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Science and Technology Studies Commons

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2015

Selected Works

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Articles 1 - 30 of 158

Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Investigation On Welding Arc Interruptions In The Presence Of Magnetic Fields: Arc Length, Torch Angle And Current Pulsing Frequency Influence, Ruham Reis, Americo Scotti, John Norrish, Dominic Cuiuri Dec 2015

Investigation On Welding Arc Interruptions In The Presence Of Magnetic Fields: Arc Length, Torch Angle And Current Pulsing Frequency Influence, Ruham Reis, Americo Scotti, John Norrish, Dominic Cuiuri

Dominic Cuiuri

Arc interruptions have been observed in tandem pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW). This fact, which is likely related to magnetic interaction between the arcs, motivated previous study concerning the influence of the welding current on this phenomenon. In order to promote further understanding, this paper investigates the effects of arc length, torch angle, and high-frequency current pulsing on the arc resistance to extinction. To mimic the situation found in tandem GMAW (magnetic field induced by one arc acting on the other arc), external magnetic fields were applied to gas tungsten arc welding arcs. It was verified that short arc ...


Characteristics Of Power Quality Disturbance Levels In Australia, Sean Elphick, Vic Smith, Vic Gosbell, Robert Barr Dec 2015

Characteristics Of Power Quality Disturbance Levels In Australia, Sean Elphick, Vic Smith, Vic Gosbell, Robert Barr

Robert Barr

The Australian Long Term Power Quality Survey (LTNPQS) now covers 2,000 sites with a range of different characteristics including strength (related to fault level), line construction and dominant load type. This paper details the latest outcomes of the LTNPQS project in terms of both disturbance levels and reporting methods. A comparison of the differences between voltage, unbalance and harmonic THD levels at strong (close to transformer) and weak (towards the end of LV feeders) sites has been performed and significant differences have been found. A multivariable linear regression study has been undertaken in order to investigate the correlation between ...


Aeronautics Education, Research, And Industry Alliance (Aerial) Progress Report And Proposal, Brent D. Bowen Dec 2015

Aeronautics Education, Research, And Industry Alliance (Aerial) Progress Report And Proposal, Brent D. Bowen

Brent Bowen

UNOAI Report 04-2

The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL), which began as a comprehensive, mufti-faceted NASA EPSCoR 2000 initiative, has contributed substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA, while intensifying Nebraska's rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL has enabled Nebraska researchers to: (a) continue strengthening their collaborative relationships with NASA Field Centers, Codes, and Enterprises; Co) increase the capacity of higher education throughout Nebraska to invigorate and expand aeronautics research; and (c) expedite the development of aeronautics-related research infrastructure and industry in the state. Nebraska has placed emphasis on successfully securing additional ...


Aeronautics Education, Research, And Industry Alliance (Aerial) Progress Report And Proposal, Brent D. Bowen Dec 2015

Aeronautics Education, Research, And Industry Alliance (Aerial) Progress Report And Proposal, Brent D. Bowen

Brent Bowen

UNOAI Report 04-2 The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL), which began as a comprehensive, mufti-faceted NASA EPSCoR 2000 initiative, has contributed substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA, while intensifying Nebraska's rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL has enabled Nebraska researchers to: (a) continue strengthening their collaborative relationships with NASA Field Centers, Codes, and Enterprises; Co) increase the capacity of higher education throughout Nebraska to invigorate and expand aeronautics research; and (c) expedite the development of aeronautics-related research infrastructure and industry in the state. Nebraska has placed emphasis on successfully securing additional ...


A Random Rotation Perturbation Approach To Privacy Preserving Data Classification, Keke Chen, Ling Liu Dec 2015

A Random Rotation Perturbation Approach To Privacy Preserving Data Classification, Keke Chen, Ling Liu

Keke Chen

This paper presents a random rotation perturbation approach for privacy preserving data classification. Concretely, we identify the importance of classification-specific information with respect to the loss of information factor, and present a random rotation perturbation framework for privacy preserving data classification. Our approach has two unique characteristics. First, we identify that many classification models utilize the geometric properties of datasets, which can be preserved by geometric rotation. We prove that the three types of classifiers will deliver the same performance over the rotation perturbed dataset as over the original dataset. Second, we propose a multi-column privacy model to address the ...


