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Full-Text Articles in Defense and Security Studies

Sloan On Geopolitics, Geography, And Strategy History In Geopolitics, Bert Chapman Jun 2017

Sloan On Geopolitics, Geography, And Strategy History In Geopolitics, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Geopolitical literature is experiencing a renaissance and scholars representing classical and critical perspectives in this field bring multifaceted assessments to historical and current international political and security issues. Sloan’s Geopolitics, Geography and Strategic History, which is part of Routledge’s Geopolitical Theory Series, examines connections between geography, strategy, and history and is the subject of this review and analysis. Three thesis questions examined by the author include why the geographical scope of political objectives and following strategies of nation states change, how do these changes occur, and over what time period do these changes occur. Sloan examines why the ...


A Physical Fitness Profile Of State Highway Patrol Officers By Gender And Age, James Jay Dawes, Rob Orr, Richard Flores, Robert G. Lockie, Charles Kornhauser, Ryan Holmes Jun 2017

A Physical Fitness Profile Of State Highway Patrol Officers By Gender And Age, James Jay Dawes, Rob Orr, Richard Flores, Robert G. Lockie, Charles Kornhauser, Ryan Holmes

Tactical Research Unit Publications

Background:

Law enforcement officers perform physically demanding tasks that generally remain constant as they age. However, there is limited population-specific research on age, gender and normative fitness values for law enforcement officers as opposed to those of the general population. The purpose of this study was to profile the current level of fitness for highway patrol officers based on age and gender and provide percentile ranking charts unique to this population.

Methods:

Retrospective data for six-hundred and thirty-one state troopers (♂ = 597; mean age = 39.52 ± 8.09 yrs; mean height = 180.72 ± 7.06 cm; mean weight = 93.66 ± 15 ...


Preparing Personnel For Safe And Effective Operation In Harsh And Volatile Environments, Rodney Pope, Rob Marc Orr, Matt Brearley, Richard Gorey, Shane Irving May 2017

Preparing Personnel For Safe And Effective Operation In Harsh And Volatile Environments, Rodney Pope, Rob Marc Orr, Matt Brearley, Richard Gorey, Shane Irving

Rodney P Pope

Overview:

• Psychological preparation –Scott Gayton

• Injury risks & impacts –Rod Pope

• Security & protection of teams –Shane Irving

• Hot & humid conditions –Matt Brearley

• Preparing for field operations –Richard Gorey

• Load carriage –Rob Orr

• Wrap-Up & Panel Q & A –Rod Pope


Preparing Personnel For Safe And Effective Operation In Harsh And Volatile Environments, Rodney Pope, Rob Marc Orr, Matt Brearley, Richard Gorey, Shane Irving May 2017

Preparing Personnel For Safe And Effective Operation In Harsh And Volatile Environments, Rodney Pope, Rob Marc Orr, Matt Brearley, Richard Gorey, Shane Irving

Rob Marc Orr

Overview: • Psychological preparation –Scott Gayton • Injury risks & impacts –Rod Pope • Security & protection of teams –Shane Irving • Hot & humid conditions –Matt Brearley • Preparing for field operations –Richard Gorey • Load carriage –Rob Orr • Wrap-Up & Panel Q & A –Rod Pope


Incidence Rates For Work Health And Safety Incidents And Injuries In Australian Army Reserve Vs Full Time Soldiers, And A Comparison Of Reporting Systems, Rodney Pope, Rob Orr May 2017

Incidence Rates For Work Health And Safety Incidents And Injuries In Australian Army Reserve Vs Full Time Soldiers, And A Comparison Of Reporting Systems, Rodney Pope, Rob Orr

Rob Marc Orr

Objective:

To determine incidence rates of reported work health and safety (WHS) incidents and injuries in Army Reserve (ARES) and Australian Regular Army (ARA) personnel and assess the relative performance of the WHS incident reporting system, compared to ‘point-of-care’ systems.

Methods:

WHS incident data for a 24-month period were extracted from a military database. Reported WHS incident and injury rates for both populations were calculated and compared. The WHS injury rates were compared with previously published injury incidence rates based on ‘point-of-care’ incident reporting in Army populations to ascertain relative performance of WHS and ‘point-of-care’ systems.

Results:

In both populations ...


