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Full-Text Articles in Science and Technology Studies

Pulling It All Together: Managing The Syriac Galen Palimpsest Project, Michael Toth May 2019

Pulling It All Together: Managing The Syriac Galen Palimpsest Project, Michael Toth

Manuscript Studies

During a two-year period, from 2009 to 2010, a multidisciplinary team conducted multispectral imaging, digital processing and data management of the Syriac Galen Palimpsest. This contractor-led team applied the turnkey multispectral imaging techniques developed in earlier advanced imaging projects to this palimpsest. This required new management techniques and work processes to provide useful results efficiently and quickly, while minimizing risk. In the initial risk-mitigation study phase, the team first imaged several leaves of the bound SGP in 2009 to characterize the imaging and processing challenges. Building on the findings from this first phase, they then imaged all the disbound leaves ...


Exploring The Clinical Utility Of Mobile Applications For Promoting Affect Regulation Among Clients With Behavioral Health Problems, Caroline Fenkel Jun 2018

Exploring The Clinical Utility Of Mobile Applications For Promoting Affect Regulation Among Clients With Behavioral Health Problems, Caroline Fenkel

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Nearly 25 percent of adults in the United States are diagnosed with a behavioral health condition, most commonly depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Each of these diagnoses is associated with significant disruptions in affect regulation which encompasses the capacity to up and down regulate emotions. Best practice treatment for these conditions includes psychotropic medications combined with individual or group-based psychotherapeutic modalities which regardless of the therapist’s theoretical orientation attempt to promote affect regulation through skill transfer and strategies for observing one’s ability to regulate emotions. Similarly, attention to regulatory capacity is central to many emerging self-help ...


Awakening The Potential Of Positive Computing: A Transversal, Heliotropic Design Paradigm For Human Flourishing, Ryan Wynia Dec 2017

Awakening The Potential Of Positive Computing: A Transversal, Heliotropic Design Paradigm For Human Flourishing, Ryan Wynia

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Positive Computing literature does not consider the complex implications stemming from the evidence of computing technologies’ harmful effects. Moreover, present approaches to integrating well-being science into the design of interactive systems are built on deficit-oriented models. In response, a transversal, social constructionist paradigm of Positive Computing sensitive to the social complex and views technology as a part ofcivilization as a living, human construction is explored as a means of advancing the Positive Computing domain. The work argues the well-being of civilization needs to be routinely re-secured through the development of a metacognitive, affirmative competency that recognizessocial systems as capable of ...


2017 Alternative Facts Forum, James G. Mcgann Jan 2017

2017 Alternative Facts Forum, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Thematic Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


2016 North American Think Tank Summit: Think Tank, Politics, Public Interest, And Public Scrutiny, James G. Mcgann Jan 2016

2016 North American Think Tank Summit: Think Tank, Politics, Public Interest, And Public Scrutiny, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


Big Data In The New Media Environment: Commentary On Bentley, O'Brien, & Brock (2014), Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Sara H. Konrath Feb 2014

Big Data In The New Media Environment: Commentary On Bentley, O'Brien, & Brock (2014), Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk, Sara H. Konrath

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Bentley, O’Brien, & Brock (Bentley et al.) argue for the social scientific contextualization of “big data” by proposing a four-quadrant model. We suggest extensions of the east (socially motivated)—west (independently motivated) decision-making dimension in light of findings from social psychology and neuroscience. We outline a method that leverages linguistic tools to connect insights across fields that address the individuals underlying big-data media streams.


Cooperative Cashing? An Economic Analysis Of Document Duplication In Cooperative Web Caching, Kartik Hosanagar, Yong Tan Jun 2012

Cooperative Cashing? An Economic Analysis Of Document Duplication In Cooperative Web Caching, Kartik Hosanagar, Yong Tan

Marketing Papers

Cooperative caching is a popular mechanism to allow an array of distributed caches to cooperate and serve each others' Web requests. Controlling duplication of documents across cooperating caches is a challenging problem faced by cache managers. In this paper, we study the economics of document duplication in strategic and nonstrategic settings. We have three primary findings. First, we find that the optimum level of duplication at a cache is nondecreasing in intercache latency, cache size, and extent of request locality. Second, in situations in which cache peering spans organizations, we find that the interaction between caches is a game of ...


