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Full-Text Articles in Social Work

Cross-National Associations Among Cyberbullying Victimization, Self-Esteem, And Internet Addiction: Direct And Indirect Effects Of Alexithymia, Sebastian Wachs, Alexander T. Vazsonyi, Michelle F. Wright, Gabriela Ksinan Jiskrova Jun 2020

Cross-National Associations Among Cyberbullying Victimization, Self-Esteem, And Internet Addiction: Direct And Indirect Effects Of Alexithymia, Sebastian Wachs, Alexander T. Vazsonyi, Michelle F. Wright, Gabriela Ksinan Jiskrova

Family Sciences Faculty Publications

The relationship among cyberbullying victimization, lower self-esteem, and internet addiction has been well-established. Yet, little research exists that explains the nature of these associations, and no previous work has considered the inability to identify or describe one’s emotions, namely, alexithymia, as a potential mediator of these links. The present study sought to investigate the indirect effects of cyberbullying victimization on self-esteem and internet addiction, mediated by alexithymia. The sample consisted of 1,442 participants between 12 and 17 years (Mage = 14.17, SD = 1.38, 51.5% male) from Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States. Results showed ...


Body Image Role On Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Maria Ceja, Stephani Aguiar-Vasquez Jun 2020

Body Image Role On Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Maria Ceja, Stephani Aguiar-Vasquez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This study explores the association between adolescents body image concerns and self-injurious behaviors among students enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade. The study is exploratory in nature and uses a quantitative design. The study collected archival data from counseling services provided through alocal school district’s counseling program. More specifically, the archival data was retrieved from initial assessments gathered from students participating in the local school district’s counseling program. Additionally, this research is a call for action that seeks to examine and support the further development of programs geared towards students. This study seeks to expand on the research ...


Student Wellbeing And Open Studio Process In The School Curriculum, Maria Kim May 2020

Student Wellbeing And Open Studio Process In The School Curriculum, Maria Kim

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This study aimed to explore whether Open Studio Process (OSP) increased wellbeing of middle and high school students when facilitated by teachers as a part of the regular art curriculum. It was hypothesized that OSP might increase the sense of wellbeing among middle and high school students as well as facilitating teachers. The research was conducted as a mixed methods study in South Korea where students need preventative interventions for their wellbeing. The researcher trained eight teachers to facilitate OSP and five of them implemented it with their classes for seven sessions. Quantitative data (K-YSR; pre- and posttest) were collected ...


Art Therapy, Mass Media And Self-Acceptance With Adolescents: A Literature Review, Samantha Leary May 2020

Art Therapy, Mass Media And Self-Acceptance With Adolescents: A Literature Review, Samantha Leary

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This literature reviews provides a synopsis of art therapy its potential benefits in combating negative effects associated with social media and adolescents’ sense of self-acceptance. Using art therapy as a mode of self-expression is found to help negate negative effects of social media and provide adolescents with healthy tools to help them develop and grow. Social media provides a wealth of information that can be detrimental to the emotional growth of young adults. In this literature review lack of face to face connection, idealized beauty standards, instant gratification and social comparisons are correlated to depressive symptoms in adolescents. Through the ...


Exploring The Relationships Of Social Media Usage And Symptoms Of Anxiety And Depression In Adolescents, Morgan Culpepper May 2020

Exploring The Relationships Of Social Media Usage And Symptoms Of Anxiety And Depression In Adolescents, Morgan Culpepper

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Social media is a popular form of communication and entertainment among youth. Inconsistencies are present in the literature on the potential effects it can have on mental health. Depression and anxiety disorders are common among all age groups in the US, and this study aimed to determine the relationship social media has on symptoms of anxiety and depression. The Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS) and the GAD-7 were used to measure symptoms of anxiety, as well as the CES-D scale to evaluate depressive symptoms in adolescents. The number of social networking sites and number of hours spent on social ...


