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School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

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Full-Text Articles in Social Work

Addressing Environmental Gentrification: Improving Environmental Health For Children And Youth Without Displacement, Tania Schusler, Amy Krings Nov 2018

Addressing Environmental Gentrification: Improving Environmental Health For Children And Youth Without Displacement, Tania Schusler, Amy Krings

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Historically, low income communities and communities of color have borne the brunt of environmental pollution with limited access to environmental amenities. This has arisen, in part, due to marginalized communities’ lack of access and influence in environmental decision making, as well as legacies of racial and ethnic housing segregation (Cole & Foster, 2001). Environmental justice concerns include the disproportionate placement and inequitable regulation of polluting facilities in areas populated by people who are poor and/or racial minorities (Bryant, 1995: Bullard, 1993; Mohai & Bryant, 1992; Lavelle & Coyle, 1992). The inequitable distribution of environmental pollution is especially problematic for children’s wellbeing, because characteristics of the physical environment influence children’s development (Evans, 2006; McLeod, 2017). Children living in poverty experience greater exposure to environmental toxins, noise, poor quality housing, inadequate green space, and other environmental factors that adversely affect psychosocial and physical development (Evans, 2004).


Environmental Social Work In The Disciplinary Literature, 1991–2015, Amy Krings, Bryan G. Victor, John Mathias, Brian E. Perron Jul 2018

Environmental Social Work In The Disciplinary Literature, 1991–2015, Amy Krings, Bryan G. Victor, John Mathias, Brian E. Perron

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Despite increasing acknowledgment that the social work profession must address environmental concerns, relatively little is known about the state of scholarship on environmental social work. This study provides a scientometric summary of peer-reviewed articles (N=497) pertaining to environmental topics in social work journals between 1991 and 2015. We find that theoretical and empirical scholarship on environmental social work is growing, though this growth remains limited to specific geographical regions and topics. We note the need to clarify the relationship between environmental social work as a theoretical paradigm and as a research topic.


Mothers' Perceptions Of Educational Access And Engagement In A Context Of Urban Austerity, Amy Krings, Hillary Thomas, Shawna J. Lee, Aayat Ali, Ladonna Miller May 2018

Mothers' Perceptions Of Educational Access And Engagement In A Context Of Urban Austerity, Amy Krings, Hillary Thomas, Shawna J. Lee, Aayat Ali, Ladonna Miller

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This study sheds light upon mothers' perceptions of educational justice in a context of austerity-based educational reforms. Focus group participants (n = 64) described local schools as lacking resources, a shortcoming that contributed to overcrowded classrooms, inadequate transportation, and safety concerns. They were skeptical of elected and appointed state and district officials, who were viewed as misrepresenting the degree of financial strain in the district in order to prioritize financial profit above education services for children. Additionally, respondents struggled to identify opportunities for parent involvement in educational policy making at a state, district, or school level. The shortage of resources, skepticism ...


Organizing Under Austerity: How Residents’ Concerns Became The Flint Water Crisis, Amy Krings, Dana Kornberg, Erin Lane Mar 2018

Organizing Under Austerity: How Residents’ Concerns Became The Flint Water Crisis, Amy Krings, Dana Kornberg, Erin Lane

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

What might it take for politically marginalized residents to challenge cuts in public spending that threaten to harm their health and wellbeing? Specifically, how did residents of Flint, Michigan contribute to the decision of an austerity regime, which was not accountable to them, to spend millions to switch to a safe water source? Relying on evidence from key interviews and newspaper accounts, we examine the influence and limitations of residents and grassroots groups during the 18-month period between April 2014 and October 2015 when the city drew its water from the Flint River. We find that citizen complaints alone were ...


