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Full-Text Articles in Social Work

Minority Stress Theory: An Examination Of Factors Surrounding Sexual Risk Behavior Among Gay And Bisexual Men Who Use Club Drugs, Michael Dentato, Perry Halkitis, John Orwat Dec 2015

Minority Stress Theory: An Examination Of Factors Surrounding Sexual Risk Behavior Among Gay And Bisexual Men Who Use Club Drugs, Michael Dentato, Perry Halkitis, John Orwat

John Orwat

Background: Few studies have examined the impact of minority stress theory (MST) upon sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men using club drugs. Similar studies have focused on ethnic minorities and women; however, gay and bisexual men demonstrate greater likelihood for risk behaviors leading to HIV/AIDS. Objective: This study examines sexual risk behavior from the perspective of minority stress theory upon substance-using gay and bisexual men and their partners. Methods: Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined minority stress associations with participant sexual risk behaviors, drug use, and partner type, controlling for demographics. Results: 396 gay and 54 bisexual respondents ...


Perceptions Of Family Empowerment In African American Custodial Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: Thoughts For Research And Practice, Deborah Whitley, Susan Kelley, Peter Campos Jul 2015

Perceptions Of Family Empowerment In African American Custodial Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: Thoughts For Research And Practice, Deborah Whitley, Susan Kelley, Peter Campos

Deborah M. Whitley

Empowerment practice is an approach to help marginalized families reduce their sense of powerlessness. The present study explores empowerment practice with a sample of low-income African American custodial grandmothers. It specifically describes how the effects of a strengths-based community service program influenced caregivers’ sense of empowerment. Using the Family Empowerment Scale, the results suggest that the service intervention supports the empowerment dimensions and three subscales (knowledge, advocacy, and self-efficacy); the results did not support the competency subscale. Although all age groups experienced an increase in empowerment, older grandmothers had significant differences in perceptions regarding social systems, as well as a ...


Legal And Relational Permanence In Older Foster Care Youths, Allison Thompson, Johanna Greeson Jun 2015

Legal And Relational Permanence In Older Foster Care Youths, Allison Thompson, Johanna Greeson

Johanna K.P. Greeson, PhD, MSS, MLSP

Permanency may be conceptualized as two separate but related dimensions. It is ideal, but not always possible, for youth to attain both.


Organizational And Institutional Factors Associated With National Institutes Of Health Research Grant Awards To Social Work Programs., Ken Corvo, Joan Zlotnik, Wan-Yi Chen Mar 2015

Organizational And Institutional Factors Associated With National Institutes Of Health Research Grant Awards To Social Work Programs., Ken Corvo, Joan Zlotnik, Wan-Yi Chen

Wan-Yi Chen

This study examines the organizational and institutional factors that may be associated with the success of schools of social work (SOSWs) in securing research grant awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and constituent agencies. Using data from the CRISP database on NIH grant funding, the Lombardi Program on Measuring University Performance, the Council on Social Work Education, the American Association of University Professors, and other sources, several key factors were identified as being associated with SOSWs'grant success: having a PhD program, not having a BSW program, being an independent academic unit, faculty publication rates, having a medical ...


Do Duluth Model Interventions With Perpetrators Of Domestic Violence Violate Mental Health Professional Ethics?, Ken Corvo, Donald Dutton, Wan-Yi Chen Mar 2015

Do Duluth Model Interventions With Perpetrators Of Domestic Violence Violate Mental Health Professional Ethics?, Ken Corvo, Donald Dutton, Wan-Yi Chen

Wan-Yi Chen

In spite of numerous studies of program outcomes finding little or no positive effect on violent behavior, the Duluth model remains the most common program type of interventions with perpetrators of domestic violence. In addition, Duluth model programs often ignore serious mental health and substance abuse issues present in perpetrators. These and other issues of possible threat to mental health professional ethics are reviewed in light of the court-mandated, compulsory nature of most Duluth model programs and client and victim expectations for program efficacy.