Investigating Whether Ecological Models Of Community-Oriented Variables Improve Prediction Of Childhood Resilience Over A Set Of Personal Characteristic Variables Such As Impulse Control, Emotional Regulation, Relational Motivation, And Self-Reliance, Vinod Kumar Srivastava Jan 2020

Investigating Whether Ecological Models Of Community-Oriented Variables Improve Prediction Of Childhood Resilience Over A Set Of Personal Characteristic Variables Such As Impulse Control, Emotional Regulation, Relational Motivation, And Self-Reliance, Vinod Kumar Srivastava

Theses and Dissertations--Social Work

Children experiencing trauma and entering child protective services have been continuously increasing. Problems associated with childhood trauma, such as neurodevelopmental disorder, trauma and stress-related disorders, personality disorders, substance use disorder, externalizing and internalizing disorders, academic problems, relational difficulties, and delinquent behaviors, have been found increasing despite advances in trauma and translational research. Children’s trauma is mostly interpersonal in nature and nested in their immediate environment. There is a need for a change in focus from helping children to overcome challenges and adversities to strengthening the resilience-building process by utilizing functional strengths in the environment to achieve sustainable outcomes. This ...


Exploring Bullying And Peer Victimization Among African American Adolescents In Chicago’S Southside, Jeoung Min Lee Jan 2020

Exploring Bullying And Peer Victimization Among African American Adolescents In Chicago’S Southside, Jeoung Min Lee

Wayne State University Dissertations

Adolescent bullying is a serious concern for adolescents, parents, teachers, school officials, and the public. While many studies have explored serious forms of violence (e.g., gang violence and homicide) among urban adolescents, relatively few studies have examined “less serious forms of violence,” such as bullying among these adolescents. This dissertation research, which is divided into three studies, aims to examine antecedents of bullying and peer victimization as well as psychosocial outcomes of peer victimization from a sample of 639 urban African American adolescents in Chicago’s Southside. The first study applies Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems perspective and explores factors ...


Peer Victimization, Internalizing Problems, And Substance Use In Urban African American Adolescents In Chicago: The Relevance Of The Self-Medication Hypothesis, Jun Sung Hong, Yi-Ping Hsieh, Kelly Lynn Clary, Rose Theda, Ryan Russ, Dexter R. Voisin Oct 2019

Peer Victimization, Internalizing Problems, And Substance Use In Urban African American Adolescents In Chicago: The Relevance Of The Self-Medication Hypothesis, Jun Sung Hong, Yi-Ping Hsieh, Kelly Lynn Clary, Rose Theda, Ryan Russ, Dexter R. Voisin

Social Work Faculty Publications

The aim of the study was to explore the link between peer victimization and substance use and tested the mediating role of internalizing problems in urban African American adolescents in Chicago. Six hundred and thirty-eight adolescents in Chicago's Southside participated in the study. Results from the hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that youth who reported peer victimization were at risk of internalizing problems. Those who were bullied by their peers were more likely to display internalizing problems, which was also significantly associated with substance use. Consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, findings from the study suggest that bullied youth are ...


Determinants Of Hiv-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Zambian Adolescents: The Role Of Gendered Power, Sherinah K. Saasa, Orion Mowbray Aug 2019

Determinants Of Hiv-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Zambian Adolescents: The Role Of Gendered Power, Sherinah K. Saasa, Orion Mowbray

Faculty Publications

Sub-Saharan African adolescents account for a disproportionate share of the global HIV infection rates with adolescent females carrying the heavy burden. Vulnerability to negative sexual health outcomes have been attributed to varying life contexts and power differentials influencing adolescent sexual behaviors. Using social dominance theory and the four bases of gendered power, this study examines the relationship between gender based power and adolescent HIV-risk sexual behavior. Data was derived from the 2013‐14 Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS). We utilize gender stratified multivariate logistic regression to determine whether the four bases of gendered power are predictive of condom use and ...


The Impact Of Stigma On Adolescents Willingness To Seek Treatment, Alejandra Randol Jun 2019

The Impact Of Stigma On Adolescents Willingness To Seek Treatment, Alejandra Randol

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The focus of this study will be on how the stigma attached to mental illness impedes adolescent’s experiencing suicidal ideation & depression, willingness to seek out mental health services. The purpose of the study is to determine what action needs to be taken to address these issues to facilitate adolescent’s willingness to seek services. The study was qualitative and was conducted utilizing the constructivism approach with a theoretical orientation emphasized on the labeling and empowerment theory. The literature reviews focus on labeling of mental disorders and stigma, preventing factors and interventions that influence help seeking and mental health services ...