Preparing Social Workers For Practice With Lgbt Populations Affected By Substance Use: Perceptions From Students, Alumni And Service Providers, Michael P. Dentato Phd, Msw, Brian Kelly, Michael R. Lloyd, Nikki Busch Nov 2017

Preparing Social Workers For Practice With Lgbt Populations Affected By Substance Use: Perceptions From Students, Alumni And Service Providers, Michael P. Dentato Phd, Msw, Brian Kelly, Michael R. Lloyd, Nikki Busch

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Trends in the field of service among those with alcohol and other drug addictions highlight the urgent need for schools of social work to effectively train students to serve clients with substance use disorders, and have cultural humility to effectively serve disproportionately affected LGBT consumers. Online surveys and interviews examined perceptions of graduate social work students and alumni in a certified alcohol and drug counselor program, along with several service providers within an urban setting in the US. Results indicated that students and alumni did not feel adequately prepared through coursework to practice with LGBT populations affected by substance use ...


A Historical Overview Of Art And Music-Based Activities In Social Work With Groups: Nondeliberative Practice And Engaging Young People’S Strengths, Brian Kelly, Lauren Doherty Jan 2017

A Historical Overview Of Art And Music-Based Activities In Social Work With Groups: Nondeliberative Practice And Engaging Young People’S Strengths, Brian Kelly, Lauren Doherty

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article provides a historical overview of the use of art and music-based activities in social work with groups. The authors review archival, empirical, and theoretical literature that explores the use and effectiveness of these activities in the recreation movement and group work practice from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries, the Hull House settlement in Chicago from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries, and in recent group practice in social work and related fields. Findings suggest that art and music-based activities encourage and facilitate nondeliberative practice and allow for important opportunities to engage young people’s strengths.


Vinyl, Brian Kelly Jan 2017

Vinyl, Brian Kelly

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Brian Kelly talks about Vinyl in Social Work in 42 Objects.


Bullying In Youth, Jonathan B. Singer, Karen Slovak Sep 2016

Bullying In Youth, Jonathan B. Singer, Karen Slovak

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Bullying is the most common form of violence in schools and has been shown to disrupt the emotional and social development of both the targets and the perpetrators of bullying (Raskauskas & Stoltz, 2007). Bullying can be physical, verbal, relational, and direct or indirect. There are well-established age and sex trends (Olweus, 1993; Smith, Madsen, & Moody, 1999). There has been considerable research on bullying-prevention programs and scholarship on best-practice guidelines for school social workers (Dupper, 2013). An emerging concern is with the use of electronic and Internet devices in bullying, referred to as “cyberbullying.” In this article we define bullying and cyberbullying; discuss risk factors associated with being a bully, a victim, and a bully-victim; describe prevention and intervention programs; and discuss emerging trends in both bullying and cyberbullying.


Transforming Impossible Into Possible (Tip): A Bottom-Up Practice In Workforce Development For Low-Income Jobseekers, Philip Young P. Hong Jul 2016

Transforming Impossible Into Possible (Tip): A Bottom-Up Practice In Workforce Development For Low-Income Jobseekers, Philip Young P. Hong

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This paper discusses an evidence-informed bottom-up transformative social work practice model that holistically encapsulates multi-system levels of practice. Based on 12 years of empirical evidence on psychological self-sufficiency (PSS), the Transforming Impossible into Possible (TIP) program was developed to focuses on the ‘process’ of human agency development that leads to economic self-sufficiency (ESS) ‘outcomes’. It attempts to bring together various modalities of social work practice into a transformational leadership development framework that reflects a bottom-up, participant-centered approach to empowering individuals to impact larger systems. In workforce development practice, it is being regarded that constructs reflected in TIP improve both employment ...


Challenges And Opportunities For Applying Group Work Principles To Enhance Online Learning In Social Work, Marcia B. Cohen, Shirley Simon, Donna Mclaughlin, Barbara Muskat, Mary White Jun 2016

Challenges And Opportunities For Applying Group Work Principles To Enhance Online Learning In Social Work, Marcia B. Cohen, Shirley Simon, Donna Mclaughlin, Barbara Muskat, Mary White

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The recent increase in social work courses being offered on line as well as fully online social work programs raises challenges for social work educators. The literature suggests that group work principles can serve as a foundation for effective online education. This chapter will examine the obstacles and opportunities for using group work principles to advance learning in online education. Three examples of fully online social work courses will be discussed m order to highlight these issues. The potential role of group work educators as leaders in facilitating effective online learning will be explored.


