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Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Keeping Pace: The U.S. Supreme Court And Evolving Technology, Brian Thomas Jul 2015

Keeping Pace: The U.S. Supreme Court And Evolving Technology, Brian Thomas

Politics Summer Fellows

Contemporary mainstream discussions of the Supreme Court are often qualified with the warning that the nine justices are out of touch with everyday American life, especially when it comes to the newest and most popular technologies. For instance, during oral argument for City of Ontario v. Quon, a 2010 case that dealt with sexting on government-issued devices, Chief Justice John Roberts famously asked what the difference was “between email and a pager,” and Justice Antonin Scalia wondered if the “spicy little conversations” held via text message could be printed and distributed. While these comments have garnered a great deal of ...


Games Are Not Coffee Mugs: Games And The Right Of Publicity, 29 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 1 (2012), William K. Ford, Raizel Liebler Jul 2015

Games Are Not Coffee Mugs: Games And The Right Of Publicity, 29 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 1 (2012), William K. Ford, Raizel Liebler

William K. Ford

Are games more like coffee mugs, posters, and T-shirts, or are they more like books, magazines, and films? For purposes of the right of publicity, the answer matters. The critical question is whether games should be treated as merchandise or as expression. Three classic judicial decisions, decided in 1967, 1970, and 1973, held that the defendants needed permission to use the plaintiffs' names in their board games. These decisions judicially confirmed that games are merchandise, not something equivalent to more traditional media of expression. As merchandise, games are not like books; instead, they are akin to celebrity-embossed coffee mugs. To ...


The Spectrum Of Control: A Social Theory Of The Smart City, Jathan Sadowski, Frank A. Pasquale Jul 2015

The Spectrum Of Control: A Social Theory Of The Smart City, Jathan Sadowski, Frank A. Pasquale

Faculty Scholarship

There is a certain allure to the idea that cities allow a person to both feel at home and like a stranger in the same place. That one can know the streets and shops, avenues and alleys, while also going days without being recognized. But as elites fill cities with “smart” technologies—turning them into platforms for the “Internet of Things” (IoT): sensors and computation embedded within physical objects that then connect, communicate, and/or transmit information with or between each other through the Internet—there is little escape from a seamless web of surveillance and power. This paper will ...


Introduction: Cyber And The Changing Face Of War, Claire Oakes Finkelstein, Kevin H. Govern Apr 2015

Introduction: Cyber And The Changing Face Of War, Claire Oakes Finkelstein, Kevin H. Govern

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Cyberweapons and cyberwarfare are one of the most dangerous innovations of recent years, and a significant threat to national security. Cyberweapons can imperil economic, political, and military systems by a single act, or by multifaceted orders of effect, with wide-ranging potential consequences. Cyberwarfare occupies an ambiguous status in the conventions of the laws of war. This book addresses Ethical and legal issues surrounding cyberwarfare by considering whether the Laws of Armed Conflict apply to cyberspace and the ethical position of cyberwarfare against the background of our generally recognized moral traditions in armed conflict. The book explores these moral and legal ...


Waste And Duplication In Nasa Programs: The Need To Enhance U.S. Space Program Efficiency, Bert Chapman Feb 2015

Waste And Duplication In Nasa Programs: The Need To Enhance U.S. Space Program Efficiency, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

The U.S. Government faces acute budgetary deficits and national debt problems in the Obama Administration. These problems have been brought about by decades of unsustainable government spending affecting all agencies including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (NASA). An outgrowth of this fiscal profligacy is the presence of wasteful and duplicative programs within NASA that prevent this agency from achieving its space science and human spaceflight objectives. These problems occur due to mismanagement of these programs from NASA and the creation of these programs by the U.S. Congress and congressional committees. This occurs because congressional appropriators tend to ...


Reageren Op Problematisch Wetenschappelijk Gedrag Voorbij De Moralisering : Een Ander Wetenschapsbeleid Is Mogelijk !, Serge Gutwirth, Jenneke Christiaens Jan 2015

Reageren Op Problematisch Wetenschappelijk Gedrag Voorbij De Moralisering : Een Ander Wetenschapsbeleid Is Mogelijk !, Serge Gutwirth, Jenneke Christiaens

Serge Gutwirth

In deze bijdrage gaan we in op een aantal vragen die rijzen bij het reageren op wetenschapsfraude. In een eerdere bijdrage -"It's the science policy, stupid ! Over wetenschapsfraude als bliksemafleider"- (http://works.bepress.com/serge_gutwirth/109/) hebben we reeds aandacht besteed aan wetenschapsfraude, en meer bepaald aan de wijze waarop die ten aanzien van de praktijk van de wetenschap en in wisselwerking met haar milieu kan worden begrepen. Omdat nadenken over de reactie(s) op wetenschapsfraude afhankelijk is van hoe wetenschappen worden geconcipieerd vormen onze bevindingen van dit eerdere stuk het vertrekpunt van de huidige bijdrage: in het eerste ...


