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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Social Work

Language Barriers & Perceptions Of Bias: Ethnic Differences In Immigrant Encounters With The Welfare System, Philip Kretsedemas Dec 2005

Language Barriers & Perceptions Of Bias: Ethnic Differences In Immigrant Encounters With The Welfare System, Philip Kretsedemas

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This article demonstrates why research on immigrant language barriers should account for local variations in the way these barriers are experienced by different immigrant groups. It makes the argument that variations in language barriers experienced by immigrant groups are often reflective of differences in the local migration histories and socio-economic status of these groups. These themes are illustrated by discussing the findings of a comparative survey of welfare service barriers experienced by Haitian and Hispanic welfare clients in Miami-Dade county. Secondary data on South Florida migration patterns is also used to explain disparities in the bilingual fluency of welfare caseworkers ...


Workfare In Toronto: More Of The Same?, Ernie Lightman, Andrew Mitchell, Dean Herd Dec 2005

Workfare In Toronto: More Of The Same?, Ernie Lightman, Andrew Mitchell, Dean Herd

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper uses a recent survey of welfare leavers in Toronto to examine Workfare, a uniquely American initiative introduced into Canada, with its different welfare state history and traditions. When classic American workfare was imported by an enthusiastic government in Ontario, its application led to employment outcomes remarkably similar to those in the US (reduced caseloads, insecure and contingent employment, high recidivism). Yet, Canada's earlier commitment to community and collective responsibility have not been entirely subsumed below the overarching American umbrella. Welfare programs in Canada-specifically, workfare-reflect both the difficulties of maintaining great difference, and also the possibilities of following ...


Lone Mothers And Welfare-To-Work Policies In Japan And The United States: Towards An Alternative Perspective, Aya Ezawa, Chisa Fujiwara Dec 2005

Lone Mothers And Welfare-To-Work Policies In Japan And The United States: Towards An Alternative Perspective, Aya Ezawa, Chisa Fujiwara

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper compares recent efforts to reduce lone mothers' reliance on cash assistance and support their increased participation in the workforce and economic independence in Japan and the United States. Similar to reforms introduced in the U.S. in 1996, lone mother policies in Japan have been subject to a series of cuts leading to the introduction of time limits and work-related programs in 2002. In this paper, we examine the character of recent welfare reforms in both countries and their implications for lone mothers' welfare and economic independence. Based on Japan's experience and recent lessons from the U ...


An Exploratory Study Of Neighborhood Choices Among Moving To Opportunity Participants In Baltimore, Maryland: The Influence Of Housing Search Assistance, James X. Bembry, Donald F. Norris Dec 2005

An Exploratory Study Of Neighborhood Choices Among Moving To Opportunity Participants In Baltimore, Maryland: The Influence Of Housing Search Assistance, James X. Bembry, Donald F. Norris

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examined the neighborhood choices of 150 families who participated in the Moving To Opportunity Program (MTO) in Baltimore, Maryland. The MTO program, utilizing an experimental design, provided intensive housing search and counseling services to the experimental subjects. This study found that the counseling services were instrumental in altering the subject's cognitive maps, and they were more likely to move to neighborhoods that were more racially integrated, safer, and, also, had higher levels of satisfaction with their new neighborhood. The authors conclude that the MTO program in Baltimore represents a clear case of public policy that, at least ...


Changing Welfare Services: Case Studies Of Local Welfare Reform Programs. Michael J. Austin (Ed.) And Welfare Reform In West Virginia. Robert Jay Dilger (Ed.). Reviewed By James Midgley., James Midgley Dec 2005

Changing Welfare Services: Case Studies Of Local Welfare Reform Programs. Michael J. Austin (Ed.) And Welfare Reform In West Virginia. Robert Jay Dilger (Ed.). Reviewed By James Midgley., James Midgley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Book review of Michael J. Austin (Ed.), Changing Welfare Services: Case Studies of Local Welfare Reform Programs. New York: Haworth Press, 2004. $69.95 hardcover, $39.95 papercover Robert Jay Dilger et al, Welfare Reform in West Virginia. Mogantown, WV: University of West Virginia Press, 2004. $30.00 papercover.


Welfare Recipients Attending College: The Interplay Of Oppression And Resistance, Karen Christopher Sep 2005

Welfare Recipients Attending College: The Interplay Of Oppression And Resistance, Karen Christopher

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This qualitative study uses Patricia Hill Collins' "both/and" conceptual framework to explore experiences of both oppression and resistance among welfare recipients attending college. It examines how children, social networks, integration into campus life, and interactions with caseworkers affect welfare recipients' college attendance and college persistence. As is well established in the sociological literature, having children complicates college attendance and persistence. But this research shows that children also provide the predominant incentive for poor mothers to attain higher education. Moreover, this study reveals complexities in welfare recipients' experiences with their social networks, work-study jobs, and caseworkers that are often overlooked ...


Applying Rawlsian Social Justice To Welfare Reform: An Unexpected Finding For Social Work, Mahasweta M. Banerjee Sep 2005

Applying Rawlsian Social Justice To Welfare Reform: An Unexpected Finding For Social Work, Mahasweta M. Banerjee

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper sketches social workers' understanding of social justice and reliance on Rawls (1971), highlights findings about "hard to employ" welfare recipients facing welfare reform, and articulates the parameters of Rawlsian justice (Rawls, 1999a; 2001) with particular emphasis on people who have been on welfare for long. The paper shows that social workers do not have any space to maneuver in Rawlsian justice to uphold justice for long-term welfare recipients, and welfare reform's "work first" stipulation does not violate Rawlsian justice. The paper raises some questions about social workers' continued reliance on Rawls. It suggests social workers update the ...


