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Full-Text Articles in Social Work

The Clinical Significance Of Companion Animals For Lgbt+ Youth:Unconditional Love In A Straight Society, Jeffrey Neal Jin May 2018

The Clinical Significance Of Companion Animals For Lgbt+ Youth:Unconditional Love In A Straight Society, Jeffrey Neal Jin

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

The Clinical Significance of Companion Animals for LGBT+ Youth:

Unconditional Love in a Straight Society

Abstract

Background: Research continues on LGBT+ youth, social isolation, and mental health. Prior studies have shown the linkage between lack of social support and unhealthy outcomes including depression, substance use, and suicidal ideation. In place of or in addition to human support, companion animal relationships for this marginalized population have not been studied through previous work. This qualitative study explored the experiences of LGBT+ youth who have used companion animals for social and emotional support as a twinship selfobject or attachment object using Self Psychology ...


The Warrior’S Provider From Bootcamp Through Discharge: Educating And Training An Army Of Social Work Students Towards Clinical And Cultural Competence With Service Members, Veterans And Their Families, Kenneth J. Marfilius May 2018

The Warrior’S Provider From Bootcamp Through Discharge: Educating And Training An Army Of Social Work Students Towards Clinical And Cultural Competence With Service Members, Veterans And Their Families, Kenneth J. Marfilius

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Social workers are expected to serve, communicate, and interact effectively with a broad range of clients across various cultural contexts. Military culture is unique in that it puts the mission first, above one’s life, family, and personal comfort. Military culture has its own beliefs, language, values, and legal system that significantly impact the use of healthcare practices. There has been recent research identifying the significant gap in knowledge and training for behavioral health providers serving military members, veterans, and their families. In 2014, a survey examining behavioral health providers in Maryland identified significant gaps in knowledge and confidence for ...


"It Gets Easier, Not Better": Ambiguous Loss And Resiliency In Adult Children Caring For Their Parent With Alzheimer's Disease, Maria L. Balintona May 2018

"It Gets Easier, Not Better": Ambiguous Loss And Resiliency In Adult Children Caring For Their Parent With Alzheimer's Disease, Maria L. Balintona

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

ABSTRACT

AMBIGUOUS LOSS AND RESILIENCY IN ADULT CHILDREN CAREGIVING FOR THEIR PARENT WITH ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

Maria Balintona, LCSW

Ram Cnaan, PhD

Background

Alzheimer’s Disease is characterized by a decline in cognitive function, memory retention, and thinking skills directly affecting one’s ability to perform activities of daily living. Alzheimer’s disease is fatal, though for many this is its lesser curse. The loss of humanity and the emotional pain of caregiving can be devastating. Today, an estimated 15 million American adults provide uncompensated personal care to their loved ones with Alzheimer’s Disease (Alzheimer’s Association, 2017). As ...


The Training Needs Of Community Service Providers Of An Intensive Mental Health Program In Virginia’S Public School Settings, Cristina V. Reamon May 2018

The Training Needs Of Community Service Providers Of An Intensive Mental Health Program In Virginia’S Public School Settings, Cristina V. Reamon

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

One in five children birth to 18 has a diagnosable mental disorder and 1 in 10 youth has serious mental health problems that are severe enough to impair how they function at home, in school, or in the community (SAMHSA, 2003). Reduced funding and movement from residential and inpatient treatment to lesser restrictive settings have made schools the “de facto” mental health service provider (Roberts, Vernberg, Biggs, Randall and Jacobs, 2008; Splett & Maras, 2011). Furthermore polices such as Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, No Child Left Behind as well as incidents such as the Virginia Tech, Columbine, Sandy Hook, and Isla Vista shootings have charged schools and mental health organizations with the responsibility for the provision of adequate mental health services. “This “perfect storm” of a confluence of critical social, legal, and medical issues demand an array of therapeutic responses that schools were never designed or funded to do” (Lemon, 2015). According to the U.S Department of Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2012), there were 2.9 million youths aged 12 to 17 in 2010 who received mental health services in the educational setting.