Les Sciences Et Leurs Problèmes : La Fraude Scientifique, Un Moyen De Diversion ?, Serge Gutwirth, Jenneke Christiaens Jan 2015

Les Sciences Et Leurs Problèmes : La Fraude Scientifique, Un Moyen De Diversion ?, Serge Gutwirth, Jenneke Christiaens

Serge Gutwirth

Pour mieux comprendre la fraude scientifique et l’attention qu’on lui porte, les auteurs l’analysent au départ d’une description de ce qui fait la singularité générique du travail scientifique et de ce qui le caractérise uniquement. Cette approche fait rapidement émerger deux problèmes. D’une part, s’impose le constat de la diversité des sciences, des pratiques scientifiques, de leurs objets d’études et des conséquences de cette pluralité, dès lors que toutes les sciences ne fonctionnent pas de la même façon. De l’autre, il faut rendre compte du fait que la science et la recherche ...


Researching The Early History Of The Patent Policy: Getting Started, Robert Berry Jan 2015

Researching The Early History Of The Patent Policy: Getting Started, Robert Berry

Library Publications

There are a lot of reasons to research the early history of American patent policy. It is an inherently interesting history that provides a framework making contemporary patent policy more comprehensible and a foundation for interpreting historic patent records. For students it provides an opportunity to become familiar with some of basic primary sources that are a staple of research into American history. Also, of course, questions may arise from time to time that can only be authoritatively answered by researching this history.

The approach described below seeks to balance comprehensiveness with feasibility, and emphasizes the importance of creating a ...


Framing The Question, "Who Governs The Internet?", Robert J. Domanski Jan 2015

Framing The Question, "Who Governs The Internet?", Robert J. Domanski

Publications and Research

There remains a widespread perception among both the public and elements of academia that the Internet is “ungovernable”. However, this idea, as well as the notion that the Internet has become some type of cyber-libertarian utopia, is wholly inaccurate. Governments may certainly encounter tremendous difficulty in attempting to regulate the Internet, but numerous types of authority have nevertheless become pervasive. So who, then, governs the Internet? This book will contend that the Internet is, in fact, being governed, that it is being governed by specific and identifiable networks of policy actors, and that an argument can be made as to ...


Cyber Espionage Or Cyberwar?: International Law, Domestic Law, And Self-Protective Measures, Christopher S. Yoo Jan 2015

Cyber Espionage Or Cyberwar?: International Law, Domestic Law, And Self-Protective Measures, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Scholars have spent considerable effort determining how the law of war (particularly jus ad bellum and jus in bello) applies to cyber conflicts, epitomized by the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. Many prominent cyber operations fall outside the law of war, including the surveillance programs that Edward Snowden has alleged were conducted by the National Security Agency, the distributed denial of service attacks launched against Estonia and Georgia in 2007 and 2008, the 2008 Stuxnet virus designed to hinder the Iranian nuclear program, and the unrestricted cyber warfare described in the 1999 book by two ...


Information Technology, Social Networking, And Controlling Behaviors Among Adolescent Girls Involved In Dating Violence, Meredith C. Joppa, Christie J. Rizzo, Jessica Johnson Jan 2015

Information Technology, Social Networking, And Controlling Behaviors Among Adolescent Girls Involved In Dating Violence, Meredith C. Joppa, Christie J. Rizzo, Jessica Johnson

Title IX Research and Resources

Hypothesis: Girls with dating violence (DV) histories will report high levels of involvement in social networking and information technology (SNIT) as well as frequent engagement in controlling behaviors via SNIT.


Copyright And Ownership Of Fan Created Works: Fanfiction And Beyond, Raizel Liebler Dec 2014

Copyright And Ownership Of Fan Created Works: Fanfiction And Beyond, Raizel Liebler

Raizel Liebler

This chapter draws parallels across fictional genres, historical periods, and national legal and cultural traditions, to explore the relationship between popular forms of copyright protected fiction and the diverse forms of fan fiction that develop in relation to such works. Whilst fans of various fictional works revere the authors whose works they like, this reverence often takes the form of a kind of guardianship or that does not directly conform with authorial/ corporate conceptions of copyright control. Fans are not passive recipients of content, but active in their engagement with it. Often this involves creative copies, extensions and revisions.

While ...