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Full-Text Articles in Social Work

Remarital Chances, Choices, And Economic Consequences: Issues Of Social And Personal Welfare, Kevin Shafer, Todd M. Jensen Jun 2019

Remarital Chances, Choices, And Economic Consequences: Issues Of Social And Personal Welfare, Kevin Shafer, Todd M. Jensen

Kevin Shafer

Many divorced women experience a significant decline in financial, social, physical, and psychological well-being following a divorce. Using data from the NLSY79 (n= 2,520) we compare welfare recipients, mothers, and impoverished women to less marginalized divorcees on remarriage chances. Furthermore, we look at the kinds of men these women marry by focusing on the employment and education of new spouses. Finally, we address how remarriage and spousal quality (as defined by education and employment) impact economic well-being after divorce. Our results show that remarriage has positive economic effects, but that is dependent upon spousal quality. However, such matches are ...


Effects Of Native American Geographical Location And Marital Status On Poverty, Tess Collett, Gordon Limb, Kevin Shafer Jun 2019

Effects Of Native American Geographical Location And Marital Status On Poverty, Tess Collett, Gordon Limb, Kevin Shafer

Kevin Shafer

This study examined the association between geographic location (urban, rural, and tribal) and marital status on poverty among the Native American community. A sample of 5,110 Native Americans in the 2008-2010 American Community Survey were used for analyses. Results indicated that Native Americans were similar with the general population in their geographic location, marital status, and poverty. We found that the protective characteristics of marriage in the Native American community varied according to geographic location. We also discuss the impact this may have on the Native American community and what practitioners and policy makers should consider when working with ...


Barriers To Higher Education Among Calworks Recipients, Esther Ramirez, Melissa M. Rodriguez Jun 2019

Barriers To Higher Education Among Calworks Recipients, Esther Ramirez, Melissa M. Rodriguez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Individuals and families in poverty face an abundance of barriers to self-sufficiency with the lack of higher education being the most prominent of them. The California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKs) program has been the primary intervention to aid poverty following the welfare reform of 1996. Through their work first approach the CalWORKs program intends to set recipients on the path to self-sufficiency. Although education is the biggest weapon against poverty, CalWORKs recipients face a plethora of barriers while pursuing a college degree, as CalWORKs regulations are rigid and unsupportive toward higher education. Due to the minimal research ...


Coping Mechanisms Utilized By Single Mothers In College, Natasha Elise Maness, Kristina Rene Munoz Jun 2019

Coping Mechanisms Utilized By Single Mothers In College, Natasha Elise Maness, Kristina Rene Munoz

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of study was to explore the various coping mechanisms used by single mothers who are pursuing higher education. Furthermore, this study examined the various relationships, personal and financial needs the mothers face. This study also explored the interpersonal relationships that exist for single mothers raising their children in the U.S. while facing financial burdens, lack of resources and childcare dilemmas. This study utilized a qualitative design. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews. The data collected from this study will allow for social workers to provide services in order to ensure single mother attending college are utilizing effective ...


Bowling Green Welfare Home - Bowling Green, Kentucky (Sc 3390), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Apr 2019

Bowling Green Welfare Home - Bowling Green, Kentucky (Sc 3390), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 3390. Two reports on the Bowling Green Welfare Home, 1023 Adams Street, Bowling Green, Kentucky. The first lists expenses from 1932-1934 and provides a short history and a list of residents. The second, by Marie Pennington, is dated 1936 and reports on the home’s history, personnel and finances, and describes a few of the welfare cases.


Mn Food (In)Security: Are Anti-Hunger Interventions In The Twin Cities Perpetuating Food Insecurity And Poverty?, Emma Kiley Jan 2019

Mn Food (In)Security: Are Anti-Hunger Interventions In The Twin Cities Perpetuating Food Insecurity And Poverty?, Emma Kiley

Departmental Honors Projects

While anti-hunger organizations across the nation have been doing important work to address this issue, we have yet to see a significant decrease in food insecurity or poverty. This project uses a literature review and interviews with Twin Cities anti-hunger organizations to answer the following questions: How are anti-hunger interventions and the root causes of food insecurity mismatched? And what would it look like if anti-hunger organizations who are heavily engaged in the ‘feeding movement’ shifted their understanding to see food insecurity as a symptom of poverty, rather than an isolated issue? Working through themes of food charity models, privatized ...


