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Balancing Energy In The Smart Grid Using Distributed Value Function (Dvf), Hassan Shirzeh, Fazel Naghdy, Philip Ciufo, Montserrat Ros Apr 2015

Balancing Energy In The Smart Grid Using Distributed Value Function (Dvf), Hassan Shirzeh, Fazel Naghdy, Philip Ciufo, Montserrat Ros

Dr Philip Ciufo

As the penetration of renewable energy resources increases in distribution networks, so does the need to manage these resources in an effective manner. Since these resources are installed to displace carbon-based generation and to provide an income stream to the resource owner, it is important that both installation objectives (as a minimum) can be met. With all of these renewable energy resources available, the opportunity also exists to assist with the energy management of this resource-rich distribution network. However, the renewable energy resources do not produce power in a deterministic manner. The available production depends on the time of day ...


Energy Loss Rate Of A Charged Particle In Hgte/(Hgte, Cdte) Quantum Wells, Qinjun Chen, Yee Sin Ang, Xiaolin Wang, R A. Lewis, Chao Zhang Jan 2015

Energy Loss Rate Of A Charged Particle In Hgte/(Hgte, Cdte) Quantum Wells, Qinjun Chen, Yee Sin Ang, Xiaolin Wang, R A. Lewis, Chao Zhang

Yee Sin Ang

The energy loss rate (ELR) of a charged particle in a HgTe/(HgTe, CdTe) quantum well is investigated. We consider scattering of a charged particle by the bulk insulating states in this type of topological insulator. It is found that the ELR characteristics due to the intraband excitation have a linear energy dependence while those due to interband excitation depend on the energy exponentially. An interesting quantitative result is that for a large range of the incident energy, the mean inelastic scattering rate is around a few terahertz.


Optimal Energy For Cell Radiosensitivity Enhancement By Gold Nanoparticles Using Synchrotron-Based Monoenergetic Photon Beams, Wan Nordiana Rahman, Stephanie Corde, Naoto Yagi, Siti Aishah Abdul Aziz, Nathan Annabell, Moshi Geso Jan 2015

Optimal Energy For Cell Radiosensitivity Enhancement By Gold Nanoparticles Using Synchrotron-Based Monoenergetic Photon Beams, Wan Nordiana Rahman, Stephanie Corde, Naoto Yagi, Siti Aishah Abdul Aziz, Nathan Annabell, Moshi Geso

Stéphanie Corde

Gold nanoparticles have been shown to enhance radiation doses delivered to biological targets due to the high absorption coefficient of gold atoms, stemming from their high atomic number (Z) and physical density. These properties significantly increase the likelihood of photoelectric effects and Compton scattering interactions. Gold nanoparticles are a novel radiosensitizing agent that can potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of current radiation therapy techniques and improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, the optimum radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles is strongly dependent on photon energy, which theoretically is predicted to occur in the kilovoltage range of energy ...


Working In Partnership To Develop Engineering Capacity In Energy Efficiency, Cheryl Desha, Duane A. Robinson, Alistair Sproul Jan 2015

Working In Partnership To Develop Engineering Capacity In Energy Efficiency, Cheryl Desha, Duane A. Robinson, Alistair Sproul

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Energy efficiency is a complex topic to integrate into higher education curricula, with limited success internationally or in Australia. This paper discusses one of the successful initiatives within the Energy Efficiency Training Program, which was jointly managed and implemented by the New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage and Department of Education and Communities. The state government initiative aimed to increase the knowledge and skills of the New South Wales workforce, help business to identify and implement energy efficiency projects, and provide professional development for the training providers. Key sectors targeted included property, construction, manufacturing and services. The Program ...


Effective Utilization Of Excess Energy In Standalone Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems For Improving Comfort Ability And Reducing Cost Of Energy: A Review And Analysis, M Ismail Ismail, Mahmoud Moghavvemi, T Mahlia, Kashem M. Muttaqi, S Moghavvemi Jan 2015

Effective Utilization Of Excess Energy In Standalone Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems For Improving Comfort Ability And Reducing Cost Of Energy: A Review And Analysis, M Ismail Ismail, Mahmoud Moghavvemi, T Mahlia, Kashem M. Muttaqi, S Moghavvemi

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

One of the features that characterize renewable energy sources is their variability and intermittency. Intermittency covers both the predictable and unpredictable variations of their power outputs and uncertainty in the power availability. To overcome the drawback of intermittency, special design considerations should be taken into account. These additional design considerations increases the overall cost of the renewable energy systems. Adding storage system and/or backup source to the renewable sources is one of the measures used to guarantee the continuity of power supply to the loads, and therefore improve the reliability of the renewable energy systems. The operation of renewable ...