Federal Funding Of Social Work Research: High Hopes Or Sour Grapes?, Ken Corvo, Wan-Yi Chen, Patrick Selmi Mar 2015

Federal Funding Of Social Work Research: High Hopes Or Sour Grapes?, Ken Corvo, Wan-Yi Chen, Patrick Selmi

Wan-Yi Chen

Placed in the historical context of government funding of academic research, this critical analysis identifies the complexities and implications of schools of social work pursuing federal grants for research. Schools of social work with particular organizational characteristics are better able to compete for federal grants, incurring lower opportunity costs than others. The low probability of grant success for most schools, the organizational adaptations needed for success, and the narrow epistemology of many funding programs call into question whether federal funding of research should be considered the sine qua non for academic social work.


Towards Evidence-Based Practice With Domestic Violence Perpetrators., Ken Corvo, Donald Dutton, Wan-Yi Chen Mar 2015

Towards Evidence-Based Practice With Domestic Violence Perpetrators., Ken Corvo, Donald Dutton, Wan-Yi Chen

Wan-Yi Chen

This review examines the policy and practice of interventions with male perpetrators of domestic violence in light of the widely accepted principles of evidence-based practice. Thus far, these policies and practices have enjoyed immunity from the external, empirical accountability available through implementing the findings from evaluations research and other empirical practice analyses. This immunity is supported by a policy framework where, for example, the state certifying agencies may presumptively forbid methods of intervention, with no obligation to empirically assess their efficacy or safety, that contradict the approved model. Based on the review of findings from both explanatory research and interventions ...


Social Entrepreneurship And Social Work: The Need For A Transdisciplinary Educational Model, Monica Nandan, Patricia Scott Feb 2015

Social Entrepreneurship And Social Work: The Need For A Transdisciplinary Educational Model, Monica Nandan, Patricia Scott

Monica Nandan

Increasingly, human service agencies are facing revenue shortfalls, which are endangering important social programs. Unless human service leaders find sustainable revenue sources to support programmatic efforts, their programs will remain financially unstable. Social entrepreneurship (SE), which balances organizational economic and social goals, offers one possible solution. Unfortunately, very few human service administration programs offer SE training, and those that do utilize a mono-disciplinary education model. In truth, effective SE requires skills/knowledge that traverse various academic disciplines and community groups. The authors recommend that human service administration programs collaborate and offer transdisciplinary, problem-based SE programs to prepare human service administrators.


Connection Between Adolescent’S Exposure To Community Violence And Future Civic Engagement Behaviors During Their Young Adulthood, Wan-Yi Chen, Jennifer Propp Dec 2014

Connection Between Adolescent’S Exposure To Community Violence And Future Civic Engagement Behaviors During Their Young Adulthood, Wan-Yi Chen, Jennifer Propp

Wan-Yi Chen

With a sample of 10,298 individuals who participated in three waves of interviews from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health conducted between 1994 and 2002, this study examines how exposure to community violence during adolescence could affect individual’s subsequent engagement in civic activities during their young adulthood. Exposure to violence in the community during adolescence decreased the likelihood for a young adult to participate in volunteering for community services. A positive parent–child relationship would promote the likelihood for individual’s civic engagement during young adulthood but there was no significant buffering effect from such relationship against ...


The Swedish Studies Of The Adopted Children Of Alcoholics, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

The Swedish Studies Of The Adopted Children Of Alcoholics, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

The authors of the widely cited studies analyzing the Swedish adoption records of the children of alcoholics have advanced the notion that there are three distinct paths for the inheritance of alcoholism. One path results in moderate alcoholism in men and a form of somatization but no alcoholism in women. A second path results in severe and mild alcoholism in men and alcoholism in women. The third path results in a particular variety of alcohol abuse in men and a particular variety of somatization in women. This article analyzes the authors' claims. It is argued that the data were improperly ...