The State Of The American Veteran: The Chicagoland Veterans Study, Sara Kintzle, Janice M. Rasheed, Carl A. Castro Apr 2016

The State Of The American Veteran: The Chicagoland Veterans Study, Sara Kintzle, Janice M. Rasheed, Carl A. Castro

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The State of the American Veteran: The Chicagoland Veterans Study, conducted by the University of Southern California (USC) School of Social Work Center for Innovation and Research on Veterans & Military Families (CIR) and in partnership with Loyola University Chicago School of Social Work, is an effort to provide data-driven recommendations for serving the large population of veterans residing in Chicago and the surrounding area. Service members encounter a series of needs as they transition out of the military. These include securing employment and housing, addressing physical or mental health issues and adjusting to civilian culture. The ease through which this ...


A Cross-National Validation Of The Short Employment Hope Scale (Ehs-14) In The United States And South Korea, Philip Young P. Hong Mar 2016

A Cross-National Validation Of The Short Employment Hope Scale (Ehs-14) In The United States And South Korea, Philip Young P. Hong

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Short Employment Hope Scale (EHS-14) has been developed in the United States to assess an individual's level of psychological self-sufficiency—a complementary measure to the widely used economic self-sufficiency in workforce development programs. This study examined the comparability of the EHS-14 between U.S. and South Korean low-income job seeker groups. A multisample confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a series of invariance tests were conducted to validate EHS-14 using two independent samples. A latent means analysis (LMA) was used to test the latent mean difference between the two samples. The results indicate that CFAs on both U.S ...


Psychological And Economic Self-Sufficiency Among Low-Income Jobseekers With Physical Disability Barriers, Philip Young P. Hong, Hayley Sneiderman Stokar, Sangmi Choi Jan 2016

Psychological And Economic Self-Sufficiency Among Low-Income Jobseekers With Physical Disability Barriers, Philip Young P. Hong, Hayley Sneiderman Stokar, Sangmi Choi

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The purpose of this research is to investigate the process of psychological empowerment by way of examin- ing the effects of perceived employment barrier on employment hope, and employment hope on economic self-suffi- ciency. A structural equation modeling analysis was used with a sample of 517 participants in a job readiness program of a community-based social service organization in Chicago. Results indicate that employment hope mediates the path between perceived barriers and economic self-sufficiency. Findings provide preliminary evidence to support an em- powerment-based approach to rehabilitation, promoting self-sufficiency among people with physical disabilities using interventions that address employment barriers and ...


Composing An Aesthetics Of Performance Pedagogy, Brian Kelly, Aimee Wodda Jan 2016

Composing An Aesthetics Of Performance Pedagogy, Brian Kelly, Aimee Wodda

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

We present a collaborative audio and video-based performance ethnography and companion essay that expands upon our experiences in a graduate-level performance ethnography seminar. Our performative text explores the potential for audio and video-based performance ethnography as an important pedagogical tool that prioritizes alternative ways of knowing that are deeply related to nondeliberative groupwork practice. Following a review of our process, we propose an aesthetics of performance pedagogy and discuss the importance of liminality in our work. Implications for practice include providing educators with critical opportunities to contribute to students’ awareness and understanding without demanding conformity to particular ways of knowing.


Group Work Camp, Brian L. Kelly, Jennie Fleming Jan 2016

Group Work Camp, Brian L. Kelly, Jennie Fleming

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The editorial to Vol. 26, No. 3 of Groupwork.