Alleviation Of Neutral-To-Ground Potential Rise Under Unbalanced Allocation Of Rooftop Pv Using Distributed Energy Storage, Md Jan E Alam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Danny Sutanto Jan 2015

Alleviation Of Neutral-To-Ground Potential Rise Under Unbalanced Allocation Of Rooftop Pv Using Distributed Energy Storage, Md Jan E Alam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Danny Sutanto

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

A high penetration of one-phase rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) units with unbalanced allocation can create considerable neutral current and neutral potential rise in low voltage (LV) four-wire multigrounded distribution networks, even with balanced loads. Because of the limitations of traditional strategies to mitigate the combined effect of load and PV unbalance, this paper proposes the use of distributed energy storage to reduce the neutral current and neutral potential under a high penetration of unbalanced rooftop solar PV allocation. A power-balancing algorithm based on charge/discharge control is developed to continuously adjust the power exchange with the grid to mitigate the ...


Energy Loss At Bends In The Pneumatic Conveying Of Fly Ash, Naveen Tripathi, A Sharma, Soumya Suddha Mallick, Peter W. Wypych Jan 2015

Energy Loss At Bends In The Pneumatic Conveying Of Fly Ash, Naveen Tripathi, A Sharma, Soumya Suddha Mallick, Peter W. Wypych

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

An accurate estimation of the total pressure drop of a pipeline is important to the reliable design of a pneumatic conveying system. The present paper presents results from an investigation into the modelling of the pressure drop at a bend in the pneumatic conveying of fly ash. Seven existing bend models were used (in conjunction with solids friction models for horizontal and vertical straight pipes, and initial acceleration losses) to predict the total pipeline pressure drop in conveying fly ash (median particle diameter: 30μm; particle density: 2300kg/m3; loose-poured bulk density: 700kg/m3) in three test rigs (pipelines ...


Development And Optimization Of An Innovative Hvac System With Integrated Pvt And Pcm Thermal Storage For A Net-Zero Energy Retrofitted House, Massimo Fiorentini, Paul Cooper, Zhenjun Ma Jan 2015

Development And Optimization Of An Innovative Hvac System With Integrated Pvt And Pcm Thermal Storage For A Net-Zero Energy Retrofitted House, Massimo Fiorentini, Paul Cooper, Zhenjun Ma

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper describes a novel solar-assisted HVAC system developed for the Team UOW 'Illawarra Flame' Solar Decathlon house, the winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013 competition. This HVAC system consists of an air-based photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage unit integrated with a reverse cycle heat pump, in a ducted system. The system was designed for operation during both winter and summer using daytime solar radiation and night-time sky radiative cooling, respectively. The PVT collector heats or cools fresh air from ambient and thereby provides heating or cooling either directly to the indoor space ...


Energy Exchange Between Electric Vehicle Load And Wind Generating Utilities, Ahmad Tavakoli, Michael Negnevitsky, Duc Thanh Nguyen, Kashem M. Muttaqi Jan 2015

Energy Exchange Between Electric Vehicle Load And Wind Generating Utilities, Ahmad Tavakoli, Michael Negnevitsky, Duc Thanh Nguyen, Kashem M. Muttaqi

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper proposes a novel approach to energy exchange between electric vehicle (EV) load and wind generation utilities participating in the day-ahead energy, balancing, and regulation markets. An optimal bidding/offering strategy model is developed to mitigate wind energy and EV imbalance threats, and optimize EV charging profiles. A new strategy model is based on optimizing decision making of a wind generating company (WGenCO) in selecting the best option among the use of the balancing or regulation services, the use of the energy storage system (ESS) and the use of all of them to compensate wind power deviation. Energy imbalance ...


Community Energy Storage For Neutral Voltage Rise Mitigation In Four-Wire Multigrounded Lv Feeders With Unbalanced Solar Pv Allocation, Md Jan E Alam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Danny Sutanto Jan 2015

Community Energy Storage For Neutral Voltage Rise Mitigation In Four-Wire Multigrounded Lv Feeders With Unbalanced Solar Pv Allocation, Md Jan E Alam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Danny Sutanto

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The traditional neutral voltage problem in low-voltage (LV) four-wire multigrounded distribution networks can be aggravated due to an unbalanced allocation of one-phase photovoltaic (PV) units. Inherent limitations restrict the performance of the traditional strategies to mitigate the combined effect of load and PV unbalance. To overcome the shortcoming of traditional approaches, a new dynamic mitigation approach using community energy storage (CES) is proposed in this paper. A power balancing algorithm is developed to perform the balancing operation while minimizing power drawn from the CES. A charge/discharge control strategy is developed that will continuously balance and dynamically adjust the power ...