Through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 community based providers of an intensive school-based mental health program, Therapeutic Day Treatment (TDT); it was the aim of this qualitative study to examine the training needs of community mental health providers whose provision of services occur in a school setting. Given ...


Ethical Issues In Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research: A Narrative Review Of The Literature, Crystal Kwan Ms., Christine A. Walsh Feb 2018

Ethical Issues In Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research: A Narrative Review Of The Literature, Crystal Kwan Ms., Christine A. Walsh

The Qualitative Report

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a methodology increasingly used within the social sciences. CBPR is an umbrella term that encompasses a variety of research methodologies, including participatory research, participatory action research, feminist participatory research, action research, and collaborative inquiry. At its core, they share five key attributes: (i) community as a unit of identity; (ii) an approach for the vulnerable and marginalized; (iii) collaboration and equal partnership throughout the entire research process; (iv) an emergent, flexible, and iterative process; and (v) the research process is geared toward social action. While there is no shortage of literature that highlights the benefits ...


Patriarchal Culture's Influence On Women’S Leadership Ascendancy, Jose Carbajal Feb 2018

Patriarchal Culture's Influence On Women’S Leadership Ascendancy, Jose Carbajal

The Journal of Faith, Education, and Community

Biblical interpretations (hermeneutic) have influenced women’s ascension to leadership positions. A patriarchal societal framework that most Judeo-Christians have accepted as a norm often includes biased biblical interpretations regarding women. These interpretations are taken out of context, which reinforces old patterns that are incompatible with true leadership. This paper provides a literature review on women and leadership, with the literature indicating that a prevalent patriarchal perspective has influenced the portrayal of leadership roles in society. The literature on women leadership shows that many women might not be becoming CEOs or ascending to other high positions because of gender inequality in ...


Evaluating The Process Of View And Tanf Case Managers In Prince William County's Department Of Social Services, Morgan Lawson Feb 2018

Evaluating The Process Of View And Tanf Case Managers In Prince William County's Department Of Social Services, Morgan Lawson

Undergraduate Research Symposium

This project goes through the process of conducting an evaluation on the VIEW and TANF caseworkers for Prince William County's Department of Social Services. This process goes from developing an evaluation question to designing an evaluation protocol, and then using that protocol to do the evaluation. The evaluation was centered around the question, “How effectively are PWC's TANF caseworkers being prepared to handle their cases in a way that helps the Department of Social Services fulfill their mission of enabling their clients to live self-reliant lives?”. Based on the nature of this question, the evaluation conducted was a ...


Psychosocial Correlates Of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms And Well-Being Among Hispanic World Trade Center Rescue And Recovery Workers, Dianne Ciro Feb 2018

Psychosocial Correlates Of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms And Well-Being Among Hispanic World Trade Center Rescue And Recovery Workers, Dianne Ciro

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Thousands of first responders are estimated to have endured extremely distressing experiences during their recovery efforts at the 9/11 World Trade Center (WTC) site. While the effects of 9/11 continue to be studied, few studies have examined how rescue and recovery workers have been coping since 9/11 and how their coping is associated with their psychological well-being. Moreover, we do not know how distinct coping patterns may be associated with post-traumatic growth, experiences of positive emotion, or quality of life among WTC responders.

This study compared coping differences among Hispanic, Non-Hispanic White, and Non-Hispanic Black first responders ...


Individualized Treatment And Understanding The Non-Pharmacologic Components That Are Part Of Recovery, Gerardo Gonzalez Md, Lindsey Silva Rn, Msn, Susan Halpin Jan 2018

Individualized Treatment And Understanding The Non-Pharmacologic Components That Are Part Of Recovery, Gerardo Gonzalez Md, Lindsey Silva Rn, Msn, Susan Halpin

National Network of Libraries of Medicine New England Region (NNLM NER) Repository

Learn about the non-pharmacologic components of recovery. When developing individualized treatment plans, what factors are considered? The Medical Director and the Director of Quality and Compliance for Washburn House, a new treatment facility in Worcester, Massachusetts, will share their stories of starting a new treatment facility, and the challenges of putting evidence-based practices into practical use.