Beyond Group Work Camp: A Bridge To Symposia And Conference Participation Via Professional Presentations, Shirley Simon Jan 2016

Beyond Group Work Camp: A Bridge To Symposia And Conference Participation Via Professional Presentations, Shirley Simon

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The purpose of this paper is twofold - to describe a Group Work Camp workshop that facilitates continued professional involvement beyond the camp experience, and to share the information offered in this session. The workshop provides information about developing peer-reviewed presentations for professional association conferences and addresses the benefits of such presentations. It identifies different presentation formats and describes the abstract preparation, submission and review processes. It addresses the dissemination of supplemental material related to the presentation. Detailed recommendations for navigating the preparation and presentation processes are shared with the hope of easing anxieties for new presenters. By scheduling the workshop ...


Guidelines For Affirmative Social Work Education: Enhancing The Climate For Lgbqq Students, Staff, And Faculty In Social Work Education, S. L. Craig, E. J. Alessi, M. Fisher-Borne, Michael P. Dentato, A. Austin, M. Paceley, A. Wagaman, T. Arguello, T. Lewis, J.E. Balestrery, R. Van Der Horn Jan 2016

Guidelines For Affirmative Social Work Education: Enhancing The Climate For Lgbqq Students, Staff, And Faculty In Social Work Education, S. L. Craig, E. J. Alessi, M. Fisher-Borne, Michael P. Dentato, A. Austin, M. Paceley, A. Wagaman, T. Arguello, T. Lewis, J.E. Balestrery, R. Van Der Horn

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This report is intended to provide guidelines for the creation of social work educational environments that are affirmative of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning (LGBQQ) students, faculty, administrators, and staff. Creating affirmative social work educational environments for transgender and gender nonconforming populations is addressed in a companion document, Guidelines for Transgender and Gender Nonconforming (TGNC) Inclusive Social Work Education.


When Traumatic Stressors Are Not Past, But Now: Psychosocial Treatment To Develop Resilience With Children And Youth Enduring Concurrent, Complex Trauma, Katherine Tyson Mccrea Professor, Deanna Guthrie, Jeffrey Bulanda Nov 2015

When Traumatic Stressors Are Not Past, But Now: Psychosocial Treatment To Develop Resilience With Children And Youth Enduring Concurrent, Complex Trauma, Katherine Tyson Mccrea Professor, Deanna Guthrie, Jeffrey Bulanda

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The article discusses a project called the Empowering Counseling Program (ECP) conducted in community schools using participatory action and consumer evaluation designs. It addressed the elements of treatment theories used by mental health providers such as values, assumptions and concepts. It cites findings that clients suffering from complex trauma in under-resourced communities, unavoidably traumatized concurrently with treatment do not benefit from treatment guidelines.


Spirituality In Professional Practice With Older Adults, Holly Nelson-Becker, Edward Canada, Mitsuko Nakashima Nov 2015

Spirituality In Professional Practice With Older Adults, Holly Nelson-Becker, Edward Canada, Mitsuko Nakashima

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Sustainable Social Work: An Environmental Justice Framework For Social Work Education, Samantha Teixeira, Amy Krings Aug 2015

Sustainable Social Work: An Environmental Justice Framework For Social Work Education, Samantha Teixeira, Amy Krings

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Environmental degradation is not experienced by all populations equally; hazardous and toxic waste sites, resource contamination (e.g., exposure to pesticides), air pollution, and numerous other forms of environmental degradation disproportionately affect low income and minority communities. The communities most affected by environmental injustices are often the same communities where social workers are entrenched in service provision at the individual, family, and community level. In this article, we use a global social work paradigm to describe practical ways in which environmental justice content can be infused in the training and education of social workers across contexts in order to prepare ...


The Comparative Impacts Of Social Justice Educational Methods On Political Participation, Civic Engagement, And Multicultural Activism, Amy Krings, Elizabeth A. Austic, Lorraine M. Gutierrez, Kaleigh E. Dirksen Aug 2015

The Comparative Impacts Of Social Justice Educational Methods On Political Participation, Civic Engagement, And Multicultural Activism, Amy Krings, Elizabeth A. Austic, Lorraine M. Gutierrez, Kaleigh E. Dirksen

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This cross-sectional, repeated measures, quasi-experimental study evaluates changes in college stu- dents’ commitment toward, and confidence in, political participation, civic engagement, and multi- cultural activism. Our sample (n = 653) consisted of college students in a Midwestern university who participated in one of three social justice education course types (service learning, intergroup dialogue, or lecture-based diversity classes) or in an “introduction to psychology” course (the non-intervention group). After completion of a social justice education course, students reported an increase in politi- cal participation and multicultural activism, whereas students enrolled in the non-intervention group reported no changes in these measures. Service learning ...