Optimal Design For Energy-Efficient Per-Subcarrier Antenna Selection Mimo–Ofdm Wireless Systems, Ngoc Phuc Le, Le Chung Tran, Farzad Safaei Jan 2015

Optimal Design For Energy-Efficient Per-Subcarrier Antenna Selection Mimo–Ofdm Wireless Systems, Ngoc Phuc Le, Le Chung Tran, Farzad Safaei

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this paper, we consider a novel optimal design for per-subcarrier antenna selection multi-input multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems from an energy-efficiency perspective. The optimal number of antennas, i.e., the number of radio frequency chains, that needs to be built-in on a transmitter to achieve the maximum energy-efficiency is determined. Specifically, an optimization problem for maximizing the average energy-efficiency with respect to the number of antennas is formulated. To solve this optimization problem, we first derive a closed-form formula expressing the cost function (i.e., the average energy-efficiency) as a function of the number of antennas. Search algorithms ...


Energy Efficiency Analysis Of Antenna Selection Multi-Input Multi-Output Automatic Repeat Request Systems Over Nakagami-M Fading Channels, Ngoc Phuc Le, Le Chung Tran, Farzad Safaei, Vineeth Satheeskum Varma Jan 2015

Energy Efficiency Analysis Of Antenna Selection Multi-Input Multi-Output Automatic Repeat Request Systems Over Nakagami-M Fading Channels, Ngoc Phuc Le, Le Chung Tran, Farzad Safaei, Vineeth Satheeskum Varma

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In this study, the authors investigate energy efficiency in antenna selection multi-input multi-output automatic repeat request (MIMO ARQ) wireless systems. The authors first derive an approximate expression for the average frame-error rate (FER) in antenna selection MIMO systems over quasi-static Nakagami-m fading channels. The FER approximation is then used to obtain an analytical expression of an energy-efficiency metric that is defined as the total energy required to successfully deliver one information bit. The authors prove that this energy-efficiency metric is a quasi-convex function with respect to the average signal-to-noise ratio value. Based on this analysis, the authors obtain the optimal ...


Maximising Energy Efficiency In Antenna Selection Mimo Wireless Systems Subject To Qos Constraints, Ngoc Phuc Le, Farzad Safaei, Le Chung Tran Jan 2015

Maximising Energy Efficiency In Antenna Selection Mimo Wireless Systems Subject To Qos Constraints, Ngoc Phuc Le, Farzad Safaei, Le Chung Tran

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Energy-efficiency (EE) in antenna selection multi-input–multi-output (MIMO) systems over Nakagami-m fading channels is investigated. An EE metric is defined as the number of successfully received bits per unit of energy consumption, which takes into account several important system parameters such as channel coding and modulation. An optimisation problem that maximises the EE metric subject to an error-performance constraint is formulated. On the basis of an analysis of this problem, the optimal value of the average energy per transmitted data symbol is obtained, such that the EE in the system is maximised. Simulation results are provided to validate the analysis.


Energy Spectra Considerations For Synchrotron Radiotherapy Trials On The Id17 Bio-Medical Beamline At The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Jeffrey C. Crosbie, Pauline Fournier, Stefan Bartzsch, Mattia Donzelli, Iwan Cornelius, Andrew W. Stevenson, Herwig Requardt, Elke Brauer-Krisch Jan 2015

Energy Spectra Considerations For Synchrotron Radiotherapy Trials On The Id17 Bio-Medical Beamline At The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Jeffrey C. Crosbie, Pauline Fournier, Stefan Bartzsch, Mattia Donzelli, Iwan Cornelius, Andrew W. Stevenson, Herwig Requardt, Elke Brauer-Krisch

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The aim of this study was to validate the kilovoltage X-ray energy spectrum on the ID17 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The purpose of such validation was to provide an accurate energy spectrum as the input to a computerized treatment planning system, which will be used in synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy trials at the ESRF. Calculated and measured energy spectra on ID17 have been reported previously but recent additions and safety modifications to the beamline for veterinary trials warranted a fresh investigation. The authors used an established methodology to compare X-ray attenuation measurements in copper sheets (referred to ...