Multiplicative Advantages Of Hispanic Men Living In Hispanic Enclaves: Intersectionality In Colon Cancer Care: A Research Note, Keren M. Escobar, Mollie Sivaram, Kevin M. Gorey Jan 2019

Multiplicative Advantages Of Hispanic Men Living In Hispanic Enclaves: Intersectionality In Colon Cancer Care: A Research Note, Keren M. Escobar, Mollie Sivaram, Kevin M. Gorey

Social Work Publications

We examined Hispanic enclave paradoxical effects on cancer care among socioeconomically vulnerable people in pre-Obamacare California. We conducted a secondary analysis of a historical cohort of 511 Hispanic and 1,753 non-Hispanic white people with colon cancer. Hispanic enclaves were neighborhoods where 40% or more of the residents were Hispanic, mostly first-generation Mexican American immigrants. An interaction of ethnicity, gender, and Hispanic enclave status was observed such that the protective effects of living in a Hispanic enclave were larger for Hispanic men, particularly married Hispanic men, than women. Risks were also exposed among other study groups: the poor, the inadequately ...


Care Of Acute Conditions And Chronic Diseases In Canada And The United States: Rapid Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Keren M. Escobar, Dorian Murariu, Sharon Munro, Kevin M. Gorey Jan 2019

Care Of Acute Conditions And Chronic Diseases In Canada And The United States: Rapid Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Keren M. Escobar, Dorian Murariu, Sharon Munro, Kevin M. Gorey

Social Work Publications

This study tested the hypothesis that socioeconomically vulnerable Canadians with diverse acute conditions or chronic diseases have health care access and survival advantages over their counterparts in the USA. A rapid systematic review retrieved 25 studies (34 independent cohorts) published between 2003 and 2018. They were synthesized with a streamlined meta-analysis. Very low-income Canadian patients were consistently and highly advantaged in terms of health care access and survival compared with their counterparts in the USA who lived in poverty and/or were uninsured or underinsured. In aggregate and controlling for specific conditions or diseases and typically 4 to 9 comorbid ...


Seven Factors That Influence The Effectiveness Of International Development, Jaylyn Perry Nov 2018

Seven Factors That Influence The Effectiveness Of International Development, Jaylyn Perry

Senior Honors Theses

This literature review analyzes the global issue of poverty and the various factors that are influencing the ability of nations to effectively achieve development. The many interpretations of what development is, as well as the categories and forms of poverty, are examined to show the scope of the issue. Seven factors: politics, economics, institutions, culture, geography, aid, and globalization are explored as to their impact on the effectiveness of development around the world. The review of the literature found that effective development is influenced by each one of these factors and it is necessary to consider them when planning and ...


Generational Homelessness In New York City Family Homeless Shelters, Deborah Johnson Jan 2018

Generational Homelessness In New York City Family Homeless Shelters, Deborah Johnson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Homelessness has been a problem in New York City (NYC) for decades. Part of the problem is children who grew up in the shelter system and then returned as adults, a phenomenon known as 2nd-generation homelessness. Literature indicates that no researchers have interviewed second-generation homeless adults about their experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of 2nd-generation homelessness from the perspective of homeless adults returning to the shelter system. The sample included 1 second-generation homeless adult and 10 case managers at Tier II homeless shelters. Interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using hand coding to ...


Flint’S Children: Narratives On Hope, Christin L. Carotta, Amy E. Bonomi, Karleigh Knox, Morgan C. Blain, Brianna F. Dines, Jaquan Cotton Sep 2017

Flint’S Children: Narratives On Hope, Christin L. Carotta, Amy E. Bonomi, Karleigh Knox, Morgan C. Blain, Brianna F. Dines, Jaquan Cotton

The Qualitative Report

Hope plays an important role in resiliency, well-being, and buffering against adversity. To explore children’s experiences with hope while developing in low-income communities, we conducted interviews with twenty-one children residing in Flint, Michigan, ages 9-12 years. Research questions focused on the specific hopes children have, the importance they ascribe to different hopes, and their experiences of feeling hopeful or less hopeful about desired outcomes. Children expressed interrelated hopes across multiple social-ecological domains, including hopes for themselves, hopes for their interpersonal relationships, and hopes for the community. Children placed particular importance on their hopes of helping others, which included providing ...