The Status Of Freud’S Legacy On Emotional Processing: Contemporary Revisions, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

The Status Of Freud’S Legacy On Emotional Processing: Contemporary Revisions, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

This paper evaluates, in light of current empirical data, several of the assumptions contributed to our field by Freud about how emotions operate. The idea that expression of emotions dissipates these emotions is evaluated. The idea that bottling up emotion results is ill health is reviewed. The idea that pain of trauma and loss needs to be confronted will be examined. Additionally, the assumption that traumatic events invariably result in distress will be discussed. It is argued that empirical findings reject the Freudian model of emotion as energy that must be discharged. Empirical findings also support the view that revisiting ...


Incorporating Information From Neuroscience And Endocrinology Regarding Sexual Orientation Into Social Work Education, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

Incorporating Information From Neuroscience And Endocrinology Regarding Sexual Orientation Into Social Work Education, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

The brains of heterosexual males and heterosexual females are different. Moreover, the brains of gay men are similar to heterosexual females whereas the brains of lesbians are similar to heterosexual males. Neuroscience research supporting these postulates is reviewed. The gestational processes that might explain the differences in brain structure and function corresponding with gender are reviewed. Following a discussion of the physiological bases for sexual orientation, a discussion of the physiological bases for the expression of gender related traits and a discussion of factors contributing to sexual identity are provided. Throughout the article, alternative ways to think about gender are ...


Is There Evidence For The Bipolar Spectrum And The Safety Of Pharmaceutical Interventions?, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

Is There Evidence For The Bipolar Spectrum And The Safety Of Pharmaceutical Interventions?, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

Social workers constitute a high proportion of mental health professionals and a high percentage of social workers provide mental health care. Thus, psychiatric diagnoses and pharmaceutical interventions are relevant for many social workers. This paper reviews the rise in the diagnoses of Bipolar spectrum disorders for both children and adults. It considers the safety of antipsychotic medications, a mainstay of treatment for children and adults, which, in addition to other well-documented negative side effects, have recently been shown to decrease brain volume by a significant percent. These issues are particularly relevant for children in the foster care system.


Taking The Perspective That A Depressive State Reflects Inflammation: Implications For The Use Of Antidepressants, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

Taking The Perspective That A Depressive State Reflects Inflammation: Implications For The Use Of Antidepressants, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

This paper reviews both the evidence that supports the characterization of depression as an inflammatory disorder and the different biochemical mechanisms that have been postulated for the connection between inflammation and depression. This association offers credible explanation for the short term efficacy of antidepressants, which have short term anti-inflammatory effects. Evidence for those anti-inflammatory effects is discussed. Evidence of the contrary long-term effects of antidepressants, which increase rather than decrease inflammation, is also reviewed. It is argued that this increase in inflammation would predict an increase in chronicity among depressed patients that have been treated with antidepressants drugs, which has ...


Expression Of Emotion: When It Causes Trauma And When It Helps, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

Expression Of Emotion: When It Causes Trauma And When It Helps, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

The idea that clients should be encouraged to express strong emotion regarding the traumas they have suffered is widely assumed. This paper asks whether the empirical literature supports the underlying assumption that emotional expression leads to positive outcomes (better health and dissipation of distress). Studies in which individuals who have been given an opportunity to express emotions about past traumas are compared with subjects placed in appropriate control conditions are reviewed. The empirical literature suggests that eliciting emotion is harmful when it is not associated with reappraisal of past trauma, but helpful when the reappraisal occurs. The following guideline emerges ...


In Defense Of The Community Reinvestment Act, Jill Littrell, Fred Brooks Dec 2014

In Defense Of The Community Reinvestment Act, Jill Littrell, Fred Brooks

jill l littrell Dr.

In the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis, the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) of 1977 has probably received more media attention in the past two years than it garnered cumulatively over the previous 30 years. Numerous conservative pundits and commentators have blamed the CRA for the subprime crisis and the subsequent world-wide financial meltdown. Most social workers are probably unaware that the CRA is probably responsible for more investment, loans, and wealth creation in low and moderate income neighborhoods than any other single piece of federal legislation over the past 40 years. This paper highlights the following features about ...