Indirect Radio-Chemo-Beta Therapy: A Targeted Approach To Increase Biological Efficiency Of X-Rays Based On Energy, Sianne Oktaria, Stephanie Corde, Michael L. F Lerch, Konstantin K. Konstantinov, Anatoly B. Rosenfeld, Moeava Tehei Jan 2015

Indirect Radio-Chemo-Beta Therapy: A Targeted Approach To Increase Biological Efficiency Of X-Rays Based On Energy, Sianne Oktaria, Stephanie Corde, Michael L. F Lerch, Konstantin K. Konstantinov, Anatoly B. Rosenfeld, Moeava Tehei

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Despite the use of multimodal treatments incorporating surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, local control of gliomas remains a major challenge. The potential of a new treatment approach called indirect radio-chemo-beta therapy using the synergy created by combining methotrexate (MTX) with bromodeoxyuridine (BrUdR) under optimum energy x-ray irradiation is assessed. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells pre-treated with 0.01 μM MTX and/or 10 μM BrUdR were irradiated in vitro with 50 kVp, 125 kVp, 250 kVp, 6 MV and 10 MV x-rays. The cytotoxicity was assessed using clonogenic survival as the radiobiological endpoint. The photon energy with maximum effect was determined using ...


Modeling Secondary Particle Tracks Generated By High-Energy Protons In Water, Francisco Blanco, Antonio Munoz, Diego T. Almeida, F. Ferreira Da Silva, Paulo Limao-Vieira, Alexey Verkhovtsev, L Ellis-Gibbings, K Krupa, A Traore, G Garcia Jan 2015

Modeling Secondary Particle Tracks Generated By High-Energy Protons In Water, Francisco Blanco, Antonio Munoz, Diego T. Almeida, F. Ferreira Da Silva, Paulo Limao-Vieira, Alexey Verkhovtsev, L Ellis-Gibbings, K Krupa, A Traore, G Garcia

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

We present interaction probability data of low-energy secondary electrons and positrons produced due to the proton impact. The probability distribution functions serve as input data for the Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) approach which allows one to include the effect of low-energy species in medical applications of radiation and in ion-beam cancer therapy, in particular.


Experimental Investigation Of An Innovative Hvac System With Integrated Pvt And Pcm Thermal Storage For A Net-Zero Energy Retrofitted House, Massimo Fiorentini, Paul Cooper, Zhenjun Ma, Josh Wall Jan 2015

Experimental Investigation Of An Innovative Hvac System With Integrated Pvt And Pcm Thermal Storage For A Net-Zero Energy Retrofitted House, Massimo Fiorentini, Paul Cooper, Zhenjun Ma, Josh Wall

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper presents the experimental investigation of a novel solar assisted HVAC system developed for the Team UOW Solar Decathlon house, the overall winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013 competition. This novel HVAC system consists of an air based photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) system and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage unit integrated with a ducted system with a reverse-cycle heat pump. The system has been designed for operation during both winter and summer, using daytime solar radiation and night sky radiative cooling to increase the energy efficiency of the air-conditioning system. The PVT system can exchange heat with the ...


A New Approach To Reduce The Expected Energy Not Supplied In A Power Plant Located In A Non-Expandable Transmission System, Hadi Lomei, Danny Sutanto, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Mohsen Assili Jan 2015

A New Approach To Reduce The Expected Energy Not Supplied In A Power Plant Located In A Non-Expandable Transmission System, Hadi Lomei, Danny Sutanto, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Mohsen Assili

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The main objective of most of power plants is to inject power as much as possible into the grid from the power plants. However, the transmission system may restrain the output capability of the power plant, especially, if the power plant is located in an area of non-expandable transmission system. In this situation, any disturbance in the nearby transmission system may force the plant to generate lower than its rated value, which disables it from selling the remaining available generated power to the costumers and also increases the cost of energy not supplied. In this paper, an efficient method is ...


Enhanced Frequency Response Strategy For Pmsg Based Wind Energy Conversion System Using Ultracapacitor In Remote Area Power Supply Systems, Yingjie Tan, Kashem M. Muttaqi Jan 2015

Enhanced Frequency Response Strategy For Pmsg Based Wind Energy Conversion System Using Ultracapacitor In Remote Area Power Supply Systems, Yingjie Tan, Kashem M. Muttaqi

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The high penetration level of wind energy, and non-responsive nature of power electronic interfaced wind energy conversion system (WECS) during frequency variations may create significant stress on conventional generators in a wind-diesel hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) system. Hence, it is a necessity for WECS to provide frequency support. However, conventional frequency control strategies being used for WECS may impose a severe stress to wind turbines. In this paper, an enhanced frequency response strategy is proposed for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based WECS to regulate RAPS system frequency jointly with its integrated ultracapacitors. The proposed frequency response ...


Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Conversion Device Response Spectra, Brad Stappenbelt Jan 2015

Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Conversion Device Response Spectra, Brad Stappenbelt

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The objective of the present work is to serve as a practical addendum to the discrete parameter Oscillating Water Column (OWC) Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) device model proposed by Folley and Whittaker [1] at the 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. In particular, a method for the interpretation of their discrete parameter model is presented, consisting of a translation from the tuning and air compressibility parameter map reported to a response spectrum representation. In this more commonly encountered form the model is more readily physically interpreted for design and analysis application.