Adolescent Girls Offered Alternatives To Commercial Sexual Exploitation: A Case Study From The Philippines, Christopher A. Bagley, Susan Madrid, Padam Simkhada, Kathleen King, Loretta Young Jun 2017

Adolescent Girls Offered Alternatives To Commercial Sexual Exploitation: A Case Study From The Philippines, Christopher A. Bagley, Susan Madrid, Padam Simkhada, Kathleen King, Loretta Young

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Background: Up to 2% of adolescents and young women are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) in the Philippines, an economically poor country that earns considerable revenue from “sex tourists.” Earlier research, in the 1990s in Metro Manila, described the living conditions of adolescents whose CSE was influenced by family poverty, their so-called “sex work” becoming a major source of income for families left behind in rural and provincial areas of Luzon. Recent research (up to 2014) indicates that conditions for adolescents experiencing CSE have, if anything, worsened.

Methods: Following the original study, the researchers were able to offer scholarships ...


Clinicians Perspectives When Treating Adults In Poverty Living With Anxiety Disorders, Natalie Stout, Paul Maldonado Jun 2017

Clinicians Perspectives When Treating Adults In Poverty Living With Anxiety Disorders, Natalie Stout, Paul Maldonado

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The study explored the perceptions of clinical therapists who have conducted treatment on adults who live in poverty with an anxiety related disorder. Previous studies have discussed the relationship between poverty and the development of anxiety related disorders, while others have discussed the negative impacts anxiety can have on physical health, mental health, and social functioning. To improve the efficacy of therapeutic intervention for low income adults with anxiety related disorders, the study explored what clinicians believe are the most effective aspects of therapy to utilize. The study elicited qualitative data, reflecting on the experiences of ten participants who had ...


Wood County Project Connect 2016, Melissa Burek, Mamta Ojha, Megan Schnell May 2017

Wood County Project Connect 2016, Melissa Burek, Mamta Ojha, Megan Schnell

Melissa Burek

Project Homeless Connect (PHC) is designed to provide immediate goods and services to homeless individuals and those nearing homelessness. PHC provides basic needs and critical services in one day at one location. Along with providing valuable and necessary services to help alleviate homelessness, an additional positive outcome for service providers is the opportunity to network with different agency members, and reinforce relationships, collaborations, and partnerships.   On October 19, 2016, Wood County, Ohio held its fourth Project Connect (PC) event at St. Mark’s Lutheran Church in Bowling Green, Ohio.  This report presents a compilation of data collected at the event ...


Breast Cancer Care In California And Ontario: Primary Care Protections Greatest Among The Most Socioeconomically Vulnerable Women Living In The Most Underserved Places, Kevin M. Gorey, Caroline Hamm, Isaac N. Luginaah, Guangyong Zou, Eric J. Holowaty Jan 2017

Breast Cancer Care In California And Ontario: Primary Care Protections Greatest Among The Most Socioeconomically Vulnerable Women Living In The Most Underserved Places, Kevin M. Gorey, Caroline Hamm, Isaac N. Luginaah, Guangyong Zou, Eric J. Holowaty

Social Work Publications

Background: Better health care among Canada’s socioeconomically vulnerable versus America’s has not been fully explained. We examined the effects of poverty, health insurance and the supply of primary care physicians on breast cancer care. Methods: We analyzed breast cancer data in Ontario (n = 950) and California (n = 6300) between 1996 and 2000 and followed until 2014. We obtained socioeconomic data from censuses, oversampling the poor. We obtained data on the supply of physicians, primary care and specialists. The optimal care criterion was being diagnosed early with node negative disease and received breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiation ...