Institutional Repository Task Force Report, Connie Foster, Rose Davis, Jack Montgomery, Nelda Sims Dec 2015

Institutional Repository Task Force Report, Connie Foster, Rose Davis, Jack Montgomery, Nelda Sims

Jack G. Montgomery Jr.

A report of the University Libraries Institutional Repository Task Force, Western Kentucky University, with considerations and recommendations to the dean of University Libraries for launching a digital research repository that captures the scholarly and creative output of the University's faculty, staff, and students, who have faculty sponsors.


Loyalty Cards And The Problem Of Captcha.Pdf, David M. Cook Nov 2015

Loyalty Cards And The Problem Of Captcha.Pdf, David M. Cook

Dr. David M Cook


Information Security often works in antipathy to access and useability in communities of older citizens. Whilst security features are required to prevent the disclosure of information, some security tools have a deleterious effect upon users, resulting in insecure practices. Security becomes unfit for purpose where users prefer to abandon applications and online benefits in favour of non-digital authentication and verification requirements. For some, the ability to read letters and symbols from a distorted image is a decidedly more difficult task than for others, and the resulting level of security from CAPTCHA tests is not consistent from person to person. This ...


Exploring Bridge-Engine Control Room Collaborative Team Communication, Aditi Kataria, Eric Holder, Gesa Praetorius, Michael Baldauf, Jens-Uwe Schröder-Hinrichs Oct 2015

Exploring Bridge-Engine Control Room Collaborative Team Communication, Aditi Kataria, Eric Holder, Gesa Praetorius, Michael Baldauf, Jens-Uwe Schröder-Hinrichs

Michael Baldauf

The EC funded CyClaDes research project is designed to promote the increased impact of the human element in shipping across the design and operational lifecycle of ships. It addresses the design and operation of ships and ship systems. One of the CyClaDes’ tasks is to create a crew‐centered design case‐study examination of the information that is shared between the Bridge and Engine Control Room (ECR) that helps the crew coordinate to ensure understanding and complete interconnected tasks. This information can be provided in various ways, including communication devices or obtained from a common database, display, or even the ...


Exploring Bridge-Engine Control Room Collaborative Team Communication, Aditi Kataria, Eric Holder, Gesa Praetorius, Michael Baldauf, Jens-Uwe Schröder-Hinrichs Oct 2015

Exploring Bridge-Engine Control Room Collaborative Team Communication, Aditi Kataria, Eric Holder, Gesa Praetorius, Michael Baldauf, Jens-Uwe Schröder-Hinrichs

Gesa Praetorius

The EC funded CyClaDes research project is designed to promote the increased impact of the human element in shipping across the design and operational lifecycle of ships. It addresses the design and operation of ships and ship systems. One of the CyClaDes’ tasks is to create a crew‐centered design case‐study examination of the information that is shared between the Bridge and Engine Control Room (ECR) that helps the crew coordinate to ensure understanding and complete interconnected tasks. This information can be provided in various ways, including communication devices or obtained from a common database, display, or even the ...


A Lifetime Individual Sampling Model (Ism) For Heroin Use And Treatment Evaluation In Australia, Nagesh Shukla, Van Hoang, Marian Shahanan, Alison Ritter, Vu Lam Cao, Pascal Perez Sep 2015

A Lifetime Individual Sampling Model (Ism) For Heroin Use And Treatment Evaluation In Australia, Nagesh Shukla, Van Hoang, Marian Shahanan, Alison Ritter, Vu Lam Cao, Pascal Perez

Nagesh Shukla

Illicit drug use has created an enormous burden at societal, family and personal levels. Every year a significant amount of resources is allocated for treatment and the consequences of illicit drug use in Australia and around the world. Heroin is one of the major forms of illicit drugs that are used illegally. Several independent heroin treatment strategies or interventions exist and state-of-the-art research demonstrates their efficacy and relative cost-effectiveness. However, assessing total potential gains and burden from providing all treatment interventions or varying the mix of heroin treatments has never been attempted. Furthermore, the need to include multiple treatments, multiple ...