Preparing Personnel For Safe And Effective Operation In Harsh And Volatile Environments, Rodney Pope, Rob Marc Orr, Matt Brearley, Richard Gorey, Shane Irving May 2017

Preparing Personnel For Safe And Effective Operation In Harsh And Volatile Environments, Rodney Pope, Rob Marc Orr, Matt Brearley, Richard Gorey, Shane Irving

Tactical Research Unit Conference papers

Overview:

• Psychological preparation –Scott Gayton

• Injury risks & impacts –Rod Pope

• Security & protection of teams –Shane Irving

• Hot & humid conditions –Matt Brearley

• Preparing for field operations –Richard Gorey

• Load carriage –Rob Orr

• Wrap-Up & Panel Q & A –Rod Pope


The Demilitarization Of Costa Rica, Patrick Buscone May 2017

The Demilitarization Of Costa Rica, Patrick Buscone

Honors Theses

Costa Rica is one of the few developed countries in the world to be completely demilitarized. In the first chapter, this thesis explores why the country decided to demilitarize and how effective their demilitarization has been. Further statistical analysis is applied in Chapter 2 to determine the effect military spending has on growth in Latin America. With Costa Rica experiencing great stability and growth following their demilitarization and the statistical analysis showing military spending to have a negative impact on growth in Latin America, the third and final chapter explores other Latin American countries that could benefit from demilitarization.


The Impact Of Body Armor On Physical Performance Of Law Enforcement Personnel: A Systematic Review, Colin Tomes, Rob Marc Orr, Rodney Pope May 2017

The Impact Of Body Armor On Physical Performance Of Law Enforcement Personnel: A Systematic Review, Colin Tomes, Rob Marc Orr, Rodney Pope

Tactical Research Unit Publications

BACKGROUND:

The law enforcement officer profession requires performance of arduous occupational tasks while carrying an external load, consisting of, at minimum, a chest rig, a communication system, weaponry, handcuffs, personal protective equipment and a torch. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to identify and critically appraise the methodological quality of published studies that have investigated the impacts of body armour on task performance and to synthesize and report key findings from these studies to inform law enforcement organizations.

METHODS:

Several literature databases (Medline, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBAS) were searched using key search words and terms to identify ...


Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas May 2017

Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

This paper analyzes the factors that influence the American electorate’s support of Israel using data gleaned from the 2016 American National Election Study. Americans have formally recognized the state of Israel since 1948, starting 11 minutes after it declared its independence. Since then, American foreign policy has consistently endeavored to create and maintain a strong Israeli state in the Middle East. However, there is general agreement among foreign policy experts that such one-sided support for Israel has been both economically as well as strategically costly. According to experts, such support has at times contradicted the broader foreign policy goals ...


The Dream Act: A Retrospective On Immigration Policies Across Time And Nations, Ernest M. Oleksy May 2017

The Dream Act: A Retrospective On Immigration Policies Across Time And Nations, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

The United States has a long tradition of assimilating diverse peoples into a shared culture and thus developing a transformative, holistic national identity. Despite this historical affinity for immigration, there have also been points during which rose issues with migrants entering the country illegally. Once this happens, politicians must decide how to deal with an influx of undocumented aliens. This paper focuses on amnesty acts, particularly ones past through the American Congress in the past century. The relationship between amnesty legislation and immigration flow will be investigated. Also, an exploration of European policies towards immigration will all be conducted in ...


Australian Government Information Resources, Bert Chapman May 2017

Australian Government Information Resources, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parliamentary Library. Content includes a video excerpt from Australian parliamentary debate.


Mass Surveillance And Terrorism: Does Prism Keep Americans Safer?, Tayler Houston May 2017

Mass Surveillance And Terrorism: Does Prism Keep Americans Safer?, Tayler Houston

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Unconventional Lawfare: Operational Law In The War On Terror, L. P. Miller May 2017

Unconventional Lawfare: Operational Law In The War On Terror, L. P. Miller

Political Science Student Scholarship

This thesis examines the legal work required to establish a sufficient lawfare defense by focusing on the Department of Defense Judge Advocate Generals’ Corps (JAG Corps). The work will describe the JAG Corps as a well-trenched bureaucracy with a moral mission to uphold the military’s honor through laws, and how this was interpreted by the Bush and Obama administrations.


Beyond The Protective Effect: Towards A Theory Of Harm For Information Communication Technologies In Mass Atrocity Response, Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, Nathaniel A. Raymond May 2017

Beyond The Protective Effect: Towards A Theory Of Harm For Information Communication Technologies In Mass Atrocity Response, Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, Nathaniel A. Raymond

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) are now being employed as a standard part of mass atrocity response, evidence collection, and research by non-governmental organizations, governments, and the private sector. Deployment of these tools and techniques occur for a variety of stated reasons, most notably the ostensible goal of “protecting” vulnerable populations. However, these often experimental applications of ICTs and digital data are occurring in the absence of agreed normative frameworks and accepted theory to guide their ethical and responsible use. This article surveys the current state-of-the-art of ICT use in mass atrocity response and research to identify harms and hazards inherent ...


Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield Apr 2017

Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield

Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development

Many factors have been used to explain durable authoritarianism in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and one of the most important external influences of MENA governments’ structure is support from the United States. The US balances security concerns and democratization rhetoric in the region, but much literature promotes that security concerns are the most important factor for US support in MENA. Using US aid as a proxy for US support, this study finds that US aid actually increases democratization in MENA, and counterintuitively, aid to MENA military and police forces seems to have a stronger democratization effect than ...


Issue 21.1 Endnotes, Cisr Jmu Apr 2017

Issue 21.1 Endnotes, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Issue 21.1 Endnotes


Developing A Hyperspectral Non-Technical Survey For Minefields Via Uav And Helicopter, Milan Bajic, Tamara Ivelja, Anna Brook Apr 2017

Developing A Hyperspectral Non-Technical Survey For Minefields Via Uav And Helicopter, Milan Bajic, Tamara Ivelja, Anna Brook

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The main topic discussed in this paper is the research, development, and implementation of hyperspectral remote sensing technology in humanitarian mine action (HMA), mainly for non-technical survey (NTS) from aerial platforms. NTS should be conducted to determine whether landmines or unexploded ordnance (UXO) exist in considered areas and whether clearance is needed and if so, in what scope. The availability of the hyperspectral sensors (2011–2012) that are suitable for use with multi-engine unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) enabled the development of systems for HMA. While large and costly airborne hyperspectral systems have been available for over two decades, they ...


Effects Of Weather On Detection Of Landmines By Giant African Pouched Rats, Ian Mclean, Rebecca Sargisson Apr 2017

Effects Of Weather On Detection Of Landmines By Giant African Pouched Rats, Ian Mclean, Rebecca Sargisson

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Although APOPO has trained mine detection rats for many years, no published data exist on how weather parameters relate to detection accuracy. Using data taken during routine training, we show that there was little relationship between the detection success of rats and rainfall but find that rates decreased, on average, with increasing temperatures and increased with higher humidities. Individual rats vary in terms of sensitivity to temperature in that


World War Ii Coastal Minefields In The United Kingdom, Roly Evans Apr 2017

World War Ii Coastal Minefields In The United Kingdom, Roly Evans

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

While not widely appreciated today, there were once 1,997 minefields in the United Kingdom containing between 338,500–350,000 landmines. If you were to walk today on a beach suitable for amphibious landing on either the south or east coasts of the United Kingdom, chances are that you would be walking on a former 1940s minefield. This article briefly explores the story of the United Kingdom’s coastal minefields, from their hasty installation through their costly clearance. Many of the lessons from this period remain relevant today, as countries seek to apply land release principles to reduce the ...


Public, Private, And Civil Sector Partnerships Bolster Humanitarian Demining Efforts, Bob Ebberson, Wendy Hart Apr 2017

Public, Private, And Civil Sector Partnerships Bolster Humanitarian Demining Efforts, Bob Ebberson, Wendy Hart

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Schonstedt Instrument Company is a small manufacturing company located in the eastern panhandle of West Virginia, about 70 miles (112 km) from Washington, D.C. Schonstedt makes instruments that locate underground objects. These include pipe, cable, and magnetic locators that find and trace underground utilities and ferrous metals such as boundary markers used by surveyors. Magnetic locators have proven to be successful in locating unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other explosive remnants of war (ERW). In looking for ways to grow this market, Schonstedt recognized an opportunity to support humanitarian demining throughout the world. Determining that the sale of a pipe ...


Bosnia And Herzegovina: Itf Enhancing Human Security Perspective 20 Years After The Conflict, Gregor Sancanin Apr 2017

Bosnia And Herzegovina: Itf Enhancing Human Security Perspective 20 Years After The Conflict, Gregor Sancanin

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

ITF Enhancing Human Security has worked in Southeast Europe’s post-conflict countries since 1998. In states affected by the break-up of Yugoslavia such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, ITF works to support the country’s fulfillment of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC).


The Early Years Of Demining In Bosnia And Herzegovina: Transfer To National Ownership, Ian Mansfield Apr 2017

The Early Years Of Demining In Bosnia And Herzegovina: Transfer To National Ownership, Ian Mansfield

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

After the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords on 14 December 1995, the newly formed Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina requested that the United Nations set up and manage a mine clearance program. However, it soon became clear that the government should take responsibility and ownership of the program.

The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina took place between April 1992 and October 1995. While the causes of the war and what happened are extremely complicated, Bosnian Serbs encircled Sarajevo and imposed a blockade, while ‘ethnic cleansing’ operations were undertaken by all sides in towns and villages throughout ...