2011 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann Dec 2011

2011 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports

The 2011 Global Go To Think Tank Rankings marks the fifth edition of the annual report. As in previous years, the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) at the University of Pennsylvania’s International Relations Program has relied on the indexing criteria and process developed by James G. McGann for ranking think tanks around the world. The Program’s Rankings remain the first and most comprehensive ranking of the world’s top think tanks, and are based on an annual global peer and expert survey of close to 1500 scholars, policymakers, journalists, and regional and subject area experts. Given ...


An Empirical Analysis Of User Content Generation And Usage Behavior On The Mobile Internet, Anindya Ghose, Sang P. Han Sep 2011

An Empirical Analysis Of User Content Generation And Usage Behavior On The Mobile Internet, Anindya Ghose, Sang P. Han

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We quantify how user mobile Internet usage relates to unique characteristics of the mobile Internet. In particular, we focus on examining how the mobile-phone-based content generation behavior of users relates to content usage behavior. The key objective is to analyze whether there is a positive or negative interdependence between the two activities. We use a unique panel data set that consists of individual-level mobile Internet usage data that encompass individual multimedia content generation and usage behavior. We combine this knowledge with data on user calling patterns, such as duration, frequency, and locations from where calls are placed, to construct their ...


The Prophet And The Pendulum: Sensational Science And Audiovisual Phantasmagoria Around 1848, John Tresch May 2011

The Prophet And The Pendulum: Sensational Science And Audiovisual Phantasmagoria Around 1848, John Tresch

Departmental Papers (HSS)

During the French Second Republic—the volatile period between the 1848 Revolution and Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte’s 1851 coup d’état—two striking performances fired the imaginations of Parisian audiences. The first, in 1849, was a return: after more than a decade, the master of the Parisian grand opera, Giacomo Meyerbeer, launched Le prophète, whose complex instrumentation and astounding visuals—including the unprecedented use of electric lighting—surpassed even his own previous innovations in sound and vision. The second, in 1851, was a debut: the installation of Foucault’s pendulum in the Panthéon. The installation marked the first public exposure of ...


Introduction: Audio/Visual, Mara Mills, John Tresch May 2011

Introduction: Audio/Visual, Mara Mills, John Tresch

Departmental Papers (HSS)

“A/V” seems to belong to the always-already obsolete. Even at the height of the craze for “audiovisual aids” in the mid-twentieth century, its association with the humble schoolroom and the “A/V geek” gave the acronym an air of the outmoded. Overtaken, in quick succession, by “multimedia” and “new media” at the end of the century, the audiovisual seems all the more rudimentary, remedial rather than remediated, or simply a minor component of larger media systems.


The Production And Circulation Of Aids Knowledge In Malawi, Crystal Biruk May 2011

The Production And Circulation Of Aids Knowledge In Malawi, Crystal Biruk

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

As the AIDS epidemic continues to spread across Africa, a demand for evidence produced by policy-relevant research means that expatriate-led research projects have become a fixture in highly infected countries. While many have drawn attention to the social and economic consequences of AIDS suffering, few have documented the everyday practices, contradictions and politics of producing AIDS-related knowledge in impoverished contexts. This study examines the ways in which AIDS survey research projects in Malawi produce new socialities and mobilities, generate new exclusions and inclusions and reconfigure expertise and evaluations of knowledge. Rather than focusing on a single knowledge community, the study ...


Estimating The Operational Impact Of Container Inspections At International Ports, Nitin Bakshi, Stephen E. Flynn, Noah F. Gans Jan 2011

Estimating The Operational Impact Of Container Inspections At International Ports, Nitin Bakshi, Stephen E. Flynn, Noah F. Gans

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

A U.S. law mandating nonintrusive imaging and radiation detection for 100% of U.S.-bound containers at international ports has provoked widespread concern that the resulting congestion would hinder trade significantly. Using detailed data on container movements, gathered from two large international terminals, we simulate the impact of the two most important inspection policies that are being considered. We find that the current inspection regime being advanced by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security can only handle a small percentage of the total load. An alternate inspection protocol that emphasizes screening—a rapid primary scan of all containers ...


