 and the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986, there has been continued development and refinement of best practices in employment services and supports. Progress includes creative outcomes for individuals with significant support needs including customized jobs and self-employment, community rehabilitation providers that have shifted emphasis to integrated employment, and states that have made a substantial investment in Employment First policy and strategy. Despite these achievements, the promise of integrated employment remains elusive for the majority of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The number of individuals supported in ...


Family Experiences In Engaging In Employment: How Do We Improve Outcomes?, John Kramer, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Aug 2018

Family Experiences In Engaging In Employment: How Do We Improve Outcomes?, John Kramer, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Session 018: Abolishing Exploitive Labour Practices Room: Freedom H

Sponsors: Disability Youth, Aging, and the Life Course

Organizer, Presider &

Discussant: Katherine Caldwell, University of Illinois at Chicago

Papers:

“Differences in Earnings among Persons with and without Disabilities,” Alexandra Krause, Florida State University

“Family Experiences in Engaging in Employment: How Do We Improve Outcomes?” John Kramer, University of Massachusetts Boston

“Shifting the Paradigm through Entrepreneurship,” Katherine Caldwell, University of Illinois at Chicago


Families And Employment Of People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities: Results From A Scoping Study, John Kramer, Jennifer Bose, Jean Winsor, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Aug 2018

Families And Employment Of People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities: Results From A Scoping Study, John Kramer, Jennifer Bose, Jean Winsor, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Purpose: Recent policy changes expanding community employment for people with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDD) and awareness of the important role of family members as facilitators of these opportunities motivated this scoping review of the literature on family engagement with the IDD service system.

Methods: Researchers used Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage scoping review methodology (2005) to map a wide range of literature to discover the resources and strategies available to families supporting people with IDD to find employment; the resources and strategies to support people with IDD and families to develop a vision of employment; and the resources and ...


Meshing Employment Services, John Kramer, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston, Nicole Jorwic, Nancy Mercer, Jill Pierce, Kevin Walker Jul 2018

Meshing Employment Services, John Kramer, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston, Nicole Jorwic, Nancy Mercer, Jill Pierce, Kevin Walker

ThinkWork! Publications

Working with vocational rehab, DDS, and community agencies to secure community employment with the supports you need for success!


Building An Evidence-Based, Holistic Approach For Moving Integrated Employment Forward, John Butterworth, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Jason Billehus, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Jun 2018

Building An Evidence-Based, Holistic Approach For Moving Integrated Employment Forward, John Butterworth, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Jason Billehus, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

No abstract provided.


Using Data To Ignite And Sustain Employment Systems Change, Jean Winsor, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Jun 2018

Using Data To Ignite And Sustain Employment Systems Change, Jean Winsor, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

No abstract provided.


Using A Light Touch: Engaging Families Using Facebook Messenger, John Kramer, John Shepard, Jennifer Bose, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Jun 2018

Using A Light Touch: Engaging Families Using Facebook Messenger, John Kramer, John Shepard, Jennifer Bose, Jennifer Sullivan Sulewski, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Research shows that families are essential in the employment process for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Frequently, however, messages they receive about employment are conflicting and can vary between service systems, often due to a lack of coordination across these systems. These conflicting messages can frustrate families and negatively affect their employment expectations and their efforts to support employment outcomes. The present study examines how a well-planned and individualized engagement strategy could improve families’ expectations about employment for their family member with IDD, and how those improved expectations impact the employment planning process. This pilot focused on engaging ...


Rrtc On Advancing Employment Composite Indicator Research, Frank A. Smith, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Apr 2018

Rrtc On Advancing Employment Composite Indicator Research, Frank A. Smith, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

What?
Analysis to describe the relationship between state employment system characteristics and employment outcomes for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD).

Why?
To better understand higher-performing state employment systems.

How?
Researchers included individual indicators from 2013 for each state from its IDD and vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies. We also used American Community Survey data that looked at employment outcomes and education for individuals with cognitive disability between the ages of 22 to 30, i.e. individuals who recently aged out of eligibility for services under IDEA. The resulting composite indicator (CI) represents overall state employment system performance.


Data Note: State Intellectual And Developmental Disability Agencies’ Service Trends, Agnes Zalewska, Jean Winsor, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Jan 2018

Data Note: State Intellectual And Developmental Disability Agencies’ Service Trends, Agnes Zalewska, Jean Winsor, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

In FY2016, an estimated 638,568 individuals received day or employment supports from state IDD program agencies. This number grew from 455,824 in FY1999. The estimated number of individuals in integrated employment services increased from 108,227 in FY1999 to 120,244 in FY2016. Despite the trend to terminate facility-based services in some states, the overall state investment continues to emphasize non-work services, rather than integrated employment services. Figure 1 shows the trends in the percentage of people served in integrated employment and facility-based and non-work settings between FY2008 and FY2016.