Do No Harm: The Challenge Of Protecting Civilians From The Ied Threat In South-Central Somalia, Abigail Jones Apr 2017

Do No Harm: The Challenge Of Protecting Civilians From The Ied Threat In South-Central Somalia, Abigail Jones

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In many countries, improvised explosive devices (IED), including improvised landmines, now constitute more of a threat to civilians than factory-manufactured landmines and other conventional weapons. The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor 2016 reported that the total number of casualties from victim-operated IEDs, which act in a similar manner to anti-personnel mines, increased from 1,075 in 2014 to 1,331 in 2015, the highest annual total of IED casualties recorded since 1999.1 In response to this, humanitarian mine action organizations are expanding their scope of activities to include IED awareness for civilians either as a stand-alone activity or by ...


Mag: Clearing Improvised Landmines In Iraq, Chris Loughran, Sean Sutton Apr 2017

Mag: Clearing Improvised Landmines In Iraq, Chris Loughran, Sean Sutton

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

MAG’s recent experience in the Middle East has shown that clearing improvised landmines can be achieved even in the most complex humanitarian contexts. It is imperative that detail and specificity is given to discussions on improvised devices if we are to avoid negative repercussions for the safety of beneficiaries and humanitarian workers.


Improvised Explosive Devices (Ied): A Humanitarian Mine Action Perspective, Robert Keeley Apr 2017

Improvised Explosive Devices (Ied): A Humanitarian Mine Action Perspective, Robert Keeley

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Readers of this Journal need no schooling in the acceleration of the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) over the last 20 years. However, what has become obvious in the last few years is the degree to which the spheres of counter-IED (C-IED) and humanitarian mine action (HMA) now overlap. Danish Demining Group (DDG), for example, recently calculated that an estimated 67 percent of the countries where DDG is present also have an IED problem. In countries such as Afghanistan, IEDs are now the major cause of explosive-related casualties among the general population, the very constituents nongovernment organizations (NGO) and ...


From The Director, Cisr Jmu Apr 2017

From The Director, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

As we endeavor to make The Journal a forum of information and ideas for the conventional weapons destruction community, we look at the threat improvised explosive devices (IED) pose in countries around the world. Increasingly, humanitarian organizations are widening their scope to account for the prevalence of IEDs. The need for clear communication across humanitarian mine action and counter-IED (C-IED) operational lines is evident.


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 21.1, Cisr Jmu Apr 2017

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 21.1, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Feature: Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and Pressure Plate IED's

Spotlight: Bosnia and Herzegovina 2- years later

Field Notes

Research and Development


Rethinking Baloch Secularism: What The Data Say, C. Christine Fair, Ali Hamza Apr 2017

Rethinking Baloch Secularism: What The Data Say, C. Christine Fair, Ali Hamza

Peace and Conflict Studies

Since 1947, Baloch have resisted inclusion into the Pakistan and have waged several waves of ethno-nationalist insurgency against the state. Scholars and Baloch nationalist leaders alike generally assert that Baloch are more secular than other Pakistanis, more opposed to the political Islamist policies pursued by the state, and less supportive of Islamist militancy in the country. However, these claims lack empirical support. We employ data derived from a large national survey of Pakistanis from 2012 to evaluate these conventional wisdoms. Contrary to claims in the literature, we find that Baloch resemble Pakistanis generally with few important exceptions


Miedo Y Multilateralismo: Chile Y México En El Consejo De Seguridad De Las Naciones Unidas Antes De La Invasión De Irak De 2003, Amanda K. Krehbiel Apr 2017

Miedo Y Multilateralismo: Chile Y México En El Consejo De Seguridad De Las Naciones Unidas Antes De La Invasión De Irak De 2003, Amanda K. Krehbiel

Student Publications

En este proyecto, exploro la pregunta: ¿cuál fue la motivación de los gobiernos de Chile y México para votar en contra de los EEUU y que fue el efecto de tales acciones en sus relaciones políticos con los Estados Unidos? Investigo documentos oficiales de la ONU, archivos de periódicos, y documentos publicados por las embajadas de los EEUU, Chile, y México. Esta pregunta está en el contexto de la Guerra con Irak en 2003. Examino este tema en el contexto de la Guerra con Irak en 2003. En las semanas antes de la Invasión, en el 19 de marzo de ...


The Key Factors Of Combat Uniforms That Contribute To Increasing Casualties In Modern Warfare, Michaela M. Judy Mar 2017

The Key Factors Of Combat Uniforms That Contribute To Increasing Casualties In Modern Warfare, Michaela M. Judy

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Introduction

Combat uniforms are meant to protect our troops from the dangers they face on the battlefield. While there is gear designed specifically to protect service members from bullets, these pieces have not been designed with recent combat environments in mind. After conducting several interviews, with veterans and current soldiers, the recommendations suggested to me were to create a uniform that was more durable and breathable. Soldiers were more concerned about these areas of the uniform the most.

Method

I analyzed the casualty statistics, which allowed me to understand what caused the most injuries on the battlefield, and that the ...