Stochastic Modeling And Optimization Of Multi-Plant Capacity Planning Problem, Anoop Verma, Nagesh Shukla, S.K Tyagi, Nishikant Mishra Sep 2015

Stochastic Modeling And Optimization Of Multi-Plant Capacity Planning Problem, Anoop Verma, Nagesh Shukla, S.K Tyagi, Nishikant Mishra

Nagesh Shukla

n this paper the problem of capacity planning under risk from demand and price/cost uncertainty of the finished products is addressed. The deterministic model is extended into a two-stage stochastic model with fixed recourse by means of various expected levels of demand as random. A recourse penalty is also included in the objective for both shortage and surplus in the finished products. The model is analyzed to quantify the risk using Markowitz mean-variance model.


Tour-Based Travel Mode Choice Estimation Based On Data Mining And Fuzzy Techniques, Nagesh Shukla, Jun Ma, Rohan Wickramasuriya, Nam N. Huynh, Pascal Perez Sep 2015

Tour-Based Travel Mode Choice Estimation Based On Data Mining And Fuzzy Techniques, Nagesh Shukla, Jun Ma, Rohan Wickramasuriya, Nam N. Huynh, Pascal Perez

Nagesh Shukla

No abstract provided.


Our Technological Past And Future: From Predigital To Postdigital Apocalypses, Michael J. Paulus Jr. Sep 2015

Our Technological Past And Future: From Predigital To Postdigital Apocalypses, Michael J. Paulus Jr.

Michael J. Paulus, Jr.

An exploration of technological hopes and fears in apocalyptic literature.


Summability For Nonunital Spectral Triples, Adam C. Rennie Sep 2015

Summability For Nonunital Spectral Triples, Adam C. Rennie

Associate Professor Adam Rennie

This paper examines the issue of summability for spectral triples for the class of nonunital algebras. For the case of (p, -) summability, we prove that the Dixmier trace can be used to define a (semifinite) trace on the algebra of the spectral triple. We show this trace is well-behaved, and provide a criteria for measurability of an operator in terms of zeta functions. We also show that all our hypotheses are satisfied by spectral triples arising from eodesically complete Riemannian manifolds. In addition, we indicate how the Local Index Theorem of Connes-Moscovici extends to our nonunital setting.


Smoothness And Locality For Nonunital Spectral Triples, Adam C. Rennie Sep 2015

Smoothness And Locality For Nonunital Spectral Triples, Adam C. Rennie

Associate Professor Adam Rennie

To deal with technical issues in noncommuntative geometry for nonunital algebras, we introduce a useful class of algebras and their modules. Thes algebras and modules allo us to extend all of the smoothness results for spectral triples to the nonunital case. In addition, we show that smooth spectral tiples are closed under the C- functional calculus of self-adjoint elements. In the final section we show that our algebras allow the formulation of Poincare Duality and that the algebras of smooth spectral triples are H-unital.


Index Theory For Locally Compact Noncommutative Geometries, Alan Carey, V Gayral, Adam Rennie, F Sukochev Sep 2015

Index Theory For Locally Compact Noncommutative Geometries, Alan Carey, V Gayral, Adam Rennie, F Sukochev

Associate Professor Adam Rennie

Spectral triples for nonunital algebras model locally compact spaces in noncommutative geometry. In the present text, we prove the local index formula for spectral triples over nonunital algebras, without the assumption of local units in our algebra.


A Residue Formula For The Fundamental Hochschild 3-Cocycle For Suq(2), Ulrich Krahmer, Adam Rennie, Roger Senior Sep 2015

A Residue Formula For The Fundamental Hochschild 3-Cocycle For Suq(2), Ulrich Krahmer, Adam Rennie, Roger Senior

Associate Professor Adam Rennie

An analogue of a spectral triple over SUq(2) is constructed for which the usual assumption of bounded commutators with the Dirac operator fails. An analytic expression analogous to that for the Hochschild class of the Chern character for spectral triples yields a non-trivial twisted Hochschild 3-cocycle. The problems arising from the unbounded commutators are overcome by defining a residue functional using projections to cut down the Hilbert space.