Making Youtube And Facebook Videos: Gender Differences In Online Video Creation Among First-Year Undergraduate Students Attending A Highly Selective Research University, Anu Vedantham Jan 2011

Making Youtube And Facebook Videos: Gender Differences In Online Video Creation Among First-Year Undergraduate Students Attending A Highly Selective Research University, Anu Vedantham

Scholarship at Penn Libraries

Online video creation for YouTube and Facebook is a newly popular activity for college students. Women have explored social networking technologies at about the same level as men, but have expressed less interest in computer programming and multimedia design. Online video creation includes aspects of both social networking and programming / multimedia design and provides an interesting forum for examining gender-related differences. This mixed methods study uses questionnaire data from 31% of the population of first year students attending a highly selective research university. The study explores how online video creation varies by gender after incorporating theoretical concepts of confidence, self-efficacy ...


Making Youtube And Facebook Videos: Gender Differences In Online Video Creation Among First-Year Undergraduate Students Attending A Highly Selective Research University, Anu Vedantham Jan 2011

Making Youtube And Facebook Videos: Gender Differences In Online Video Creation Among First-Year Undergraduate Students Attending A Highly Selective Research University, Anu Vedantham

Scholarship at Penn Libraries

Online video creation for YouTube and Facebook is a newly popular activity for college students. Women have explored social networking technologies at about the same level as men, but have expressed less interest in computer programming and multimedia design. Online video creation includes aspects of both social networking and programming / multimedia design and provides an interesting forum for examining gender-related differences. This mixed methods study uses questionnaire data from 31% of the population of first year students attending a highly selective research university. The study explores how online video creation varies by gender after incorporating theoretical concepts of confidence, self-efficacy ...


Nuts, Bolts And A Bit Of Mettle: How Parents Prepare Their Boys And Girls For The Stem Pipeline, Rashmi Kumar Jan 2011

Nuts, Bolts And A Bit Of Mettle: How Parents Prepare Their Boys And Girls For The Stem Pipeline, Rashmi Kumar

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The needs for strengthening the STEM pipeline in the United States have moved beyond routine concerns and acquired an unprecedented level of urgency. As a result, many educational and business entities, and government and private organizations have launched myriad initiatives targeted towards achievement of the above goal. The extant body of research, while certainly explicating the essential steps that can be actuated by educational, research, and legislative entities, has largely left out the potential role of parents. Accordingly, the primary question guiding this research was: How do parents prepare their boys and girls for the STEM pipeline? What is the ...


Obtaining Fast Service In A Queueing System Via Performance-Based Allocation Of Demand, Gerard. P. Cachon, Fuqiang Zhang Mar 2007

Obtaining Fast Service In A Queueing System Via Performance-Based Allocation Of Demand, Gerard. P. Cachon, Fuqiang Zhang

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Any buyer that depends on suppliers for the delivery of a service or the production of a make-to-order component should pay close attention to the suppliers’ service or delivery lead times. This paper studies a queueing model in which two strategic servers choose their capacities/processing rates and faster service is costly. The buyer allocates demand to the servers based on their performance; the faster a server works, the more demand the server is allocated. The buyer’s objective is to minimize the average lead time received from the servers. There are two important attributes to consider in the design ...


Technological World-Pictures: Cosmic Things And Cosmograms, John Tresch Mar 2007

Technological World-Pictures: Cosmic Things And Cosmograms, John Tresch

Departmental Papers (HSS)

Martin Heidegger’s notion of things as gatherings that disclose a world conveys the “thickness” of everyday objects. This essay extends his discussion of things—part of a sustained criticism of modern technology—to technological objects as well. As a corrective to his totalizing, even totalitarian, generalizations about “enframing” and “the age of the world‐picture,” and to a more widespread tendency among critics of modernity to present technology in only the most dystopian, uniform, and claustrophobic terms, this essay explores two species of technical object: cosmic things and cosmograms. The first suggests how an ordinary object may contain an ...