Transforming Impossible Into Possible (Tip): A Group Work Model In Workforce Development, Philip Young P. Hong Jun 2015

Transforming Impossible Into Possible (Tip): A Group Work Model In Workforce Development, Philip Young P. Hong

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This presentation introduces a newly developed social work group intervention model in workforce development. Transforming Impossible into Possible (TIP) program empowers participants to develop self-awareness, confidence, hope, goal-orientation, leadership, accountability, conscientiousness, and grit, it is anticipated that it improves both employment and retention outcomes.


The Experiences Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender And Queer Students In Social Work Programs. A Study Report From The Cswe Council On Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity And Expression, Shelley L. Craig, Lauren B. Mcinroy, Michael P. Dentato, Ashley Austin, Lori Messinger Jan 2015

The Experiences Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender And Queer Students In Social Work Programs. A Study Report From The Cswe Council On Sexual Orientation And Gender Identity And Expression, Shelley L. Craig, Lauren B. Mcinroy, Michael P. Dentato, Ashley Austin, Lori Messinger

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This online North American study of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) social work students (n=1,018) in bachelor of social work (BSW; 24%) or master’s of social work (MSW; 76%) programs explored educational experiences in 126 programs in 44 U. S. states and 7 Canadian provinces. Forty-four percent of students reported limited inclusion of LGBTQ content in classes, yet 64% indicated some degree of support for their LGBTQ identities in their programs. One-third reported homophobic experiences in programs, yet many (63%) were aware of “out” LGBTQ faculty. Overall, students reported fairly low levels of self-assessed practice ...


Child And Adolescent Psychiatric Emergencies: Mobile Crisis Response, Jonathan B. Singer Jan 2015

Child And Adolescent Psychiatric Emergencies: Mobile Crisis Response, Jonathan B. Singer

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This chapter describes the application of Roberts's (2005) seven-stage crisis intervention model (R-SSCIM) and Myer's (2001) triage assessment model to youth experiencing a psychiatric crisis, defined as a suicidal, homicidal, or actively psychotic episode. Although most children have their first contact with mental health services during a crisis (Burns, Hoagwood, & Mrazek, 1999), there is relatively little research on crisis intervention, and almost nothing written on mobile crisis response for children and adolescents (Singer, 2006). This chapter is an effort to bridge that gap by presenting three case studies of youth experiencing suicidal, homicidal, or psychosis-driven crises. This chapter provides a realistic description of crisis intervention over the phone, in schools, at home, in the hospital, and in a youth homeless shelter. The chapter includes a review diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for three disorders that are commonly found in youth experiencing psychiatric crises: depression, bipolar, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Throughout the chapter, dialogue is used to illustrate crisis assessment and behavioral and solution-focused intervention techniques.


Consequences And Peer Influence As Proximal And Contextual Factors In Alcohol Consumption, Shweta Singh, Susan Grossman, Diane C. Asaro Jan 2014

Consequences And Peer Influence As Proximal And Contextual Factors In Alcohol Consumption, Shweta Singh, Susan Grossman, Diane C. Asaro

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The present study examines the role of positive and negative consequences and peer influence as proximal and contextual variables that influence drinking in college students. Data from a sample of 1482 students who completed the CORE survey in 2006 and 2007 were utilized to test three models predicting the likelihood of alcohol use in the 30 days prior to survey completion. The final model reflected the best fit of the data and indicated that both positive and negative consequences were positively associated with a greater likelihood of drinking while freshman standing and being a racial and ethnic minority were negatively ...