A Population-Based Study On The Correlates Of Trauma And Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behaviors Among Adolescents Aging Out Of Foster Care., Jennifer Artis May 2019

A Population-Based Study On The Correlates Of Trauma And Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behaviors Among Adolescents Aging Out Of Foster Care., Jennifer Artis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Children in foster care are confirmed victims of maltreatment who may suffer from chronic trauma. These adverse childhood experiences will often increase the risk of physical and psychological adversities such as self-harm (SH), substance abuse, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), heart disease, depression, etc. Based on previous and current research studies, youth in foster care are less likely to receive adequate treatment for their self-harm behaviors and mental health needs. Failing to provide proper treatment could lead to harmful activities such as deliberate self-harm and potential suicide. This population-based study focuses on the prevalence of SH among youth in foster ...


The Mediating Effects Of Problematic Internet And Video Gaming Behaviors On Family, Cultural, And Individual Constructs Among Latinx And Non-Latinx Black Youth, Stephanie L. Diez Mar 2019

The Mediating Effects Of Problematic Internet And Video Gaming Behaviors On Family, Cultural, And Individual Constructs Among Latinx And Non-Latinx Black Youth, Stephanie L. Diez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic video gaming (PVG) are associated with various negative health outcomes and are increasingly concerning behavioral health issues among youth. While market research indicates that US Latinx use the Internet and video games more frequently than non-Latinx US youth, research on PIU and PVG among this historically understudied population is lacking. Accordingly, data on PIU, PVG, parental monitoring, sleep quality, substance use, anxiety, depression, parental attachment, acculturation, and positive future orientation were collected using validated standardized measures from three separate samples of US Latinx and non-Latinx youth.

The aims of this research were to explore ...


A Historical Overview Of Art And Music-Based Activities In Social Work With Groups: Nondeliberative Practice And Engaging Young People’S Strengths, Brian Kelly, Lauren Doherty Mar 2019

A Historical Overview Of Art And Music-Based Activities In Social Work With Groups: Nondeliberative Practice And Engaging Young People’S Strengths, Brian Kelly, Lauren Doherty

Brian L.Kelly

This article provides a historical overview of the use of art and music-based activities in social work with groups. The authors review archival, empirical, and theoretical literature that explores the use and effectiveness of these activities in the recreation movement and group work practice from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries, the Hull House settlement in Chicago from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries, and in recent group practice in social work and related fields. Findings suggest that art and music-based activities encourage and facilitate nondeliberative practice and allow for important opportunities to engage young people’s strengths.


Evaluating Neighborhood, Social, And Genetic Influences On Precursors Of Alcohol Use Risk Behavior In African American Adolescents, Kimberly S. Compton, Peter Barr, Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe, Cristina Bares, Fazil Aliev, Brian Mustanski, Danielle Dick, Karen G. Chartier Jan 2019

Evaluating Neighborhood, Social, And Genetic Influences On Precursors Of Alcohol Use Risk Behavior In African American Adolescents, Kimberly S. Compton, Peter Barr, Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe, Cristina Bares, Fazil Aliev, Brian Mustanski, Danielle Dick, Karen G. Chartier

Social Work Publications

Background: Using a socioecological framework, we examined neighborhood and social stressors in concert with genetic risk for alcohol dependence in relation to externalizing behaviors, important precursors to alcohol-related problems.

Methods: We used data from African American adolescents and their caregivers in the Gene, Environment, and Neighborhood Initiative, a subsample of the Mobile Youth and Poverty Study. Participants for the current analyses included 112 adolescents who reported ever having at least one full drink of alcohol. Empirical Bayes scores were used to estimate neighborhood-level violence and transitions. Multivariate models tested main effects and then interactions of family stressors, discrimination, and genetic ...