Learning Objectives: Individualized Treatment and Understanding the non-pharmacologic Components that are Part of Recovery

  • Understand the rationale and treatment options for managed withdrawal of a patient with opioid use disorder
  • Understand the rationale and treatment options for Medication Assisted Treatment in a patient with ...


Inductive And Deductive: Ambiguous Labels In Qualitative Content Analysis, Mohammad Reza Armat, Abdolghader Assarroudi, Mostafa Rad, Hassan Sharifi, Abbas Heydari Jan 2018

Inductive And Deductive: Ambiguous Labels In Qualitative Content Analysis, Mohammad Reza Armat, Abdolghader Assarroudi, Mostafa Rad, Hassan Sharifi, Abbas Heydari

The Qualitative Report

The propounded dualism in Content Analysis as quantitative and qualitative approaches is widely supported and justified in nursing literature. Nevertheless, another sort of dualism is proposed for Qualitative Content Analysis, suggesting the adoption of "inductive" and/or "deductive" approaches in the process of qualitative data analysis. These approaches have been referred and labelled as "inductive" or "conventional"; and "deductive" or "directed" content analysis in the literature. Authors argue that these labels could be fallacious, and may lead to ambiguity; as in effect, both approaches are employed with different dominancy during the process of any Qualitative Content Analysis. Thus, authors suggest ...


Sacred Heart University Receives State Grant For Opioid Prevention On Campus, Jessica Samuolis, Victoria Osborne Jan 2018

Sacred Heart University Receives State Grant For Opioid Prevention On Campus, Jessica Samuolis, Victoria Osborne

Jessica Samuolis

Sacred Heart University assistant professors Jessica Samuolis and Victoria Osborne-Leute have received an $11,000 grant from the Connecticut Healthy Campus Initiative to implement opioid use awareness and prevention activities on campus. Janice Kessler from SHU’s Wellness Center will collaborate with Samuolis and Osborne-Leute on the project.


Living With 'Risky' Bodies, Simanti Dasgupta Jan 2018

Living With 'Risky' Bodies, Simanti Dasgupta

Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work Faculty Publications

In Kolkata, female sex workers’ well-being is overshadowed by practices and conceptions around HIV/AIDS. This article describes an outreach program designed to prevent the spread of HIV infections through condom programming based on a public health initiative, Sonagachi HIV/AIDS Intervention Program (SHIP). However, the identification of female sex workers as a high-risk group for HIV has compounded their existing struggle in which the state medical regime now construes and constructs the women as "risky" bodies in need of targeted intervention. High-risk group status has conferred a kind of hyper-visibility on female sex workers -- unthinkable were it not for ...


Food Insecurity Rudimentary Education For Local Youth, Nam-Anh Nguyen, Quynh Nguyen, Ellisa Defur, Daniel Lin, Jennifer Mansfield, Jane Krause Jan 2018

Food Insecurity Rudimentary Education For Local Youth, Nam-Anh Nguyen, Quynh Nguyen, Ellisa Defur, Daniel Lin, Jennifer Mansfield, Jane Krause

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit: Reciprocal & Sustainable Partnerships

No abstract provided.


The Evolution Of Challenges For Adoptive Families: The Impact Of Age As A Framework For Differentiation, Nancy Rolock, Joan M. Blakey, Megan Wahl, Amy Devine Jan 2018

The Evolution Of Challenges For Adoptive Families: The Impact Of Age As A Framework For Differentiation, Nancy Rolock, Joan M. Blakey, Megan Wahl, Amy Devine

Journal of Adolescent and Family Health

This exploratory study examined issues parents (n=20) experienced after adoption through the child welfare system. The findings suggest that the primary differences between struggling and non-struggling families was whether the family was internally-protected or externally-focused. Internally-protected families were able to insulate and protect their family from many outside forces and meet their children’s needs. In contrast, externally-influenced families tended to have negative involvement with the school, community, and/or law enforcement, often resulting from children’s disruptive behavior. The parents had limited choices as to whether outside entities were involved in their children’s lives. Participants reported that ...