Reforming Welfare Reform Postsecondary Education Policy: Two State Case Studies In Political Culture, Organizing, And Advocacy, Charles Price Sep 2005

Reforming Welfare Reform Postsecondary Education Policy: Two State Case Studies In Political Culture, Organizing, And Advocacy, Charles Price

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Welfare reform had the unforeseen effect of causing large numbers of public assistance recipients to drop out of college, discouraging their pursuit and acquisition of postsecondary education (PSE) credentials. There is a growing body of research that shows the value of postsecondary education in getting public assistance recipients onto a path toward occupational and social mobility. The restrictions of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families PSE policy, coupled with the recognition that college participation should be an option for qualified welfare recipients, influenced the emergence of many successful state and county-level movements focused on reforming welfare reform PSE policy. Their work ...


Implications Of Media Scrutiny For A Child Protection Agency, Lindsay D. Cooper Sep 2005

Implications Of Media Scrutiny For A Child Protection Agency, Lindsay D. Cooper

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This study examines media impact on job efficacy in a child protection agency. The research uses inductive, holistic research methods to examine the effect of media scrutiny on changes in management dictates, worker duties and responsibilities, and agency services. Data were collected from media sources, interviews, archival materials, and participant observation, then analyzed via qualitative content analysis, providing a basis for rich ethnographic description of perceptions and behavior of diverse groups of people involved in child protection. The study reveals how contradictions in American national culture generate a need for increased communication, understanding, agreement, and support, between various groups of ...


Saving For Post-Secondary Education In Individual Development Accounts, Min Zhan, Mark Schreiner Sep 2005

Saving For Post-Secondary Education In Individual Development Accounts, Min Zhan, Mark Schreiner

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Low-income people have less access to opportunities for post-secondary education, and the welfare reform in 1996 further limited access for welfare recipients. Since welfare reform, there has been an increasing interest in strategies meant to enhance the well-being of low-income people through education and the development of human capital. In this study, we examine how low-income people saved for post-secondary education in Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) in a nationwide demonstration. IDAs provide matches for savings used primarily for home purchase, microenterprise, and post-secondary education. We examine how savings outcomes differed between participants who intended to use their savings for post-secondary ...


Theories Of Urban Poverty And Implications For Public Housing Policy, Alexandra M. Curley Jun 2005

Theories Of Urban Poverty And Implications For Public Housing Policy, Alexandra M. Curley

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Urban poverty has been the subject of sociological and political debate for more than a century. In this article I examine theories of urban poverty and their place in American housing policy. I first discuss theories that have arisen out of the sociological and policy discourse on urban poverty and the research that supports and challenges these theories. I then review current public housing initiatives and discuss the impact of these theories on current housing policy.


Distribution Of The Federal Tax Burden, Share Of After-Tax Income, And After-Tax Income By Presidential Administration And Household Type, 1981-2000, Richard K. Caputo Jun 2005

Distribution Of The Federal Tax Burden, Share Of After-Tax Income, And After-Tax Income By Presidential Administration And Household Type, 1981-2000, Richard K. Caputo

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Findings of this study show that the lowest- and middle-income households overall and those with children had lower total effective Federal tax rates during the Clinton administration than during the Reagan and G.H. Bush administrations. Concomitantly, the top one percent and highest income quintile households overall, those with children, and those headed by an elderly person age 65 or older without children had higher total effective Federal tax rates during the Clinton administration. Nearly every category of household type and income level measured in this study had more after- Federal-tax income during the Clinton administration than either the Reagan ...


The Poverty Of Unattached Senior Women And The Canadian Retirement Income System: A Matter Of Blame Or Contradiction?, Amber Gazso Jun 2005

The Poverty Of Unattached Senior Women And The Canadian Retirement Income System: A Matter Of Blame Or Contradiction?, Amber Gazso

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Structural and financial inadequacy of Canada's retirement income system, especially with respect to income support benefits (i.e. Old Age Security), are often identified as one major reason unattached senior women experience poverty. While it may be compelling to blame low benefit levels and changing eligibility requirements, particularly because 'crisis' policy discourses have influenced questionable restructuring over time (i.e. the clawback), this paper argues that this is too simplistic of an account of the relationship between these women's poverty and the retirement income system. Other broad social-structural factors are at play in women's lives that have ...


For The Children: Accounting For Careers In Child Protective Services, Joan M. Morris Jun 2005

For The Children: Accounting For Careers In Child Protective Services, Joan M. Morris

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

This paper analyzes autobiographical essays from women who work as social service workers in child-protection agencies. Working long hours in relatively low-paying jobs, these women have limited prestige and autonomy and increasingly, come under close scrutiny and public criticism. They are clearly exploited in terms of the emotional and "mothering" labor they are expected to perform and are held personally accountable for daily decisions that could have dire consequences for the children they serve to protect. This paper is an investigation of how their narratives explain and justify their willingness to continue working in these situations and how their professional ...