Disrupting Adultism: Practices That Enable Or Constrain Intergroup Contact Between Youth And Adults, Heather K. Kennedy Jan 2019

Disrupting Adultism: Practices That Enable Or Constrain Intergroup Contact Between Youth And Adults, Heather K. Kennedy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: The systematic subordination of young people who have little access to goods, resources, and power to make decisions is called adultism (Dejong & Love, 2015). Adultism has three components: attitudinal, institutional, and internalized. Attitudinal adultism, which is the focus of this dissertation, relates to adult's negative attitudes and beliefs regarding young people. Adultism intersects with other forms of oppression in after-school programs and likely impacts outcomes. Youth participatory action research (YPAR) is an orientation to knowledge production in which youth are positioned as experts in their own lives and work collectively with adults to identify an issue, collect data, and produce a product intended to transform systems. While it has been argued that YPAR can contest adultism, this has not been studied.

Methods: Based upon ethnographic data collected at four after-school program sites and analyzed through critical discourse analysis, this dissertation describes the practices and interactions of adults who facilitated YPAR with middle school youth that either strengthened or constrained intergroup contact, a four-part theory associated with prejudice reduction. Using interview data, the adult facilitator of each YPAR group was rated on a continuum of attitudinal adultism, from low to high. Patterns of overlap between attitudinal adultism and intergroup contact were investigated.

Results: When adults let youth lead, engaged in dialogue, facilitated with intention, celebrated accomplishments, and engaged in work jointly with youth, they enabled power-sharing, cooperation, and communicated shared goals. When adults policed youth, lectured, did not describe things well, separated themselves from youth, and made negative comments, the conditions of intergroup contact were constrained. When organizational leadership helped youth with their project and celebrated youth's accomplishments, this led to a site culture that enabled positive intergroup contact; engaging in punitive discipline constrained contact and contributed to a negative site culture. There were patterns of overlap between attitudinal adultism and practices that facilitators engaged in with young people.

Conclusion: Adults who engage in YPAR can intentionally integrate the practices that enable power-sharing, shared goals, and cooperation. This dissertation study adds a nuanced understanding to the role of adults in enabling or constraining intergroup contact within YPAR.


Socio-Ecological Factors Associated With Adolescents’ Psychological Well-Being: A Multilevel Analysis, Yuqi Guo, Laura M. Hopson, Fan Yang Dec 2018

Socio-Ecological Factors Associated With Adolescents’ Psychological Well-Being: A Multilevel Analysis, Yuqi Guo, Laura M. Hopson, Fan Yang

International Journal of School Social Work

Purpose: Supports and stressors across different ecological systems affect adolescents’ perceptions of psychological well-being. The purpose of this study is to analyze how social support, school experiences, and socio-economic factors relate to psychological well-being among adolescents. Furthermore, our study explores how family income shapes the relationship between social supports and well-being.

Method: Multilevel linear regression models were applied to a sample of 19,767 middle and high school students, with students serving as Level 1 and schools as Level 2.

Results: Students reporting more support from parents, friends, teachers, and neighbors and better school engagement perceive better psychological well-being. Furthermore ...


The Impact Of Mental Health Issues On Academic Achievement In High School Students, Patricia Lea Sutherland Jun 2018

The Impact Of Mental Health Issues On Academic Achievement In High School Students, Patricia Lea Sutherland

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

An adolescent’s time in school is not merely academic; they are developing socially, physically, and emotionally. Prior research has demonstrated a correlation between a student’s poor academic performance and his/her need for emotional and mental health support. This research project sought to answer the following research questions: 1) Do mental health services in a high school setting help facilitate students’ academic achievement? and 2) Does a focus on mental health issues improve overall health and well-being in high school students? Participants for this study are 10 staff members (including teachers, administrators, counselors, and others) of a high ...


Military Parent’S Ptsd And Children’S Mental Health: A Scoping Review, Tara Collins May 2018

Military Parent’S Ptsd And Children’S Mental Health: A Scoping Review, Tara Collins

The Qualitative Report

It is widely recognized that the mental health of parents impacts children’s well-being. A scoping review was conducted to examine what was known from the research specific to mental health issues facing children as a consequence of their military parent’s PTSD. The parameters of this review were based on Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) recommendations for completion of a scoping review. From the search, 163 articles were located from 5 electronic databases. Of those, 35 were related to the topic and, after implementing the inclusion and exclusion criteria 21 were included in this scoping review. Although the ...