Review: Group Work With Adolescents: Principles And Practice (3rd Edition), Brian L. Kelly Jan 2014

Review: Group Work With Adolescents: Principles And Practice (3rd Edition), Brian L. Kelly

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


“IʼM A Leader Of All Of Them To Tell The Truth”: Participatory Action Principles For Uplifting Social Work Research Partnersʼ Identities, Katherine Mccrea Jan 2014

“IʼM A Leader Of All Of Them To Tell The Truth”: Participatory Action Principles For Uplifting Social Work Research Partnersʼ Identities, Katherine Mccrea

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Identity, understood from many vantage points, is continually evolving based on relationship experiences, including those relationships established in social and behavioral research. Whether rendered anonymous in large quantitatively-studied samples, or intimately known in qualitative studies, those contributing to science in a role termed “subject” receive, through the research, definitions of their identities. Because those identities are part of published social research, identities created in the research process become part of the public discourse about persons in the “subjects’” situations, and also influence policies that in turn influence persons’ lives. For their part, the identities of social and behavioral researchers also ...


Clients’ Hope Arises From Social Workers’ Compassion: Young Clients’ Perspectives On Surmounting The Obstacles Of Disadvantage, Deanna D’Amico Guthrie, Victoria Smith Ellison, King Sami, Katherine Tyson Mccrea Jan 2014

Clients’ Hope Arises From Social Workers’ Compassion: Young Clients’ Perspectives On Surmounting The Obstacles Of Disadvantage, Deanna D’Amico Guthrie, Victoria Smith Ellison, King Sami, Katherine Tyson Mccrea

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

While social workers strive to build disadvantaged African American youths’ resilience by improving services, rarely are those youths’ perspectives included in research. In a previous evaluation of an after-school program, disadvantaged African American youths prioritized instructors’ compassion and said compassion engendered hope. This study explores their connection between compassion and hope more deeply. Focusing on Snyder’s hope theory, this study examines the connection between compassion and hope as individual traits (using standardized scales) and as relational, action-based experiences (using qualitative analysis of interview data). Instructor actions that youths identified as compassionate and as engendering hope were encouragement, problem solving ...


Minority Stress Theory: An Examination Of Factors Surrounding Sexual Risk Behavior Among Gay And Bisexual Men Who Use Club Drugs, Michael P. Dentato, Perry N. Halkitis, John Orwat Oct 2013

Minority Stress Theory: An Examination Of Factors Surrounding Sexual Risk Behavior Among Gay And Bisexual Men Who Use Club Drugs, Michael P. Dentato, Perry N. Halkitis, John Orwat

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Background: Few studies have examined the impact of minority stress theory (MST) upon sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men using club drugs. Similar studies have focused on ethnic minorities and women; however, gay and bisexual men demonstrate greater likelihood for risk behaviors leading to HIV/AIDS. Objective: This study examines sexual risk behavior from the perspective of minority stress theory upon substance-using gay and bisexual men and their partners. Methods: Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined minority stress associations with participant sexual risk behaviors, drug use, and partner type, controlling for demographics. Results: 396 gay and 54 bisexual respondents ...


Toward A Client-Centered Benchmark For Self-Sufficiency: Evaluating The ‘Process’ Of Becoming Job Ready., Philip Young P. Hong Oct 2013

Toward A Client-Centered Benchmark For Self-Sufficiency: Evaluating The ‘Process’ Of Becoming Job Ready., Philip Young P. Hong

School of Social Work: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The purpose of this study is to evaluate how service providers, clients, and graduates of a job training program define the term self-sufficiency (SS). This community-engaged, mixed method study qualitatively analyzes focus group data from each group and quantitatively examines survey data obtained from participants of the program. Findings reveal that psychological transformation as a ‘process’ represents the emic definition of SS—psychological SS—but each dimension of the concept is reflected in varying degrees by group. Provider and participant views are vastly different from the outcome-driven policy and funder definitions. Implications for benchmarking psychological SS as an empowerment-based ‘process ...