Blurring Professional Borders In Service Of Anti-Poverty Collaboration: Combining Social Work Skills And An Anti-Oppressive Feminist Lens With Legal Aid, Andrew C. Schoeneman Jan 2017

Blurring Professional Borders In Service Of Anti-Poverty Collaboration: Combining Social Work Skills And An Anti-Oppressive Feminist Lens With Legal Aid, Andrew C. Schoeneman

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The history of legal aid is contested and gendered. Like social work, since the late 1800s professionalization and broader political forces have pushed legal aid toward greater focus on individual-level interventions to alleviate poverty. As a result, the capacity of contemporary legal aid programs to work collaboratively with low-income communities to address their legal and non-legal concerns is limited. This article traces the shared histories and commitments of legal aid and social work, calls for an increased collaboration between legal aid programs and social workers, and proposes an anti-oppressive, feminist theoretical perspective to guide this collaboration. By embracing collaboration across ...


Barriers To Food Security Experienced By Families Living In Extended Stay Motels, Stephanie Gonzalez Guittar Jan 2017

Barriers To Food Security Experienced By Families Living In Extended Stay Motels, Stephanie Gonzalez Guittar

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Families who are food insecure do not have regular access to food, access to enough food to satisfy their hunger, or have to resort to extraordinary measures to access food such as traveling to food pantries and other emergency food sources. This article focuses on low-income families with children who live in extended stay motels and experienced food insecurity. Families reported several indicators of food insecurity and discussed the barriers to food security they experienced as a result of living in a motel. Families reported that the locations of the motels, lack of transportation, the lack of storage space and ...


The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson Jan 2017

The Impact Of Concentrations Of African Americans And Latinos/Latinas On Neighborhood Social Cohesion In High Poverty United States Neighborhoods, Laurie A. Walker, Daniel Brisson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

United States research concludes concentrations of Latinos/Latinas and African Americans have a negative impact on Neighborhood Social Cohesion (NSC); however, European research finds higher levels of NSC when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. This study utilizes a longitudinal stratified random sample of 7,495 households in 430 Census Blocks within 10 United States cities that participated in the Making Connections Initiative. Results show higher NSC is associated with higher percentages of residents who are Latino/Latina, African American, and homeowners when controlling for measures of concentrated disadvantage. The study findings challenge the stigma associated with concentrations of racial ...


Social Networks In The Context Of Microfinance And Intimate Partner Violence In Bangladesh: A Mixed-Methods Study, Nadine S. Murshid, Allison Zippay Jan 2017

Social Networks In The Context Of Microfinance And Intimate Partner Violence In Bangladesh: A Mixed-Methods Study, Nadine S. Murshid, Allison Zippay

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This mixed-methods study draws from social network theory to examine disclosure and help seeking for intimate partner violence among microfinance participants in Bangladesh. This study uses data on women from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 and from in-depth interviews with 30 microfinance participants in Dhaka. Propensity Score Matching analyses indicated that increase in social contacts due to microfinance participation was not associated with disclosing IPV. Responses from the urban sample indicated that reasons for nondisclosure include feelings of shame, stigma, and fear of being perceived as weak by others. Implications regarding how microfinance organizations can tap ...


Who Defines Need?: Low-Income Individuals’ Interpretations Of Need And The Implications For Participation In Public Assistance Programs, Kerri Leyda Nicoll Jan 2017

Who Defines Need?: Low-Income Individuals’ Interpretations Of Need And The Implications For Participation In Public Assistance Programs, Kerri Leyda Nicoll

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Existing research into participation and nonparticipation in U.S. public assistance programs is nearly all rooted in the assumption that people who meet a program’s eligibility criteria are in need of that program’s assistance. Based on in-depth interviews with members of 75 low-income households, this study argues that the failure to give low-income individuals a voice in defining their own need prevents researchers from understanding how and why these individuals choose to participate, or not participate, in public programs. The disconnect between individual interpretations of need and program eligibility standards pushes us to rethink the design of participation ...