The Resolvent Cocycle In Twisted Cyclic Cohomology And A Local Index Formula For The Podle's Sphere, Adam Rennie, Roger Senior Sep 2015

The Resolvent Cocycle In Twisted Cyclic Cohomology And A Local Index Formula For The Podle's Sphere, Adam Rennie, Roger Senior

Associate Professor Adam Rennie

We continue the investigation of twisted homology theories in the context of dimension drop phenomena. This work unifies previous equivariant index calculations in twisted cyclic cohomology. We do this by proving the existence of the resolvent cocycle, a finitely summable analogue of the JLO cocycle, under weaker smoothness hypotheses and in the more general setting of 'modular' spectral triples. As an application we show that using our twisted resolvent cocycle, we can obtain a local index formula for the Podles sphere. The resulting twisted cyclic cocycle has non-vanishing Hochschild class which is in dimension 2.


The K-Theory Of Heegaard Quantum Lens Spaces, Piotr M. Hajac, Adam Rennie, Bartosz Zielinski Sep 2015

The K-Theory Of Heegaard Quantum Lens Spaces, Piotr M. Hajac, Adam Rennie, Bartosz Zielinski

Associate Professor Adam Rennie

Representing Z/NZ as roots of unity, we restrict a natural U(1)-action on the Heegaard quantum sphere to Z/NZ, and call the quotient spaces Heegaard quantum lens spaces. Then we use this representation of Z/NZ to construct an associated complex loine bundle. This paper proves the stable non-triviality of these line bundles over any of the quantum lens spaces we consider. We use the pullback structure of the C*-algebra of the lens space to compute its K-theory via the Mayer-Vietoris sequence, and an explicit form of the Bass connecting homomorphism to prove the stable non-triviality ...


Dense Domains, Symmetric Operators And Spectral Triples, Iain Forsyth, B Mesland, Adam Rennie Sep 2015

Dense Domains, Symmetric Operators And Spectral Triples, Iain Forsyth, B Mesland, Adam Rennie

Associate Professor Adam Rennie

This article is about erroneous attempts to weaken the standard definition of unbounded Kasparov module (or spectral triple). This issue has been addressed previously, but here we present concrete counterexamples to claims in the literature that Fredholm modules can be obtained from these weaker variations of spectral triple. Our counterexamples are constructed using self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators.


Competitive Adsorption Of Metals On Cabbage Waste From Multi-Metal Solutions, M Hossain, H Ngo, W Guo, L Nghiem, F Hai, S Vigneswaran, Thanh Vinh Nguyen Sep 2015

Competitive Adsorption Of Metals On Cabbage Waste From Multi-Metal Solutions, M Hossain, H Ngo, W Guo, L Nghiem, F Hai, S Vigneswaran, Thanh Vinh Nguyen

Faisal I Hai

This study assessed the adsorption capacity of the agro-waste ‘cabbage’ as a biosorbent in single, binary, ternary and quaternary sorption systems with Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions. Dried and ground powder of cabbage waste (CW) was used for the sorption of metals ions. Carboxylic, hydroxyl, and amine groups in cabbage waste were found to be the key functional groups for metal sorption. The adsorption isotherms obtained could be well fitted to both the mono- and multi-metal models. In the competitive adsorption systems, cabbage waste adsorbed larger amount of Pb(II) than the other three metals ...


The Fate Of Pharmaceuticals, Steroid Hormones, Phytoestrogens, Uv-Filters And Pesticides During Mbr Treatment, Kaushalya C. Wijekoon, Faisal I. Hai, Jinguo Kang, William E. Price, Wenshan Guo, Hao H. Ngo, Long D. Nghiem Sep 2015

The Fate Of Pharmaceuticals, Steroid Hormones, Phytoestrogens, Uv-Filters And Pesticides During Mbr Treatment, Kaushalya C. Wijekoon, Faisal I. Hai, Jinguo Kang, William E. Price, Wenshan Guo, Hao H. Ngo, Long D. Nghiem

Faisal I Hai

This study examined the relationship between molecular properties and the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in the aqueous and solid phases during wastewater treatment by MBR. A set of 29 TrOCs was selected to represent pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides that occur ubiquitously in municipal wastewater. Both adsorption and biodegradation/transformation were found responsible for the removal of TrOCs by MBR treatment. A connection between biodegradation and molecular structure could be observed while adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism for the hydrophobic (logD > 3.2) compounds. Highly hydrophobic (logD > 3.2) but readily biodegradable compounds did not ...