Social Work Trauma Interventions: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Kassie Baumann May 2018

Social Work Trauma Interventions: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Kassie Baumann

Senior Honors Theses

According to Lynne Weilart (2013), in her article on the reasons why people seek out therapy, trauma is the number one reason people attend counseling. Many different trauma-informed approaches are designed specifically to address the consequences of trauma and to facilitate healing. Some of these approaches are as follows: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT); Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT);Mentalization Based Therapy (MBT); Trauma Systems Therapy (TST); Trauma Assessment Pathway (TAP); and Attachment, Self-Regulation, and Competency (ARC) (de Arellano, Danielson, Ko, & Sprauge, 2008). The effectiveness of each trauma intervention will be examined. DBT is one of these trauma interventions that is growing ...


Treatment Barriers In Mental Health: Perspectives Of Using Mobile Technology, Ryan Goman May 2018

Treatment Barriers In Mental Health: Perspectives Of Using Mobile Technology, Ryan Goman

Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers

Mental health problems are common with adolescents and given that adolescents are the biggest consumer of mobile technologies, these technologies hold a tremendous promise as a unique intervention. The research method used is a qualitative study with four clinicians to address themes in their experiences of utilziing mobiel technology with adolescents. Much of the research finds that using technology with adolescents improves patient satisfaction through areas around convenience, eas of use, and availabiltiy. The research findings show common themes related to adaptability, reduced stigma, clinical relationship and lack of access. This research is important because it highlights the social work ...


Understanding The Practitioner’S Role In The Therapeutic Setting: Working With Youth That Identify As Black Or African American And Lgbt, Katie L. Ubl May 2018

Understanding The Practitioner’S Role In The Therapeutic Setting: Working With Youth That Identify As Black Or African American And Lgbt, Katie L. Ubl

Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers

This systematic review aimed to find responses for practitioners to better engage in the therapeutic setting with multiple minority youth that identify as LGBT Black or African American. These multiple minority populations are at high risk for mental health. A systematic review analyzed data using grounded theory. Twelve articles categorized data within the ecological framework: micro, mezzo, and macro levels. For practitioners to better engage with LGBT Black or African American youth in the therapeutic setting, responses were found in all three levels of the ecological framework. Dominant responses for social work practitioners to better engage in the therapeutic setting ...


Build The Village That Raises The Child, Homegrown Stl Mar 2018

Build The Village That Raises The Child, Homegrown Stl

Center for Social Development Research

HomeGrown STL is an initiative to take on long-standing community disparities by improving the social mobility of the region’s 60,000 black boys and young men in one generation. More than 120 regional leaders and providers working to improve the lives of black boys and young men in St. Louis participated in the second annual HomeGrown STL Summit on February 8, 2018, at the Brown School of Social Work.


A Peer-Support Mental Health Response Training For Lgbtqia+ Adolescents., Megan A Chernosky Mar 2018

A Peer-Support Mental Health Response Training For Lgbtqia+ Adolescents., Megan A Chernosky

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

This paper will discuss the correlation between participation in a mental health peer-support training and adolescents’ self-reported feelings of preparedness to deal with mental health crises. The paper will focus on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and other non-heterosexual, non-cisgender youth (LGBTQIA+) between the ages of 13 and 21 years old. The study used a quantitative, written survey with eighteen questions before the intervention, and another with five questions after the intervention. The study originally involved eleven participants, but the number of participants decreased to seven due to attrition. The intervention was administered to every participant. The data ...