Can A Diagnosis Be Epidemic, With Therapeutic Efforts The Catastrophe?, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

Can A Diagnosis Be Epidemic, With Therapeutic Efforts The Catastrophe?, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

The diagnosis of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (BSD) given for office visits has risen 40 fold for children and has risen dramatically for adults as well. Some of the growth may have been fueled by re-categorization of individuals who would previously have received diagnoses of major depression along with the widening of diagnostic criteria for BSD. Concomitant with the rise in BSD diagnoses, the number of adults and children receiving atypical antipsychotics has increased dramatically. Recent evidence finds that atypical antipsychotics cause considerable reduction in brain volume. It is thus imperative to ensure that those with diagnoses comprising BSD—Bipolar I ...


Will The Treatment Protocols For Schizophrenia Be Changing Soon?, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

Will The Treatment Protocols For Schizophrenia Be Changing Soon?, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

In recent decades the understanding of the core physiology giving rise to schizophrenia has advanced markedly. Current pharmacological interventions fail to target the core problems in schizophrenia. Several important outcome studies call into question whether current medications actually make long term outcomes worse. These new studies follow the recognized negative side effect of anti-psychotic drugs. The implication of these findings for social workers who work with the seriously mentally ill are discussed. Alternatives to current pharmacological treatments which are more targeted toward the core physiology of schizophrenia are reviewed.


How Addiction Happens, How Change Happens, And What Social Workers Need To Know To Be Effective Facilitators Of Change, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

How Addiction Happens, How Change Happens, And What Social Workers Need To Know To Be Effective Facilitators Of Change, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

During the last two decades, neuroscience research has proliferated examining brain mechanisms that explain why some people are compelled to pursue drugs and alcohol. The findings suggest that addiction is independent of pleasure, and that drug seeking can be triggered outside of conscious awareness (Berridge, Robinson, & Aldridge, 2009; Goldstein et al., 2009; Kalivas, Volkow, & Seamans, 2005). The observations and conclusions from this research can be used to advantage in treating addiction. The use of social psychological principles, in the context of motivational interviewing, offers a platform for taking advantage of these new insights. After a brief sketch of the latest understanding of the physiological forces operating in addiction, the author examines those ways to interact with substance dependent clients that promote change without provoking resistance in this article. Action plans are later described that can supplant automatic, addiction-induced behaviors (Gollwitzer, Fujita, & Oettingen, 2004). Mechanisms such as building coping skills are discussed, that help in maintaining new behaviors. Some of these mechanisms are efficacious because they bolster the brain's self-regulatory capacity (Baumeister, Vohs, & Tice, 2007; Littrell, 2010). Thus, for every step in the change process, from resistance to change maintenance, validated guidelines for altering the outcome from addiction will be provided.


Children In Foster Care And Excessive Medications, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

Children In Foster Care And Excessive Medications, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

Children in foster care system are more likely to receive diagnoses of major mental illness and to be medicated with powerful medications such as antipsychotic drugs. Reasons for the increased risk of the actual mental illnesses and for the diagnoses of illness among children in foster care are reviewed. The reliabilities of various diagnoses are considered. The legitimacy of the rationale for early medications to prevent later disability is discussed. The very real hazards of medicating with antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, stimulants, mood stabilizers and antidepressants are reviewed. A discussion of advocacy efforts occurring around the United States on behalf of medicated ...


Book Review: “Mental Illness In The Family: Issues And Trends”, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

Book Review: “Mental Illness In The Family: Issues And Trends”, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

No abstract provided.


The Mind-Body Connection: Not Just A Theory Anymore, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

The Mind-Body Connection: Not Just A Theory Anymore, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

The field of psychoneuroimmunology has witnessed an explosion of empirical findings during the last two decades. Research has documented the mechanisms through which stressful emotions alter white blood cell function. Stress diminishes white blood cell response to viral infected cells and to cancer cells. Moreover, vaccination is less effective in those who are stressed and wounds heal less readily in those who are stressed. While stress decreases the activity of some white blood cells, stress does not compromise the function of all types of white blood cells. Indeed, some types of autoimmune disease, which involve particular subsets of white blood ...