Provenance And The Pedigree: Victor Mckusick's Fieldwork With The Old Order Amish, Susan M. Lindee Jan 2003

Provenance And The Pedigree: Victor Mckusick's Fieldwork With The Old Order Amish, Susan M. Lindee

Departmental Papers (HSS)

Provenance is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as the record of the "ultimate derivation and passage of an item through its various owners." The term is most commonly used to describe the history or pedigree of a painting—who has owned it, its value at various stages—but it also has a meaning in silviculture, in which it refers explicitly to genetic stock. Provenance, for forestry professionals, is the record of where a seed was taken and of a character of the "mother trees." In this essay I explore provenance in both sense, as a textual record of the ...


Voices Of The Dead: James Neel's Amerindian Studies, Susan M. Lindee Jan 2003

Voices Of The Dead: James Neel's Amerindian Studies, Susan M. Lindee

Departmental Papers (HSS)

During his 1967 fieldwork, James V. Neel, professor of human genetics at the University of Michigan, spent a good deal of time collecting chicken dung. He scraped up dirt and chicken waste from the ground around the Yanomamö villages. He sought out dirt from the floors of the Yanomamö houses, where parrots were kept as free-roaming pets. He crawled under chicken coops, filling seventy-five labeled plastic bags with samples, using a fresh plastic spoon for each sample, and he worried about getting this soil and bird waste safely back to Atlanta, Georgia, for testing at the Centers for Disease Control ...


An Assessment Of Basic Computer Proficiency Among Active Internet Users: Test Construction, Calibration, Antecedents And Consequences, Eric T. Bradlow, Stephen J. Hoch, J. W. Hutchinson Sep 2002

An Assessment Of Basic Computer Proficiency Among Active Internet Users: Test Construction, Calibration, Antecedents And Consequences, Eric T. Bradlow, Stephen J. Hoch, J. W. Hutchinson

Marketing Papers

The purpose of this article is to describe our efforts to create a test of basic computer proficiency, examine its properties using parametric test scoring methods, and identify some antecedents and consequences that accompany differences in performance. We also consider how much insight people have into their level of knowledge by examining the relationship between our tested measure of computer knowledge and self-rated knowledge scores collected at the same time. This research also adds to the large body of existing empirical work on computer literacy in the student population, by looking at computer literacy in a more general sample of ...


Cloning In The Popular Imagination, Dorothy Nelkin, Susan M. Lindee Jan 2001

Cloning In The Popular Imagination, Dorothy Nelkin, Susan M. Lindee

Departmental Papers (HSS)

Dolly is a cloned sheet born in July 1996 at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh by Ian Wilmut, a British embryologist. She was produced, after 276 failed attempts, from the genetic material of a six-year-old sheep. But Dolly is also a Rorschach test. The public response to the production of a lamb from an adult cell mirrors the futuristic fantasies and Frankenstein fears that have more broadly surrounded research in genetics, and especially genetic engineering. Dolly stands in for other monstrosities—both actual and fictional—that human knowledge and technique have produced. She provokes fear not so much because she ...


Review Of Evelyn Fox Keller, Refiguring Life: Metaphors Of Twentieth-Century Biology, Susan M. Lindee Apr 1997

Review Of Evelyn Fox Keller, Refiguring Life: Metaphors Of Twentieth-Century Biology, Susan M. Lindee

Departmental Papers (HSS)

Moleuclar biology has attracted historical attention in recent years, prompted perhaps by the Human Genome Project, the rise of the biotechnology industry, or the exuberant participant-histories of the 1970s and 1980s. A satisfactory explanation of this scientific field and its cultural and political moorings has yet to appear but much new work is on the way.