Removal Of Trace Organic Contaminants By An Mbr Comprising A Mixed Culture Of Bacteria And White-Rot Fungi, Luong Nguyen, Faisal Hai, Shufan Yang, Jinguo Kang, Frederic Leusch, Felicity Roddick, William Price, Long Nghiem Sep 2015

Removal Of Trace Organic Contaminants By An Mbr Comprising A Mixed Culture Of Bacteria And White-Rot Fungi, Luong Nguyen, Faisal Hai, Shufan Yang, Jinguo Kang, Frederic Leusch, Felicity Roddick, William Price, Long Nghiem

Faisal I Hai

The degradation of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOC) by a white-rot fungus-augmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The results show that white-rot fungal enzyme (laccase), coupled with a redox mediator (1-hydroxy benzotriazole, HBT), could degrade TrOC that are resistant to bacterial degradation (e.g. diclofenac, triclosan, naproxen and atrazine) but achieved low removal of compounds (e.g. ibuprofen, gemfibrozil and amitriptyline) that are well removed by conventional activated sludge treatment. Overall, the fungus-augmented MBR showed better TrOC removal compared to a system containing conventional activated sludge. The major role of biodegradation in removal by the MBR was noted. Continuous mediator ...


Effects Of Salinity Build-Up On Biomass Characteristics And Trace Organic Chemical Removal: Implications On The Development Of High Retention Membrane Bioreactors, Wenhai Luo, Faisal I. Hai, Jinguo Kang, William E. Price, Wenshan Guo, Hao H. Ngo, Kazuo Yamamoto, Long D. Nghiem Sep 2015

Effects Of Salinity Build-Up On Biomass Characteristics And Trace Organic Chemical Removal: Implications On The Development Of High Retention Membrane Bioreactors, Wenhai Luo, Faisal I. Hai, Jinguo Kang, William E. Price, Wenshan Guo, Hao H. Ngo, Kazuo Yamamoto, Long D. Nghiem

Faisal I Hai

This study investigated the impact of salinity build-up on the performance of membrane bioreactor (MBR), specifically in terms of the removal and fate of trace organic chemicals (TrOCs), nutrient removal, and biomass characteristics. Stepwise increase of the influent salinity, simulating salinity build-up in high retention MBRs, adversely affected the metabolic activity in the bioreactor, thereby reducing organic and nutrient removal. The removal of hydrophilic TrOCs by MBR decreased due to salinity build-up. By contrast, with the exception of 17α-ethynylestradiol, the removal of all hydrophobic TrOCs was not affected at high salinity. Moreover, salinity build-up had negligible impact on the residual ...


Continuous Biotransformation Of Bisphenol A And Diclofenac By Laccase In An Enzymatic Membrane Reactor, Ngoc Luong Nguyen, Faisal I. Hai, William Price, Frederic Leusch, Felicity Roddick, Ewan J. Mcadam, Saleh Faraj Magram, Long D. Nghiem Sep 2015

Continuous Biotransformation Of Bisphenol A And Diclofenac By Laccase In An Enzymatic Membrane Reactor, Ngoc Luong Nguyen, Faisal I. Hai, William Price, Frederic Leusch, Felicity Roddick, Ewan J. Mcadam, Saleh Faraj Magram, Long D. Nghiem

Faisal I Hai

A novel enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was explored for continuous removal of two trace organic contaminatnts (TrOCs) ubiquitously detected in wastewater - namely bisphenol A (BPA and diclofnac (DCF) - by a commercially available laccase from aspergillus oryzae.


Development Of A Predictive Framework To Assess The Removal Of Trace Organic Chemicals By Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor, Kaushalya C. Wijekoon, James Mcdonald, Stuart J. Khan, Faisal I. Hai, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem Sep 2015

Development Of A Predictive Framework To Assess The Removal Of Trace Organic Chemicals By Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor, Kaushalya C. Wijekoon, James Mcdonald, Stuart J. Khan, Faisal I. Hai, William E. Price, Long D. Nghiem

Faisal I Hai

This study aims to develop a predictive framework to assess the removal and fate of trace organic chemicals (TrOCs) during wastewater treatment by anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The fate of 27 TrOCs in both the liquid and sludge phases during AnMBR treatment was systematically investigated. The results demonstrate a relationship between hydrophobicity and specific molecular features of TrOCs and their removal efficiency. These molecular features include the presence of electron withdrawing groups (EWGs) or donating groups (EDGs), especially those containing nitrogen and sulphur. All seven hydrophobic contaminants were well removed (>70%) by AnMBR treatment. Most hydrophilic TrOCs containing EDGs were ...