Validation Of The Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency Among Low-Income Jobseekers, Philip Young P. Hong, Joshua R. Polanin, Terri D. Pigott Jan 2018

Validation Of The Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency Among Low-Income Jobseekers, Philip Young P. Hong, Joshua R. Polanin, Terri D. Pigott

Terri Pigott

The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and reports its psychometric properties. Method: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using an agency data from the Cara Program in Chicago, United States. The principal axis factor extraction process was employed to identify the factor structure. Results: EFA resulted in a 13-item two-factor structure with Factor 1 representing “Psychological Empowerment” and Factor ...


Indicated Truancy Interventions: Effects On School Attendance Among Chronic Truant Students., Brandy R. Maynard, Katherine Tyson Mccrea, Terri D. Pigott, Michael S. Kelly Jan 2018

Indicated Truancy Interventions: Effects On School Attendance Among Chronic Truant Students., Brandy R. Maynard, Katherine Tyson Mccrea, Terri D. Pigott, Michael S. Kelly

Terri Pigott

BACKGROUND
Truancy is a significant problem in the U.S. and in other countries around the world. Truancy has been linked to serious immediate and far-reaching consequences for youth, families, and schools and communities, leading researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to try to understand and to address the problem. Although numerous and significant steps have been taken at the local, state, and national levels to reduce truancy, the rates of truancy have at best remained stable or at worst been on the rise, depending on the indicator utilized to assess truancy rates.
The costs and impact of chronic truancy are ...


Distributive Justice And Equity In Grading: A New Instructor’S Reflections, Molly Malany Sayre Jan 2018

Distributive Justice And Equity In Grading: A New Instructor’S Reflections, Molly Malany Sayre

Molly Sayre

The author reflects upon early teaching experiences to identify a conflict between minimal distributive justice, or the distribution of goods that ensures all individuals have an acceptable level of that good (Deutsch, 1985), and grading of students’ assignments. Instead of addressing the unequal distribution of college preparedness among her students, the author’s grading reflected and potentially reinforced educational, racial, and economic inequalities. In agreement with Anastas (2010), an ethic of social justice is recommended for use in social work education. Social work educators can provide greater access to resources (e.g., the instructor’s time) for students experiencing disadvantages ...


Maternal Allostatic Load During Pregnancy: Predicting Length Of Gestation, Molly Malany Sayre Jan 2018

Maternal Allostatic Load During Pregnancy: Predicting Length Of Gestation, Molly Malany Sayre

Molly Sayre

Allostatic load, or the “wear and tear” on the body due to stress, is thought to have a negative impact on length of pregnancy and contribute to health disparities in preterm birth. However, the magnitude of the effect on birth outcomes is unknown, in part due to questions of timing of measurement of allostatic load during pregnancy. This study used linear regression analysis of data from 156 pregnant women to test whether allostatic load is a predictor of length of gestation in the study sample, finding that third trimester allostatic load predicted length of gestation among women with full-term births ...


Kansas City, Missouri, Inner City Schools' Parent Involvement Policy, Practices, And Accreditation Problems, Gena L. Ross Jan 2018

Kansas City, Missouri, Inner City Schools' Parent Involvement Policy, Practices, And Accreditation Problems, Gena L. Ross

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In 2012, the Missouri Board of Education took away Kansas City Public Schools (KCPS) accreditation status. For over 40 years, KCPS has struggled with poor academic achievement, decreased enrollment and budget, and numerous leadership turnovers. Although KCPS regained provisional accreditation in 2014 and earned enough points on the annual performance report for consideration to become a fully accredited school system, state education officials first want to ensure that the district can sustain its new performance level before granting full accreditation. The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to explore parents' perceptions about how the KCPS' parent involvement policy and ...