Financial Empowerment And Health Related Quality Of Life In Family Scholar House Participants, Chelsey Franz Sep 2016

Financial Empowerment And Health Related Quality Of Life In Family Scholar House Participants, Chelsey Franz

Journal of Financial Therapy

Research demonstrates an association between poverty and health. Populations in poverty suffer from poor mental and physical health, and thus, poor health-related quality of life. Research also indicates people living in the lower socio-economic categories experience higher levels of stress that are associated with these health declines. Family Scholar House, a local community intervention designed to alleviate poverty and improve socio-economic status by providing college education and support to single parents, combats these health outcomes by addressing the five social determinants of health (economic stability, education, social and community context, health care, and neighborhood and built environment). Quantitative analysis indicates ...


Impact Of Education On Poverty Reduction In Costa Rica: A Regional And Urban-Rural Analysis, Rafael Arias, Gregorio Giménez, Leonardo Sánchez Sep 2016

Impact Of Education On Poverty Reduction In Costa Rica: A Regional And Urban-Rural Analysis, Rafael Arias, Gregorio Giménez, Leonardo Sánchez

Contemporary Rural Social Work Journal

In this article, we analyze the relationship between levels of education and poverty for the different planning regions and also according to urban and rural areas. For the purposes of the study, we use the methodology of Unsatisfied Basic Needs (UBN) to measure poverty in a multidimensional way: access to decent shelter, access to health, access to knowledge, and access to other goods and services (consumption capacity). Based on empirical evidence that uses data from the Population Census of 2011, we conclude that achieving greater levels of education helps people from rural and urban areas and people living in the ...


Palliative Chemotherapy Among People Living In Poverty With Metastasised Colon Cancer: Facilitation By Primary Care And Health Insurance, Kevin M. Gorey, Emma Bartfay, Sindu M. Kanjeekal, Frances C. Wright, Caroline Hamm, Isaac N. Luginaah, Guangyong Zou, Eric J. Holowaty, Nancy L. Richter, Madhan K. Balagurusamy Aug 2016

Palliative Chemotherapy Among People Living In Poverty With Metastasised Colon Cancer: Facilitation By Primary Care And Health Insurance, Kevin M. Gorey, Emma Bartfay, Sindu M. Kanjeekal, Frances C. Wright, Caroline Hamm, Isaac N. Luginaah, Guangyong Zou, Eric J. Holowaty, Nancy L. Richter, Madhan K. Balagurusamy

Social Work Publications

Background: Many Americans with metastasised colon cancer do not receive indicated palliative chemotherapy. We examined the effects of health insurance and physician supplies on such chemotherapy in California.

Methods: We analysed registry data for 1199 people with metastasised colon cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2000 and followed for 1 year. We obtained data on health insurance, census tract-based socioeconomic status and county-level physician supplies. Poor neighbourhoods were oversampled and the criterion was receipt of chemotherapy. Effects were described with rate ratios (RR) and tested with logistic regression models.

Results: Palliative chemotherapy was received by less than half of the participants ...


Exploring The Relationship Of Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics With Food Behaviors Of Low-Income, Food Insecure Women In The United States (Us), Kimberly Ann Wollard Jul 2016

Exploring The Relationship Of Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics With Food Behaviors Of Low-Income, Food Insecure Women In The United States (Us), Kimberly Ann Wollard

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) self-reported surveys from 2007-2012, this research explored the relationship between four healthy lifestyle characteristics - healthy weight, adequate daily fruit and vegetable intake, regular moderate to vigorous physical activity and not smoking - with food behaviors of low-income, food insecure women. The study examined three specific food behaviors (the use of SNAP, consumption of fast foods, and the utilization of community emergency food programs) to determine if these behaviors had a significant impact on low-income, food insecure women to follow healthy lifestyle characteristics. A secondary data analysis was conducted using binary ...


Frontline Worker Responses To Domestic Violence Disclosure In Public Welfare Offices, Taryn Lindhorst, Erin A. Casey, Marcia Meyers May 2016

Frontline Worker Responses To Domestic Violence Disclosure In Public Welfare Offices, Taryn Lindhorst, Erin A. Casey, Marcia Meyers

Erin Casey

Although substantial numbers of women seeking Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) report domestic violence, few receive mandated services through the Family Violence Option (FVO). This study used transcripts ofinterviews between welfare caseworkers and their clients to identify and classify the responses made by workers to client disclosures of abuse and to assess the match or mismatch of these responses with FVO policy requirements. Only 22 of 782 client interviews involved the disclosure of abuse to the welfare caseworker. A typology of worker responses was created, from least to most engaged. This typology shows that only half of those who ...