New Developments In Understanding Cardiovascular Disease And The Implications For Social Work, Jill Littrell Dec 2014

New Developments In Understanding Cardiovascular Disease And The Implications For Social Work, Jill Littrell

jill l littrell Dr.

Cardiovascular disease is now viewed as an inflammatory disease. An index of chronic inflammation (viz., C-Reactive Protein) is as good a predictor of heart attacks as are fats in blood. The data suggest that stressful events are so closely associated with chronic inflammatory states, that the body’s stress response can be viewed as an inflammatory state. This paper summarizes and explains the link between stress and cardiovascular disease. Negative health outcomes, particularly for cardiovascular diseases, are higher among those of lower socio-economic status. Differential stress among socio-economic tiers is considered as an explanation for the disparities. The literature linking ...


The Influence Of A Neo Liberal World View On Health, John Orwat, Michael Dentato, Michael Lloyd Nov 2014

The Influence Of A Neo Liberal World View On Health, John Orwat, Michael Dentato, Michael Lloyd

Michael P. Dentato, PhD, MSW

Neoliberalism is a world view that supports economic liberalization, or freedom from government intervention, as the best way to maximize the effect of trade, or economic efficiency. Liberalism was the most influential economic theory until the Great Depression in the 1930s, when Keynesian economics was introduced and quickly became influential. Keynesian economics also supports the notion that private markets maximize economic efficiency; however, it acknowledges the role of public sector interventions when private sector decisions result in inefficient macroeconomic outcomes. Keynesian economics was very influential from the 1930s until the 1970s; the manifestations may be seen in increased government intervention ...


Natural Mentoring Of Older Foster Care Youths: Behavioral Health Benefits, Johanna Greeson, Allison Thompson, Susan Kinnevy Jun 2014

Natural Mentoring Of Older Foster Care Youths: Behavioral Health Benefits, Johanna Greeson, Allison Thompson, Susan Kinnevy

Johanna K.P. Greeson, PhD, MSS, MLSP

Mentoring older youths can promote resiliency as they prepare to exit foster care.


Journeys After Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Phenomenological Study In A Frontier Region, Brittany Wienholz Mar 2014

Journeys After Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Phenomenological Study In A Frontier Region, Brittany Wienholz

Brittany R Wienholz

About 10% of the U.S population will experience child sexual abuse. This paper presentation will review the literature regarding survivors’ healing journeys and a qualitative research study design that utilizes feminist theory in order to promote justice for oppressed groups. Preliminary findings from the study will be presented.


Integrating Spirituality In Practice: From Inner Journey To Outer Engagement, Holly Nelson-Becker Jan 2014

Integrating Spirituality In Practice: From Inner Journey To Outer Engagement, Holly Nelson-Becker

Holly Nelson-Becker

No abstract provided.


When Public Tragedies Happen: Community Practice Approaches In Grief, Loss & Recovery, Nancy Kropf, Barbara Jones Dec 2013

When Public Tragedies Happen: Community Practice Approaches In Grief, Loss & Recovery, Nancy Kropf, Barbara Jones

Nancy P. Kropf

While an expansive literature exists on individual experiences after a catastrophic event, there is less attention to how the community as a social structure experiences a significant tragedy. These ‘public tragedies’ create disruptions across multiple domains of community functioning. Using the Community Capacity model (Hart, 1999) as a framework for assessment, outcomes of a public tragedy are described. Additionally, community practice approaches are identified for the three phases that communities subsequently experience: crisis, processing of the event, and adaptation.


Employment Hope: A Path To Empowering Disconnected Workers, Philip Young Hong Dec 2013

Employment Hope: A Path To Empowering Disconnected Workers, Philip Young Hong

Philip Hong

No abstract provided.


The Influence Of A Neo Liberal World View On Health Care Policy, Maria Vidal De Haymes Dec 2013

The Influence Of A Neo Liberal World View On Health Care Policy, Maria Vidal De Haymes

Maria Vidal De Haymes

No abstract provided.