The Impact Of Caseworkers' Educational Background And Placement Outcomes For Foster Children, Katrina Haynes Jan 2018

The Impact Of Caseworkers' Educational Background And Placement Outcomes For Foster Children, Katrina Haynes

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Decades of data document that permanent placements of children in the welfare system has been a concern in Mississippi. As foster care rates increase, more children are awaiting placement. Researchers have linked child welfare workers' educational background to placement outcomes for foster care children; however, researchers have not addressed the relationship between child welfare workers' educational backgrounds and foster care placement outcomes in Mississippi. This quantitative study examined the educational backgrounds of social work and nonsocial work child welfare caseworkers and other factors such as children's gender and race as predictors in placement outcomes for children in welfare custody ...


Generational Homelessness In New York City Family Homeless Shelters, Deborah Johnson Jan 2018

Generational Homelessness In New York City Family Homeless Shelters, Deborah Johnson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Homelessness has been a problem in New York City (NYC) for decades. Part of the problem is children who grew up in the shelter system and then returned as adults, a phenomenon known as 2nd-generation homelessness. Literature indicates that no researchers have interviewed second-generation homeless adults about their experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of 2nd-generation homelessness from the perspective of homeless adults returning to the shelter system. The sample included 1 second-generation homeless adult and 10 case managers at Tier II homeless shelters. Interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using hand coding to ...


Using Clinical Supervision To Improve Interprofessional Collaboration, Melissa Copenhaver Jan 2018

Using Clinical Supervision To Improve Interprofessional Collaboration, Melissa Copenhaver

DNP Scholarly Projects

USING CLINICAL SUPERVISION TO IMPROVE

INTERPROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION

By

Melissa Copenhaver

Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is important to the future of the healthcare system in that IPC is part of the solution for promoting better healthcare outcomes (Gilbert, Yan, & Hoffman, 2010; Reeves, Perrier, Goldman, Freeth, & Zwarenstein, 2013). Marshall (2011) notes that “interprofessional collaborative practice promotes team identity, conserves energy by a unity in direction, and invites harmony of efforts” (p. 158). The skills needed to engage in IPC are cultivated through interprofessional education (IPE) (Reeves et al., 2013). Currently, at Northern Michigan University (NMU), there are limited opportunities included in the program curriculums of ...


The Hold Me Tight Program For Couples Becoming Parents: A Mixed Methods Study, Debbie Wang Jan 2018

The Hold Me Tight Program For Couples Becoming Parents: A Mixed Methods Study, Debbie Wang

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

ABSTRACT

Attachment theory has made substantial contributions to the understanding of close relationships. The purpose of this study was to inquire whether an attachment-informed psychoeducational program is a feasible and effective intervention for couples expecting their first child. The overarching question was: Is an attachment-informed relationship enhancement program, such as Hold Me Tight® (HMT), helpful to couples in strengthening their relationship and increasing their confidence in becoming first-time parents? The research question was addressed using a mixed-methods approach.

In the first phase, the Hold Me Tight® program developed by Dr. Sue Johnson was modified for use with couples becoming parents ...


It Takes A Village-Schooling Out Of Place: School Experiences Of Black African Youth In Waterloo Region, Olufunke Oba 5726040 Jan 2018

It Takes A Village-Schooling Out Of Place: School Experiences Of Black African Youth In Waterloo Region, Olufunke Oba 5726040

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This dissertation examined experiences of alienation among Black African youth in Waterloo region schools. This study is timely and relevant considering the rapid influx of Black Africans into the region in response to government initiatives to redirect immigrants to smaller communities. The research addressed the dearth of scholarship on experiences of Black Africans outside the major metropolitan areas by employing Afrocentric and critical race theories to explore relationships between race and youth experiences of alienation. The dissertation study utilized elder facilitated youth dialogue forum (adaptation of focus group) and in-depth storytelling (which honours African orality) to access the meanings seventeen ...