Understanding The Practitioner’S Role In The Therapeutic Setting: Working With Youth That Identify As Black Or African American And Lgbt, Katie L. Ubl Jan 2018

Understanding The Practitioner’S Role In The Therapeutic Setting: Working With Youth That Identify As Black Or African American And Lgbt, Katie L. Ubl

Social Work Master’s Clinical Research Papers

This systematic review aimed to find responses for practitioners to better engage in the therapeutic setting with multiple minority youth that identify as LGBT Black or African American. These multiple minority populations are at high risk for mental health. A systematic review analyzed data using grounded theory. Twelve articles categorized data within the ecological framework: micro, mezzo, and macro levels. For practitioners to better engage with LGBT Black or African American youth in the therapeutic setting, responses were found in all three levels of the ecological framework. Dominant responses for social work practitioners to better engage in the therapeutic setting ...


Treatment Barriers In Mental Health: Perspectives Of Using Mobile Technology, Ryan Goman Jan 2018

Treatment Barriers In Mental Health: Perspectives Of Using Mobile Technology, Ryan Goman

Social Work Master’s Clinical Research Papers

Mental health problems are common with adolescents and given that adolescents are the biggest consumer of mobile technologies, these technologies hold a tremendous promise as a unique intervention. The research method used is a qualitative study with four clinicians to address themes in their experiences of utilizing mobile technology with adolescents. Much of the research finds that using technology with adolescents improves patient satisfaction through areas around convenience, ease of use, and availability. The research findings show common themes related to adaptability, reduced stigma, clinical relationship and lack of access. This research is important because it highlights the social work ...


Adolescent Engagement In Home-Based Treatment: An Action Research Study, Krystal Finch Jan 2018

Adolescent Engagement In Home-Based Treatment: An Action Research Study, Krystal Finch

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Adolescent engagement in home-based treatment is a challenge within the social work field. Studies have suggested that the foundation of clinical practice relies on the clinician's ability to understand the process of engaging adolescents in treatment, which may also include a period of adaptability, relatability, and connectedness within the treatment setting. The purpose of this study is to explore the clinical practice approaches, roles, and experiences utilized in home-based treatment to adolescents residing in a large city in northeastern United States. This study was grounded in the ecological systems theory which provides social workers with an opportunity to assess ...


An Analysis Of Adolescent Mental Health According To The Social Work Competencies Identified In The Council On Social Work Education, Mary Beth Meier Dec 2017

An Analysis Of Adolescent Mental Health According To The Social Work Competencies Identified In The Council On Social Work Education, Mary Beth Meier

International Social Science Review

Mental health affects all adolescents and yet, the United States fails to address emotional well-being until it manifests itself into a mental health disorder that interferes with daily life activities and later success in adulthood. Two barriers of high mental health stigma and low mental health literacy prevent adolescents from accessing the needed mental health services. As a natural environment for adolescents, schools play a critical role in providing a foundation of knowledge, skills, and resources to promote healthy emotional functioning. Universal mental health programs, such as the Australian curriculum-based intervention of Headstrong, are essential for social workers to further ...


Growing Up With Porn: The Developmental And Societal Impact Of Pornography On Children, Gail Dines Jul 2017

Growing Up With Porn: The Developmental And Societal Impact Of Pornography On Children, Gail Dines

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Twisting Masculinity: Harms Of Pornography To Young Boys And Men, Gabe Deem Jul 2017

Twisting Masculinity: Harms Of Pornography To Young Boys And Men, Gabe Deem

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Adolescent Girls Offered Alternatives To Commercial Sexual Exploitation: A Case Study From The Philippines, Christopher A. Bagley, Susan Madrid, Padam Simkhada, Kathleen King, Loretta Young Jun 2017

Adolescent Girls Offered Alternatives To Commercial Sexual Exploitation: A Case Study From The Philippines, Christopher A. Bagley, Susan Madrid, Padam Simkhada, Kathleen King, Loretta Young

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Background: Up to 2% of adolescents and young women are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) in the Philippines, an economically poor country that earns considerable revenue from “sex tourists.” Earlier research, in the 1990s in Metro Manila, described the living conditions of adolescents whose CSE was influenced by family poverty, their so-called “sex work” becoming a major source of income for families left behind in rural and provincial areas of Luzon. Recent research (up to 2014) indicates that conditions for adolescents experiencing CSE have, if anything, worsened.

Methods: Following the original study, the researchers were able to offer scholarships ...