Disparities Among Minority Women With Breast Cancer Living In Impoverished Areas Of California, Sundus Haji-Jama, Kevin M. Gorey, Isaac N. Luginaah, Guangyong Zou, Caroline Hamm, Eric J. Holowaty May 2016

Disparities Among Minority Women With Breast Cancer Living In Impoverished Areas Of California, Sundus Haji-Jama, Kevin M. Gorey, Isaac N. Luginaah, Guangyong Zou, Caroline Hamm, Eric J. Holowaty

Social Work Publications

Background: Interaction effects of poverty and health care insurance coverage on overall survival rates of breast cancer among women of color and non-Hispanic white women were explored. Methods: We analyzed California registry data for 2,024 women of color (black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, or other ethnicity) and 4,276 non-Hispanic white women (Anglo-European ancestries and no Hispanic-Latin ethnic backgrounds) diagnosed with breast cancer between the years 1996 and 2000 who were then followed until 2011. The 2000 US census categorized rates of neighborhood poverty. Health care insurance coverage was either private, Medicare, Medicaid, or none. Cox regression ...


Smoking Cessation And The Role Of Stigma: A Systematic Review, Carl White May 2016

Smoking Cessation And The Role Of Stigma: A Systematic Review, Carl White

Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers

There have been smoking cessation programs in existence for more than three decades. Stigma has been used in smoking campaigns with good results for individuals in higher socioeconomic status, but not for those in poverty. Perceptions of smokers and behaviors of smokers continue to be stigmatized. This paper reviews the existing literature in an attempt to understand what role stigma plays in smoking cessation programs for those living in poverty.


Systematic Review: Social Work School Interventions For Food Accessibility Among Impoverished Children, Rebecca Christensen May 2016

Systematic Review: Social Work School Interventions For Food Accessibility Among Impoverished Children, Rebecca Christensen

Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers

Mothers and children from impoverished families discuss the continuous sacrifices related to food insecurity. Sacrifices like trade-offs can lead to attention of a family’s immediate needs like food but these often come with the cost or sacrifice of other long term needs such as a means of income. Working with children and their families in attending to the underlying causes for their food insecurity may not only help to alleviate their immediate but also their long term needs in maintaining a standard of living. This systematic literature review was designed to investigate the research question: What interventions are being ...


Structural Reinterpretation Of Poverty By Examining Working Poverty: Implications For Community And Policy Practice, Philip Young P. Hong, Stephen Wernet Jan 2016

Structural Reinterpretation Of Poverty By Examining Working Poverty: Implications For Community And Policy Practice, Philip Young P. Hong, Stephen Wernet

Philip Hong

This exploratory research focused on the structural context of working poverty, thereby transcending its individual or behavioral aspects. Two major questions guided this study: (1) How are the working poor different compared to the working nonpoor? (2) How do structural conditions affect the chances of one being working poor? Central findings of the study were that four primary sets of factors—demographic, human capital, employment barriers, and labor market positions—contribute to an individual's likelihood of being among the working poor. The structural factors—employment barriers and labor market positions—significantly contributed to the effects of human capital and ...


Effects Of Native American Geographical Location And Marital Status On Poverty, Tess Collett, Gordon Limb, Kevin Shafer Jan 2016

Effects Of Native American Geographical Location And Marital Status On Poverty, Tess Collett, Gordon Limb, Kevin Shafer

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined the association between geographic location (urban, rural, and tribal) and marital status on poverty among the Native American community. A sample of 5,110 Native Americans in the 2008-2010 American Community Survey were used for analyses. Results indicated that Native Americans were similar with the general population in their geographic location, marital status, and poverty. We found that the protective characteristics of marriage in the Native American community varied according to geographic location. We also discuss the impact this may have on the Native American community and what practitioners and policy makers should consider when working with ...