The Apparatus Of Social Reproduction: Uncovering The Work Functions Of Transgender Women, William A. Lane, Kristie L. Seelman Jan 2018

The Apparatus Of Social Reproduction: Uncovering The Work Functions Of Transgender Women, William A. Lane, Kristie L. Seelman

Social Work Faculty Publications

The apparatus of social reproduction describes the process by which knowledge production contributes to oppressive conditions. This article explains and defines this process through the application of a critical theoretical lens informed the Foucauldian concept of apparatus or dispositif and social reproduction as developed by feminist activists and intellectuals. This process has a notable influence on the political economic conditions of transgender women, conditions that include disproportionate reliance on the use of criminalized economies such as sex work. Social workers inadvertently influence this process through an overreliance on broad categorizations for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer populations, which impede ...


Differences In Mental, Cognitive, And Functional Health By Sexual Orientation Among Older Women: Analysis Of The 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Kristie L. Seelman Jan 2018

Differences In Mental, Cognitive, And Functional Health By Sexual Orientation Among Older Women: Analysis Of The 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Kristie L. Seelman

Social Work Faculty Publications

Background and Objectives: This study addresses a gap in the knowledge base regarding whether there are differences in mental, cognitive, and functional health between sexual minority women aged 65 and older and their heterosexual counterparts, as well as whether disparities are moderated by age, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity.

Research Design and Methods: This study analyzes 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 21 states. Multivariate logistic regression is used to test the hypotheses.

Results: Compared to heterosexual women, lesbian/gay women aged 65 and older report worse functional health and bisexual women report worse cognitive health and more ...


Examining Trauma Exposure, Organizational Climate, And Job Outcomes In Child Welfare, Shano Rodgers Jan 2018

Examining Trauma Exposure, Organizational Climate, And Job Outcomes In Child Welfare, Shano Rodgers

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Exposure to traumatic situations is routine for child welfare workers in California, and the attrition rate for newly hired social workers in some states is estimated to be nearly 50% in the 1st year of employment. Prior research has indicated that reasons for dissatisfaction included dysfunctional organizational climate and culture. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which trauma exposure contributed to secondary traumatic stress and intent to quit and to examine the degree to which organizational climate moderated the exposure among direct service child welfare employees. Kurt Lewin's field theory, Figley's theory of ...


Intensive Outpatient Treatment Program For Patients With Depressive Disorder: A Parental Perspective, Emmanuel Akpan Jan 2018

Intensive Outpatient Treatment Program For Patients With Depressive Disorder: A Parental Perspective, Emmanuel Akpan

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Psychosocial support from family is important in outpatient treatment programs for individuals with depressive disorder. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences and perceptions of parents of patients with depressive disorder regarding intensive outpatient treatment. The research question was what are the experiences and perceptions of parents of patients with depression regarding their role as caretakers in intensive outpatient treatment? The conceptual framework was a biopsychosocial framework and family systems theory. Content analysis was used to analyze data provided from interviews with parent participants (n = 8). Many participants reported high levels of involvement with various ...


Book Review: The Pimping Of Prostitution: Abolishing The Sex Work Myth By Julie Bindel, Roger Matthews Jan 2018

Book Review: The Pimping Of Prostitution: Abolishing The Sex Work Myth By Julie Bindel, Roger Matthews

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid Jan 2018

The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Research has consistently linked residual trauma-related shame among child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors to sexual revictimization, health risk behaviors, and poorer response to mental health treatment. However, questions remain regarding the imprint of childhood maltreatment on trauma-related shame including which CSA characteristics or types of childhood maltreatment contribute to residual shame in adulthood. Using data drawn from a prospective study of 174 primarily African American women with histories of CSA and a matched comparison group, this study explores whether specific characteristics of CSA (familial CSA, CSA with penetration, force used by CSA perpetrator), repeat sexual victimization in adolescence, childhood physical ...