Creating Natural Distinctions, Dorothy Nelkin, Susan M. Lindee Jan 1997

Creating Natural Distinctions, Dorothy Nelkin, Susan M. Lindee

Departmental Papers (HSS)

At the 1991 CLAGS conference on "The Homosexual Brain," Dorothy Nelkin argued that linking homosexual behavior to brain structure reflects in part the growing preoccupation with biological determinism in American culture. Responding to the expectation that defining homosexuality as a biological status will reduce prejudice, she suggested that genetic explanations in fact can serve multiple social agendas. In particular, they have in the past been used to justify social stereotypes and persistent inequities as "natural" and therefore inevitable. Thus, while biological claims could lead to greater tolerance for human differences, they can also lead to pernicious abuse. Ultimately, it is ...


Information Technology As A Factor Of Production : The Role Of Differences Among Firms, Erik Brynjolfsson, Lorin Hitt Jan 1995

Information Technology As A Factor Of Production : The Role Of Differences Among Firms, Erik Brynjolfsson, Lorin Hitt

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Despite evidence that information technology (IT) has recently become a productive investment for a large cross-section of firms, a number of questions remain. Some of these issues can be addressed by extending the basic production function approach that was applied in earlier work. Specifically, in this short paper we 1) control for individual firm differences in productivity by employing a "firm effects" specification, 2) consider the more flexible translog specification instead of only the Cobb-Douglas specification, and 3) allow all parameters to vary between various subsectors of the economy.

We find that while "firm effects" may account for as much ...


Scientific Outsiders And The Human Genome Project. Review Of Timothy F. Murphy And Marc A. Lappé, Justice And The Human Genome Project; Robert F. Weir, Susan S. Lawrence, And Evan Fales, Genes And Human Self-Knowledge: Historical And Philosophical Reflections On Modern Genetics; Tom Wilkie, Perilous Knowledge: The Human Genome Project And Its Implications, Susan M. Lindee Jan 1995

Scientific Outsiders And The Human Genome Project. Review Of Timothy F. Murphy And Marc A. Lappé, Justice And The Human Genome Project; Robert F. Weir, Susan S. Lawrence, And Evan Fales, Genes And Human Self-Knowledge: Historical And Philosophical Reflections On Modern Genetics; Tom Wilkie, Perilous Knowledge: The Human Genome Project And Its Implications, Susan M. Lindee

Departmental Papers (HSS)

The Human Genome Project, the international effort to map and sequence the genetic material of Homo sapiens, has by now generated a mass of information about DNA sequences. It has also generated an independent, but related, mass of texts exploring the philosophical, historical, sociological, and legal implications for medical care, human identity, law, politics, and reproduction that the project raises. Indeed, the Human Genome Project is perhaps most noteworthy for its status as the first and only scientific project to fund independent studies of its own social implications. The genome project budget in the United States, which is divided among ...


A Guide To The Human Genome Project: Technologies, People, And Institutions, Susan L. Speaker, Susan M. Lindee, Elizabeth Anne Hanson Jan 1993

A Guide To The Human Genome Project: Technologies, People, And Institutions, Susan L. Speaker, Susan M. Lindee, Elizabeth Anne Hanson

Departmental Papers (HSS)

There are many scientific reports and full-length books dealing with the Human Genome Project in all its facets; this simple, concise guide is intended for those who need a broad overview and a quick reference.

The information presented here is drawn from such journals as Cell, FASEB Journal, and Science; from official publications, in particular Human Genome News, the Office of Technology Assessment's Mapping Our Genes, and the Department of Energy's program reports; and from several secondary sources, including the prepublication draft of Gene Quest, by Robert Mullan Cook-Deegan, an insider's historical account, and the exploration of ...


The American Career Of Jane Marcet's Conversations On Chemistry, 1806-1853, Susan M. Lindee Mar 1991

The American Career Of Jane Marcet's Conversations On Chemistry, 1806-1853, Susan M. Lindee

Departmental Papers (HSS)

Jane Haldimand Marcet's Conversations on Chemistry has traditionally claimed historical attention for its effects on the young bookbinder Michael Faraday, who was converted to a life of science while binding and reading it. Marcet "inspired Faraday with a love of science and blazed for him that road in chemical and physical experimentation which led to such marvelous results," in H.J. Mozans's romantic account. Or, as Eva Armstrong put it, Marcet led Faraday to "dedicate himself to a science in which his name became immortal."1