Enhancement Of Removal Of Trace Organic Contaminants By Powdered Activated Carbon Dosing Into Membrane Bioreactors, Ngoc Luong Nguyen, Faisal Ibney Hai, Long Nghiem, Jinguo Kang, William Price, Chul Park, Kazuo Yamamoto Sep 2015

Enhancement Of Removal Of Trace Organic Contaminants By Powdered Activated Carbon Dosing Into Membrane Bioreactors, Ngoc Luong Nguyen, Faisal Ibney Hai, Long Nghiem, Jinguo Kang, William Price, Chul Park, Kazuo Yamamoto

Faisal I Hai

This study compared the removal efficiency of 22 widespread trace organic contaminants by a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with and without direct addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the activated sludge reactor over a period of 312 days. The removal of hydrophilic and biologically persistent trace organic contaminants was immediately improved to above 95% after the addition of PAC into MBR. However, a compound-specific gradual decrease in removal underscored the requirement for the addition of fresh PAC. Adsorption onto PAC-added sludge appeared to play a significant role in the relatively more effective aqueous phase removal of a few resistant ...


The Effect Of Activated Carbon Addition On Membrane Bioreactor Processes For Wastewater Treatment And Reclamation - A Critical Review, George Skouteris, Devendra Saroj, Paraschos Melidis, Faisal Hai, Sabeha Ouki Sep 2015

The Effect Of Activated Carbon Addition On Membrane Bioreactor Processes For Wastewater Treatment And Reclamation - A Critical Review, George Skouteris, Devendra Saroj, Paraschos Melidis, Faisal Hai, Sabeha Ouki

Faisal I Hai

This review concentrates on the effect of activated carbon (AC) addition to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating wastewaters. Use of AC-assisted MBRs combines adsorption, biodegradation and membrane filtration. This can lead to advanced removal of recalcitrant pollutants and mitigation of membrane fouling. The relative contribution of adsorption and biodegradation to overall removal achieved by an AC-assisted MBR process can vary, and "biological AC" may not fully develop due to competition of target pollutants with bulk organics in wastewater. Thus periodic replenishment of spent AC is necessary. Sludge retention time (SRT) governs the frequency of spent AC withdrawal and addition of fresh ...


Introduction To Membrane Biological Reactors, Faisal Hai, Kazuo Yamamoto, Chung-Hak Lee Sep 2015

Introduction To Membrane Biological Reactors, Faisal Hai, Kazuo Yamamoto, Chung-Hak Lee

Faisal I Hai

This chapter delineats the rationale of combining the membrane and bioreactor technologies and systematically introduces the membrane biological reactors that are the focus of this book. This is followed by a brief account of the history of the various applications of membranes in conjunction with bioreactors and how the initial formats led to the development of the present day commercialized ones. The relative advantages of membrane biological reactors over the conventional biological processes are presented. The current status of the MBR market is described and the drivers propelling its growth along with the constraints are highlighted. The trends in world-wide ...


Introduction - A Review Of Membrane Reactors, Fausto Gallucci, Angelo Basile, Faisal Ibney Hai Sep 2015

Introduction - A Review Of Membrane Reactors, Fausto Gallucci, Angelo Basile, Faisal Ibney Hai

Faisal I Hai

In the last decades, membrane catalysis has been studied by several research and the significant progress in this field is summarized in several review articles (Armor 1998, Lin 2001, Lu 2007, Mcleary 2006, Sanchez 2002, Saracco 1994, Shu 1991). Considering a IUPAC definition (Koros 1996), a membrane reactor (MR) is a device for simultaneously performing a reaction (steam reforming, dry reforming, autothermal reforming, etc.) and a membrane-based separation in the same physical device. Therefore, the membrane not only plays the role of a separator, but also takes place in the reaction itself. The term Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), on the other ...